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Female reproductive system

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Female reproductive system

  1. 1. Female Reproductive System Ms. Mayuri Patel Lecturer, M.Sc. Nursing (OBG)
  2. 2. • External genitalia • Internal genitalia • Accessory reproductive organs
  3. 3. Mons veneris Labia majora Labia minora clitoris vestibule
  4. 4. External Female Structures • Mons Pubis. • Labia Majora • Labia Minora. • Clitoris. • Vestibule. • Perineum
  5. 5. Mons Pubis Is rounded, soft fullness of subcutaneous fatty tissue, prominence over the symphysis pubis that forms the anterior border of the external reproductive organs. It is covered with varying amounts of pubic hair.
  6. 6. Labia Majora • The vulva is bounded on each site by the elevation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue which forms the labia majora. • The labia Majora are two rounded, fleshy folds of tissue that extended from the mons pubis to the perineum. • It is protect the labia minora, urinary meatus and vaginal introitus. • The labia majora are homologous to the scrotum in the male.
  7. 7. Labia Minora • They are two folded of skin, devoid of fat, on either side just within the labia majors. Except in the porous women, they are exposed only when the labia majors are separated. • The lower portion of the labia minors fuses across the midline to form a fold of skin known as forchette. • The inner surfaces are similar to vaginal mucosa, pink and mois. Their rich vascularity. • Labia monora is homologous to the penile urethra and part of the skin of pens in males.
  8. 8. Clitoris. •The term clitoris comes from a Greek word meaning key. •It is small cylindrical Erectile body, measuring about 1.5 – 2 cm situated in the most anterior part of the vulva. •It’s rich vascular, highly sensitive to temperature, touch, and pressure sensation.
  9. 9. Vestibule •It is triangular space bounded anteriorly by the clitoris, posteriorly by the forchette and on either side by labia minora. There are four opening into vestibule.
  10. 10. Vestibule Urethral opening Vaginal orifice & Hymen Opening of Bartholin’s duct Skene’s Glands
  11. 11. Urethra Opening • The opening is situated in the midline just in front of the vaginal orifice about 1 – 1.5cm below the pubic arch. • The paraurethral ducts open either on the posterior wall of the urethral orifice or directly in to the vestibule.
  12. 12. Vaginal Orifice & Hymen • The vaginal orifice lies in the posterior end of the vestibule and is of varying size & shape. • In virgins and nulliparous, the opening is closed by the labia minora, but in parous, it may be exposed. • The hymen is usually ruptured at the consummation of marriage. • During childbirth, the hymen is extremely lacerated. • On both sides it is lined by stratified squamous epithelium.
  13. 13. Opening of the Bartholian’s ducts • 2 batholian’s glands, both on each side. • Situated in the superficial perineal pouch. • Pea shaped and yellowish white color. • During sexual excitement, it secrets abundant alkaline mucus which helps in lubrication. • Bartholin’s glands are homologous to the bulb of the penis in male.
  14. 14. Skene’s glands • Largest paraurethral glands • Homologous to prostate in the male.
  15. 15. Perineum • Is the most posterior part of the external female reproductive organs. • It extends from fourchette anteriorly to the anus posteriorly. • And is composed of fibrous and muscular tissues that support pelvic structures.
  16. 16. • Blood supply 1. Arteries - Br. of internal pudendal artery Labial A., Transverse perineal A., A to vestibular bulb, deep & dorsal arteries to clitoris - Br. of Femoral A Superficial & deep external pudendal A 2. Veins Internal pudendal vein Vesical/ vaginal venous plexuses Long saphenous vein
  17. 17. • Nerve supply • Ant-sup part • Ilio inguinal & genital br. of genitofemoral N (L1,L2) • Post-inf part • Pudendal br. of post.cut. N of thigh (S123) • In between • Labial & perineal br.of Pudendal N (S234) • Lymphatics • Superf. Inguinal nodes • Gland of Cloquet (group of inguinal lymph nodes) • Ext. & Int. Iliac nodes
  18. 18. Internal Female Structures •Vagina •Uterus •Fallopian tubes •Ovaries
  19. 19. Vagina Uterus Fallopian tubes ovaries Internal genital organs
  20. 20. Vagina •It is an elastic fibro-muscular tube and membranous tissue about 8 to 10 cm long. •Lying between the bladder anteriorly and the rectum posteriorly.
  21. 21. •The vagina connects the uterus above with the vestibule below. •The upper end is blind and called the vaginal vault. •The vaginal lining has multiple folds, or rugae and muscle layer. These folds allow the vagina to stretch considerably during childbirth.
  22. 22. Vaginal wall Anterior 7cm Posterior 9 cm 2 Lateral
  23. 23. Anterior wall • Upper one third related with the base of the bladder • Lower one third related with urethra Posterior wall • - Upper one third related to pouch of duglus • Middle one third with anterior rectal wall • Lower third is separated by anal canal Lateral walls • Upper one third related with the pelvic celluar tissue • Middle one third is blended with the levator ani • Lower third is related with the bulbocanvernous muscles. RELATION
  24. 24. Functions of the vagina •To allow discharge of the menstrual flow. •As the female organs of coitus. •To allow passage of the fetus from the uterus.
  25. 25. Uterus •The uterus is a hollow, pear shaped muscular organ. •Its normal position is anteverted (rotated forward and slightly antiflexed (flexed forward) •The uterus measures about 7.5 X 5 X 1.25 cm and weight about 50 – 80 gm.
  26. 26. Parts of uterus
  27. 27. 1. Body of the uterus • The upper part is the corpus, or body of the uterus • The fundus is the part of the body or corpus above the area where the fallopian tubes enter the uterus. • Length about 5 cm.
  28. 28. 2. Isthmus • A narrower transition zone. • Is between the corpus of the uterus and cervix. • During late pregnancy, the isthmus elongates and is known as the lower uterine segment.
  29. 29. 3. Cervix •The lowermost position of the uterus “neck”. •The length of the cervix is about 2.5 t0 3 cm.
  30. 30. • The os, is the opening in the cervix that runs between the uterus and vagina. • The upper part of the cervix is marked by internal os and the lower cervix is marked by the external os.
  31. 31. Layers of the uterus • Perimetrium. • Myometrium. • Endometrium.
  32. 32. 1. Perimetrium •Is the outer peritoneal layer of serous membrane that covers most of the uterus.
  33. 33. •Laterally, the perimetrium is continuous with the broad ligaments on either side of the uterus.
  34. 34. 2. Myometrium •Is the middle layer of thick muscle. •Most of the muscle fibers are concentrated in the upper uterus, and their number diminishes progressively toward the cervix.
  35. 35. •The myometrium contains three types of smooth muscle fiber
  36. 36. Longitudinal fibers (outer layer) •Which are found mostly in the fundus and are designed to expel the fetus efficiently toward the pelvic outlet during birth.
  37. 37. Middle layer figure-8 fibers •These fiber contract after birth to compress the blood vessels that pass between them to limit blood loss.
  38. 38. Inner layer circular fibers • Which form constrictions where the fallopian tubes enter the uterus and surround the internal os • Circular fibers prevent reflux of menstrual blood and tissue into the fallopian tubes.
  39. 39. •Promote normal implantation of the fertilized ovum by controlling its entry into the uterus. •And retain the fetus until the appropriate time of birth.
  40. 40. 3. Endometrium •Is the inner layer of the uterus. •It is responsive to the cyclic variations of estrogen and progesterone during the female reproductive cycle every month.
  41. 41. • The two or three layers of the endometrium are: *Compact layer *The basal layer *The functional or Sponge layer this layer is shed during each menstrual period and after child birth in the lochia
  42. 42. The Function of the uterus •Menstruation ----the uterus sloughs off the endometrium. •Pregnancy ---the uterus support fetus and allows the fetus to grow.
  43. 43. •Labor and birth---the uterine muscles contract and the cervix dilates during labor to expel the fetus
  44. 44. • Relation • Anterior • Above int.os : uterovesical pouch • Below int.os: separated from UB by loose areolar tissue • Posterior • Pouch of Douglas with coils on intestine • Lateral • Broad ligament • Mackenrodt’s ligament • Uterine A & ureter
  45. 45. Support structures •The bony pelvis support and protects the lower abdominal and internal reproductive organs.
  46. 46. •Muscle, Joints and ligaments provide added support for internal organs of the pelvis against the downward force of gravity and the increases in intra-abdominal pressure
  47. 47. Fallopian tubes •The two tubes extended from the cornu of the uterus to the ovary. •It runs in the upper free border of the broad ligament. •Length 8 to 14 cm average 10 cm •Its divided into 4 parts.
  48. 48. Parts of fallopian tube
  49. 49. 1. Interstitial part •Which runs into uterine cavity, passes through the myometrium between the fundus and body of the uterus. About 1-2cm in length.
  50. 50. 2. Isthmus •Which is the narrow part of the tube adjacent to the uterus. •Straight and cord like , about 2 – 3 cm in length.
  51. 51. 3. Ampulla •Which is the wider part about 5 cm in length. •Fertilization occurs in the ampulla.
  52. 52. 4. Infundibulum • It is funnel or trumpet shaped. • Fimbriae are fingerlike processes, one of these is longer than the other and adherent to the ovary. • The fimbriae become swollen almost erectile at ovulation.
  53. 53. Functions •Gamete transport (ovum pickup, ovum transport, sperm transport). •Final maturation of gamete post ovulate oocyte maturation, sperm capicitation.
  54. 54. •Fluid environment for early embryonic development. •Transport of fertilized and unfertilized ovum to the uterus.
  55. 55. Ovaries • Oval solid structure, 1.5 cm in thickness, 2.5 cm in width and 3.5 cm in length respectively. Each weights about 4–8 gm. • Ovary is located on each side of the uterus, below and behind the uterine tubes
  56. 56. Structure of the ovaries •Cortex •Medulla •Hilum
  57. 57. Ovaries and Relationship to Uterine Tube and Uterus Figure 28–14
  58. 58. Function of the ovary •Secrete estrogen & progesterone. •Production of ova
  59. 59. Bony Pelvis •Bony Pelvis Is Composed of 4 bones: 1. Two hip bones. 2. Sacrum. 3. Coccyx.
  60. 60. 1. Two hip bones. •Each or hip bone is composed of three bones: *Ilium *Ischium *Pubis
  61. 61. *Ilium •It is the flared out part. •The greater part of its inner aspect is smooth and concave, forming the iliac fossa. •The upper border of the ilium is called iliac crest
  62. 62. *Ischium •It is the thick lower part. •It has a large prominence known as the ischial tuberosity on which the body rests while sitting.
  63. 63. •Behind and little above the tuberosity is an inward projection the ischial spine.
  64. 64. 2. Sacrum • Is a wedge shaped bone consisting of five vertebrae. • The anterior surface of the sacrum is concave • The upper border of the first sacral vertebra known as the sacral promontory
  65. 65. 3. Coccyx. • Consists of four vertebrae forming a small triangular bone.

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