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Female Reproductive
System
Ms. Mayuri Patel
Lecturer, M.Sc. Nursing (OBG)
• External genitalia
• Internal genitalia
• Accessory reproductive organs
Mons
veneris
Labia
majora
Labia
minora
clitoris
vestibule
External Female Structures
• Mons Pubis.
• Labia Majora
• Labia Minora.
• Clitoris.
• Vestibule.
• Perineum
Mons Pubis
Is rounded, soft fullness of
subcutaneous fatty tissue, prominence
over the symphysis pubis that forms
the anterior border of the external
reproductive organs.
It is covered with varying amounts
of pubic hair.
Labia Majora
• The vulva is bounded on each site by the elevation of the
skin and subcutaneous tissue which forms the labia majora.
• The labia Majora are two rounded, fleshy folds of tissue
that extended from the mons pubis to the perineum.
• It is protect the labia minora, urinary meatus and vaginal
introitus.
• The labia majora are homologous to the scrotum in the
male.
Labia Minora
• They are two folded of skin, devoid of fat, on either side just
within the labia majors. Except in the porous women, they are
exposed only when the labia majors are separated.
• The lower portion of the labia minors fuses across the midline
to form a fold of skin known as forchette.
• The inner surfaces are similar to vaginal mucosa, pink and
mois. Their rich vascularity.
• Labia monora is homologous to the penile urethra and part of
the skin of pens in males.
Clitoris.
•The term clitoris comes from a Greek word
meaning key.
•It is small cylindrical Erectile body, measuring
about 1.5 – 2 cm situated in the most anterior part
of the vulva.
•It’s rich vascular, highly sensitive to temperature,
touch, and pressure sensation.
Vestibule
•It is triangular space bounded anteriorly by the
clitoris, posteriorly by the forchette and on either
side by labia minora. There are four opening
into vestibule.
Vestibule
Urethral
opening
Vaginal
orifice &
Hymen
Opening
of
Bartholin’s
duct
Skene’s
Glands
Urethra Opening
• The opening is situated in the midline just in front of
the vaginal orifice about 1 – 1.5cm below the pubic arch.
• The paraurethral ducts open either on the posterior wall
of the urethral orifice or directly in to the vestibule.
Vaginal Orifice & Hymen
• The vaginal orifice lies in the posterior end of the vestibule and
is of varying size & shape.
• In virgins and nulliparous, the opening is closed by the labia
minora, but in parous, it may be exposed.
• The hymen is usually ruptured at the consummation of
marriage.
• During childbirth, the hymen is extremely lacerated.
• On both sides it is lined by stratified squamous epithelium.
Opening of the Bartholian’s ducts
• 2 batholian’s glands, both on each side.
• Situated in the superficial perineal pouch.
• Pea shaped and yellowish white color.
• During sexual excitement, it secrets abundant alkaline
mucus which helps in lubrication.
• Bartholin’s glands are homologous to the bulb of the
penis in male.
Skene’s glands
• Largest paraurethral glands
• Homologous to prostate in the male.
Perineum
• Is the most posterior part of the
external female reproductive organs.
• It extends from fourchette anteriorly
to the anus posteriorly.
• And is composed of fibrous and
muscular tissues that support pelvic
structures.
• Blood supply
1. Arteries
- Br. of internal pudendal artery
Labial A.,
Transverse perineal A.,
A to vestibular bulb,
deep & dorsal arteries to clitoris
- Br. of Femoral A
Superficial & deep external
pudendal A
2. Veins
Internal pudendal vein
Vesical/ vaginal venous plexuses
Long saphenous vein
• Nerve supply
• Ant-sup part
• Ilio inguinal & genital br. of genitofemoral N (L1,L2)
• Post-inf part
• Pudendal br. of post.cut. N of thigh (S123)
• In between
• Labial & perineal br.of Pudendal N (S234)
• Lymphatics
• Superf. Inguinal nodes
• Gland of Cloquet (group of inguinal lymph nodes)
• Ext. & Int. Iliac nodes
Internal Female Structures
•Vagina
•Uterus
•Fallopian tubes
•Ovaries
Vagina
Uterus
Fallopian
tubes
ovaries
Internal
genital
organs
Vagina
•It is an elastic fibro-muscular tube and
membranous tissue about 8 to 10 cm
long.
•Lying between the bladder anteriorly
and the rectum posteriorly.
•The vagina connects the uterus above with the
vestibule below.
•The upper end is blind and called the vaginal
vault.
•The vaginal lining has multiple folds, or rugae
and muscle layer. These folds allow the vagina
to stretch considerably during childbirth.
Vaginal wall
Anterior
7cm
Posterior
9 cm
2 Lateral
Anterior
wall
• Upper one third related with the base of the bladder
• Lower one third related with urethra
Posterior
wall
• - Upper one third related to pouch of duglus
• Middle one third with anterior rectal wall
• Lower third is separated by anal canal
Lateral
walls
• Upper one third related with the pelvic celluar tissue
• Middle one third is blended with the levator ani
• Lower third is related with the bulbocanvernous muscles.
RELATION
Functions of the vagina
•To allow discharge of the menstrual flow.
•As the female organs of coitus.
•To allow passage of the fetus from the uterus.
Uterus
•The uterus is a hollow, pear shaped
muscular organ.
•Its normal position is anteverted (rotated
forward and slightly antiflexed (flexed
forward)
•The uterus measures about 7.5 X 5 X 1.25
cm and weight about 50 – 80 gm.
Parts of uterus
1. Body of the uterus
• The upper part is the corpus, or body
of the uterus
• The fundus is the part of the body or
corpus above the area where the
fallopian tubes enter the uterus.
• Length about 5 cm.
2. Isthmus
• A narrower transition zone.
• Is between the corpus of the uterus
and cervix.
• During late pregnancy, the isthmus
elongates and is known as the lower
uterine segment.
3. Cervix
•The lowermost position of the
uterus “neck”.
•The length of the cervix is about
2.5 t0 3 cm.
• The os, is the opening in the cervix that
runs between the uterus and vagina.
• The upper part of the cervix is marked
by internal os and the lower cervix is
marked by the external os.
Layers of the uterus
• Perimetrium.
• Myometrium.
• Endometrium.
1. Perimetrium
•Is the outer peritoneal layer of
serous membrane that covers
most of the uterus.
•Laterally, the perimetrium is
continuous with the broad
ligaments on either side of the
uterus.
2. Myometrium
•Is the middle layer of thick
muscle.
•Most of the muscle fibers are
concentrated in the upper uterus,
and their number diminishes
progressively toward the cervix.
•The myometrium
contains three types of
smooth muscle fiber
Longitudinal fibers (outer layer)
•Which are found mostly in the
fundus and are designed to
expel the fetus efficiently
toward the pelvic outlet during
birth.
Middle layer figure-8 fibers
•These fiber contract after
birth to compress the blood
vessels that pass between
them to limit blood loss.
Inner layer circular fibers
• Which form constrictions where the fallopian
tubes enter the uterus and surround the
internal os
• Circular fibers prevent reflux of menstrual
blood and tissue into the fallopian tubes.
•Promote normal implantation of
the fertilized ovum by controlling
its entry into the uterus.
•And retain the fetus until the
appropriate time of birth.
3. Endometrium
•Is the inner layer of the uterus.
•It is responsive to the cyclic variations of
estrogen and progesterone during the
female reproductive cycle every month.
• The two or three layers of the endometrium
are:
*Compact layer
*The basal layer
*The functional or Sponge layer this
layer is shed during each menstrual period
and after child birth in the lochia
The Function of the uterus
•Menstruation ----the uterus
sloughs off the endometrium.
•Pregnancy ---the uterus support
fetus and allows the fetus to grow.
•Labor and birth---the uterine
muscles contract and the cervix
dilates during labor to expel the
fetus
• Relation
• Anterior
• Above int.os : uterovesical pouch
• Below int.os: separated from UB by loose areolar tissue
• Posterior
• Pouch of Douglas with coils on intestine
• Lateral
• Broad ligament
• Mackenrodt’s ligament
• Uterine A & ureter
Support structures
•The bony pelvis support and
protects the lower abdominal and
internal reproductive organs.
•Muscle, Joints and ligaments
provide added support for
internal organs of the pelvis
against the downward force of
gravity and the increases in
intra-abdominal pressure
Fallopian tubes
•The two tubes extended from the
cornu of the uterus to the ovary.
•It runs in the upper free border of
the broad ligament.
•Length 8 to 14 cm average 10 cm
•Its divided into 4 parts.
Parts of fallopian tube
1. Interstitial part
•Which runs into uterine cavity,
passes through the myometrium
between the fundus and body of
the uterus. About 1-2cm in
length.
2. Isthmus
•Which is the narrow part of
the tube adjacent to the
uterus.
•Straight and cord like ,
about 2 – 3 cm in length.
3. Ampulla
•Which is the wider part about
5 cm in length.
•Fertilization occurs in the
ampulla.
4. Infundibulum
• It is funnel or trumpet shaped.
• Fimbriae are fingerlike processes, one
of these is longer than the other and
adherent to the ovary.
• The fimbriae become swollen almost
erectile at ovulation.
Functions
•Gamete transport (ovum pickup,
ovum transport, sperm transport).
•Final maturation of gamete post
ovulate oocyte maturation, sperm
capicitation.
•Fluid environment for early embryonic
development.
•Transport of fertilized and unfertilized
ovum to the uterus.
Ovaries
• Oval solid structure, 1.5 cm in thickness,
2.5 cm in width and 3.5 cm in length
respectively. Each weights about 4–8 gm.
• Ovary is located on each side of the
uterus, below and behind the uterine tubes
Structure of the ovaries
•Cortex
•Medulla
•Hilum
Ovaries and Relationship
to Uterine Tube and Uterus
Figure 28–14
Function of the ovary
•Secrete estrogen & progesterone.
•Production of ova
Bony Pelvis
•Bony Pelvis Is Composed of 4
bones:
1. Two hip bones.
2. Sacrum.
3. Coccyx.
1. Two hip bones.
•Each or hip bone is composed
of three bones:
*Ilium
*Ischium
*Pubis
*Ilium
•It is the flared out part.
•The greater part of its inner aspect
is smooth and concave, forming
the iliac fossa.
•The upper border of the ilium is
called iliac crest
*Ischium
•It is the thick lower part.
•It has a large prominence
known as the ischial tuberosity
on which the body rests while
sitting.
•Behind and little above the
tuberosity is an inward
projection the ischial spine.
2. Sacrum
• Is a wedge shaped bone consisting of
five vertebrae.
• The anterior surface of the sacrum is
concave
• The upper border of the first sacral
vertebra known as the sacral
promontory
3. Coccyx.
• Consists of four
vertebrae forming a
small triangular bone.
Female reproductive system

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Female reproductive system

  • 1. Female Reproductive System Ms. Mayuri Patel Lecturer, M.Sc. Nursing (OBG)
  • 2. • External genitalia • Internal genitalia • Accessory reproductive organs
  • 3.
  • 5.
  • 6. External Female Structures • Mons Pubis. • Labia Majora • Labia Minora. • Clitoris. • Vestibule. • Perineum
  • 7. Mons Pubis Is rounded, soft fullness of subcutaneous fatty tissue, prominence over the symphysis pubis that forms the anterior border of the external reproductive organs. It is covered with varying amounts of pubic hair.
  • 8. Labia Majora • The vulva is bounded on each site by the elevation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue which forms the labia majora. • The labia Majora are two rounded, fleshy folds of tissue that extended from the mons pubis to the perineum. • It is protect the labia minora, urinary meatus and vaginal introitus. • The labia majora are homologous to the scrotum in the male.
  • 9. Labia Minora • They are two folded of skin, devoid of fat, on either side just within the labia majors. Except in the porous women, they are exposed only when the labia majors are separated. • The lower portion of the labia minors fuses across the midline to form a fold of skin known as forchette. • The inner surfaces are similar to vaginal mucosa, pink and mois. Their rich vascularity. • Labia monora is homologous to the penile urethra and part of the skin of pens in males.
  • 10. Clitoris. •The term clitoris comes from a Greek word meaning key. •It is small cylindrical Erectile body, measuring about 1.5 – 2 cm situated in the most anterior part of the vulva. •It’s rich vascular, highly sensitive to temperature, touch, and pressure sensation.
  • 11. Vestibule •It is triangular space bounded anteriorly by the clitoris, posteriorly by the forchette and on either side by labia minora. There are four opening into vestibule.
  • 13. Urethra Opening • The opening is situated in the midline just in front of the vaginal orifice about 1 – 1.5cm below the pubic arch. • The paraurethral ducts open either on the posterior wall of the urethral orifice or directly in to the vestibule.
  • 14. Vaginal Orifice & Hymen • The vaginal orifice lies in the posterior end of the vestibule and is of varying size & shape. • In virgins and nulliparous, the opening is closed by the labia minora, but in parous, it may be exposed. • The hymen is usually ruptured at the consummation of marriage. • During childbirth, the hymen is extremely lacerated. • On both sides it is lined by stratified squamous epithelium.
  • 15. Opening of the Bartholian’s ducts • 2 batholian’s glands, both on each side. • Situated in the superficial perineal pouch. • Pea shaped and yellowish white color. • During sexual excitement, it secrets abundant alkaline mucus which helps in lubrication. • Bartholin’s glands are homologous to the bulb of the penis in male.
  • 16. Skene’s glands • Largest paraurethral glands • Homologous to prostate in the male.
  • 17. Perineum • Is the most posterior part of the external female reproductive organs. • It extends from fourchette anteriorly to the anus posteriorly. • And is composed of fibrous and muscular tissues that support pelvic structures.
  • 18. • Blood supply 1. Arteries - Br. of internal pudendal artery Labial A., Transverse perineal A., A to vestibular bulb, deep & dorsal arteries to clitoris - Br. of Femoral A Superficial & deep external pudendal A 2. Veins Internal pudendal vein Vesical/ vaginal venous plexuses Long saphenous vein
  • 19. • Nerve supply • Ant-sup part • Ilio inguinal & genital br. of genitofemoral N (L1,L2) • Post-inf part • Pudendal br. of post.cut. N of thigh (S123) • In between • Labial & perineal br.of Pudendal N (S234) • Lymphatics • Superf. Inguinal nodes • Gland of Cloquet (group of inguinal lymph nodes) • Ext. & Int. Iliac nodes
  • 21.
  • 23. Vagina •It is an elastic fibro-muscular tube and membranous tissue about 8 to 10 cm long. •Lying between the bladder anteriorly and the rectum posteriorly.
  • 24. •The vagina connects the uterus above with the vestibule below. •The upper end is blind and called the vaginal vault. •The vaginal lining has multiple folds, or rugae and muscle layer. These folds allow the vagina to stretch considerably during childbirth.
  • 26. Anterior wall • Upper one third related with the base of the bladder • Lower one third related with urethra Posterior wall • - Upper one third related to pouch of duglus • Middle one third with anterior rectal wall • Lower third is separated by anal canal Lateral walls • Upper one third related with the pelvic celluar tissue • Middle one third is blended with the levator ani • Lower third is related with the bulbocanvernous muscles. RELATION
  • 27. Functions of the vagina •To allow discharge of the menstrual flow. •As the female organs of coitus. •To allow passage of the fetus from the uterus.
  • 28. Uterus •The uterus is a hollow, pear shaped muscular organ. •Its normal position is anteverted (rotated forward and slightly antiflexed (flexed forward) •The uterus measures about 7.5 X 5 X 1.25 cm and weight about 50 – 80 gm.
  • 30. 1. Body of the uterus • The upper part is the corpus, or body of the uterus • The fundus is the part of the body or corpus above the area where the fallopian tubes enter the uterus. • Length about 5 cm.
  • 31. 2. Isthmus • A narrower transition zone. • Is between the corpus of the uterus and cervix. • During late pregnancy, the isthmus elongates and is known as the lower uterine segment.
  • 32. 3. Cervix •The lowermost position of the uterus “neck”. •The length of the cervix is about 2.5 t0 3 cm.
  • 33. • The os, is the opening in the cervix that runs between the uterus and vagina. • The upper part of the cervix is marked by internal os and the lower cervix is marked by the external os.
  • 34. Layers of the uterus • Perimetrium. • Myometrium. • Endometrium.
  • 35.
  • 36. 1. Perimetrium •Is the outer peritoneal layer of serous membrane that covers most of the uterus.
  • 37. •Laterally, the perimetrium is continuous with the broad ligaments on either side of the uterus.
  • 38. 2. Myometrium •Is the middle layer of thick muscle. •Most of the muscle fibers are concentrated in the upper uterus, and their number diminishes progressively toward the cervix.
  • 39. •The myometrium contains three types of smooth muscle fiber
  • 40. Longitudinal fibers (outer layer) •Which are found mostly in the fundus and are designed to expel the fetus efficiently toward the pelvic outlet during birth.
  • 41. Middle layer figure-8 fibers •These fiber contract after birth to compress the blood vessels that pass between them to limit blood loss.
  • 42. Inner layer circular fibers • Which form constrictions where the fallopian tubes enter the uterus and surround the internal os • Circular fibers prevent reflux of menstrual blood and tissue into the fallopian tubes.
  • 43. •Promote normal implantation of the fertilized ovum by controlling its entry into the uterus. •And retain the fetus until the appropriate time of birth.
  • 44. 3. Endometrium •Is the inner layer of the uterus. •It is responsive to the cyclic variations of estrogen and progesterone during the female reproductive cycle every month.
  • 45. • The two or three layers of the endometrium are: *Compact layer *The basal layer *The functional or Sponge layer this layer is shed during each menstrual period and after child birth in the lochia
  • 46. The Function of the uterus •Menstruation ----the uterus sloughs off the endometrium. •Pregnancy ---the uterus support fetus and allows the fetus to grow.
  • 47. •Labor and birth---the uterine muscles contract and the cervix dilates during labor to expel the fetus
  • 48. • Relation • Anterior • Above int.os : uterovesical pouch • Below int.os: separated from UB by loose areolar tissue • Posterior • Pouch of Douglas with coils on intestine • Lateral • Broad ligament • Mackenrodt’s ligament • Uterine A & ureter
  • 49. Support structures •The bony pelvis support and protects the lower abdominal and internal reproductive organs.
  • 50. •Muscle, Joints and ligaments provide added support for internal organs of the pelvis against the downward force of gravity and the increases in intra-abdominal pressure
  • 51. Fallopian tubes •The two tubes extended from the cornu of the uterus to the ovary. •It runs in the upper free border of the broad ligament. •Length 8 to 14 cm average 10 cm •Its divided into 4 parts.
  • 53.
  • 54. 1. Interstitial part •Which runs into uterine cavity, passes through the myometrium between the fundus and body of the uterus. About 1-2cm in length.
  • 55. 2. Isthmus •Which is the narrow part of the tube adjacent to the uterus. •Straight and cord like , about 2 – 3 cm in length.
  • 56. 3. Ampulla •Which is the wider part about 5 cm in length. •Fertilization occurs in the ampulla.
  • 57. 4. Infundibulum • It is funnel or trumpet shaped. • Fimbriae are fingerlike processes, one of these is longer than the other and adherent to the ovary. • The fimbriae become swollen almost erectile at ovulation.
  • 58. Functions •Gamete transport (ovum pickup, ovum transport, sperm transport). •Final maturation of gamete post ovulate oocyte maturation, sperm capicitation.
  • 59. •Fluid environment for early embryonic development. •Transport of fertilized and unfertilized ovum to the uterus.
  • 60. Ovaries • Oval solid structure, 1.5 cm in thickness, 2.5 cm in width and 3.5 cm in length respectively. Each weights about 4–8 gm. • Ovary is located on each side of the uterus, below and behind the uterine tubes
  • 61. Structure of the ovaries •Cortex •Medulla •Hilum
  • 62. Ovaries and Relationship to Uterine Tube and Uterus Figure 28–14
  • 63. Function of the ovary •Secrete estrogen & progesterone. •Production of ova
  • 64. Bony Pelvis •Bony Pelvis Is Composed of 4 bones: 1. Two hip bones. 2. Sacrum. 3. Coccyx.
  • 65. 1. Two hip bones. •Each or hip bone is composed of three bones: *Ilium *Ischium *Pubis
  • 66. *Ilium •It is the flared out part. •The greater part of its inner aspect is smooth and concave, forming the iliac fossa. •The upper border of the ilium is called iliac crest
  • 67. *Ischium •It is the thick lower part. •It has a large prominence known as the ischial tuberosity on which the body rests while sitting.
  • 68. •Behind and little above the tuberosity is an inward projection the ischial spine.
  • 69. 2. Sacrum • Is a wedge shaped bone consisting of five vertebrae. • The anterior surface of the sacrum is concave • The upper border of the first sacral vertebra known as the sacral promontory
  • 70. 3. Coccyx. • Consists of four vertebrae forming a small triangular bone.

Hinweis der Redaktion

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