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The Art and Science of Influence

Sr Manager, Communications & Marketing, Global at MSLGROUP, a Publicis Groupe company um MSL
21. Jul 2017
The Art and Science of Influence
The Art and Science of Influence
The Art and Science of Influence
The Art and Science of Influence
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The Art and Science of Influence
The Art and Science of Influence
The Art and Science of Influence
The Art and Science of Influence
The Art and Science of Influence
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The Art and Science of Influence
The Art and Science of Influence
The Art and Science of Influence
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The Art and Science of Influence

  1. THE ART AND SCIENCE OF INFLUENCE A NEUROSCIENCE EXPERIMENT SHEDS NEW LIGHT
  2. TABLEOFCONTENTS 4WHAT NEUROSCIENCE TELLS US ABOUT THE POWER OF PR AND EARNED CONTENT Explaining the setup and science of a revolutionary experiment that studies consumers’ neurological reactions as they view content and, subsequently, the precise impact all forms of content have on them 6THE RESULTS: HOW CONTENT PERFORMS From awareness to intent to purchase, this in-depth study reveals precisely how and why earned content bests all other forms, with a specific look at the effectiveness of MSL’s ECUs (earned content units) 3 INTRODUCTION A joint initiative conducted by MSL and SPARK Neuro gives PR pros true cause for excitement. Includes exclusive comments from MSL global CEO Guillaume Herbette about impact and influence 9THE ROLE OF NEUROSCIENCE IN UNDERSTANDING EMOTIONAL VERSUS RATIONAL DECISIONS How communicators can help brands strengthen the imperfect relationship between art and science and, in the process, win over consumers’ hearts and minds
  3. INTRODUCTION PR-DRIVEN MEDIA: HERO OF THE DAY Every brand is a media company now. This message has undoubtedly been instilled in every communications and marketing professional. And what it means is that every brand must create content – lots of it on various platforms – if they want to influence consumers. This is a very exciting reality for PR pros as it increases the value of the services they are particularly expert in delivering for those they counsel. PR-driven content, such as earned articles and brand videos, is increasingly proving to have the highest impact on consumers – at all stages of their journey, from increasing their affinity for brands (also known as “brand lift”) to the actual purchase of products. MSL has particular cause for enthusiasm, too. Last year, the firm introduced ECUs (earned content units) as part of its Conversation2Commerce initiative. Though ECUs occupy the same space as banner ads, they feature headlines from earned content instead of regular product ads. This hybrid between digital ads and earned content delivered significantly more cognitive attention. In turn, the content stayed in memory longer, brand affinity was improved, and increased action was encouraged. Of course, in an ROI-driven world, tangible proof is always sought as to PR’s real-world impact. In this case, the pre- vailing query is: How do you know your content is having that ultimate impact on consumers? Surveys and focus groups have long been used to make such determinations, but the answers provided are often limited. But where those traditional paths fall short, neuroscience is revealing. Thanks to a recent experiment conducted by MSL in partnership with SPARK Neuro, what was once only subjective – how much people are engaged with content and their emotional experience with it – can now be directly quantified by reading brain activity and other neurological responses. On succeeding pages, you’ll hear from SPARK Neuro founder and CEO Spencer Gerrol, who will explain how this revolutionary research enables us to see how consumers are impacted by content – both consciously and subconsciously – in ways never before possible. This includes study of brain-cell activity, sweaty palms, eye tracking, and facial expressions – all of which were linked to direct consumer activity. The end result: the real-world impact of all types of content – banner ads, TV ads, brand videos, feature articles, even movie trailers – can now be scientifically proven. And the best news for PR: by proving that earned media is the hero of the day for eliciting emotions and driving sales, neuroscience is further validating the discipline’s increasing role in boosting brands’ bottom lines. FROM MSL As a global public relations and integrated communications partner to our clients, MSL is committed to building influence and delivering impact. Influence is where our industry is headed, but impact is where we look to grow the tangible value we bring to clients. By taking a holistic approach and looking beyond the boundaries of the traditional PR industry, we are developing both influence and impact in new and exciting ways through the use of sophisticated data, analytics, and our new Conversation2Commerce platform. Our sponsorship of this experiment is intended to uncover new learning about the rise in influence and how it can be used in smarter and new strategic ways for communicators and marketers. Guillaume Herbette Global CEO, MSL 3
  4. 4 PRINT, ONLINE PUBLICATIONS, social media, television, and digital ads – to name a few – all form part of an overarching marketing strategy. However, specific details on how each form of content affects consumers remain somewhat of an enigma. ​MSL, Publicis Groupe’s strategic communications division and one of the world’s largest PR companies, partnered with SPARK Neuro to learn how the brain engages with and reacts to different forms of content. MSL has a passion for helping brands better use the levers of influence to deliver a new level of meaningful, measurable impact.  The key to this experiment’s success is the application of neuroscience methods. Asking people to evaluate how they feel about each type of content would yield little in the way of meaningful results. Scanning for their actual neurological state, including brain activity and nervous- system activation, is far more reliable. In April 2017, millennial women were recruited to browse a controlled set of online content while hooked up to our series of neurometric and biometric devices. THE SETUP Experiment participants independently browsed Refinery29, as well as a competitor site. During research, the women were exposed to digital banner ads, earned articles, and brand videos that were pro- fessionally produced instructional films featuring specific products.  WHAT NEUROSCIENCE TELLS US ABOUT THE POWER OF  PR AND EARNED CONTENT By Spencer Gerrol, CEO and Founder, SPARK Neuro A new type of content was also put to the test. MSL, as part of its Conversation2Commerce (C2C) initiative, developed a hybrid between digital advertising and earned content, known as earned content units (ECUs). While occupying the same space as banner ads, ECUs are styled differently. They feature headlines from earned content instead of regular product ads. All content within the experiment fit into the health and beauty category. All participants were recruited for their interest in beauty content. Participants were only asked to browse content of interest. They were not made aware of what was being studied so as not to bias their interactions. While the site content was naturalistically presented and
  5. PERCEPTION AND ACTION To further understand the impact of these various content forms, we also measured for the effects on branding and buying through pre- and post-exposure surveys. Unlike traditional surveys, however, our unique method captures the subconscious decision-making process. By measuring changes to reaction times, as well as minor movements of the mouse trajectory (angle of attack), we gain insight into the implicit process of how decisions are made.  These measures provide a much more accurate view of the range of consumer responses – be it confidence, hesitance, or ambivalence. Brand lift. We gave an implicit brand lift survey both before and after the participants were exposed to content. We measured the extent to which people had an affinity for each brand and, moreover, if their “brand love” increased based on exposure to content. Purchase intent. We measured how content affected people’s desires to purchase products, again utilizing measures of sub- conscious decision-making in addition to their conscious choice. Purchase behavior. To further strengthen the findings beyond purchase “intent,” participants were given monetary compensation that could be used in a web store at the study’s end. We tracked which products people actually bought so as to compare with biometric measures collected from brain and body activity. 5 subjects decided what to spend time on, content was also tightly controlled to ensure a repeatable experimental design. Select ads and content were presented in random order to eliminate the biases of order effects. THE SCIENCE While perusing the site, participants were hooked up to these sensors: Electroencephalography (EEG).  Brain cells communicate by releasing chemicals (neurotransmitters) and electricity. These electrical impulses are measured on the scalp via highly sensitive electrodes within milliseconds of those brain cells becoming active. This neural activity reflects attention and emotional processing, providing a measure of message resonance. While the most complex to analyze, this data is the richest source of information on attention and emotion. Galvanic Skin Response (GSR).  Surely, you’ve noticed that your palms sweat with heightened emotions, whether fear or joy. While you only notice this in more extreme situations, it is happening at varying levels all day every day. When a person is excited, their nervous system becomes highly activated and causes pores to open. These pores release sweat, which allows the GSR device to measure electrical conductance on the hands,  a measure of emotional arousal.  Eye Tracking. Visual engagement is tracked through eye movements and analysis of visual patterns by meas- uring saccades (rapid eye movements) and fixations. Eye tracking tells us exactly where people are looking within millimeter accuracy. This offers a precise view of how people visually attend to different content, including how quickly the stimulus draws attention, for how long, and how often.  Micro-Facial Expression Encoding.  Every grin and pout provides further evidence of what a person is feeling. A camera detects tiny movements in facial muscles and translates these nonverbal cues into meaningful data. While facial expressions are less common while consuming online content, they add one more layer to strengthen the overall data. BY M E ASU RING CHANG E S TO RE AC TION TIM E S , WE GAIN IN SIG HT INTO TH E IM PLICIT PROCE SS OF HOW DECISION S ARE MADE Brain actiivity, skin response, eye movement, and facial expression were all studied to gain unprecedented insight into content’s impact on consumers
  6. Moreover, brightly colored ads were looked at for 50% longer than duller colors. Again, we are evolutionarily adapted to notice bright colors before less saturated colors.  Both faces with bright colors  in conjunction had a multiplying effect, getting about twice as much visual attention as dull colors with no faces. HOW DO MSL’s EARNED CONTENT UNITS COMPARE? MSL’s ECUs are an advertising/ PR hybrid that takes the value of cost effective banner ads, but simplifies the visual design and uses earned content headings instead of typical ad messaging. The theory is that if an article is written about a product, the press is good, but it has a shelf life in our 24-hour news cycle (or event faster these days). By advertising the articles across the web, especially alongside contextually relevant content, the earned news story becomes more evergreen. But does it work? Typical banner ads are highly designed and, frankly, more visually appealing. MSL argues that ECUs’ lack of design is purposeful, but does this put them at a disadvantage? THIS STUDY UTILIZED the most advanced metrics to shed light on the details of how people consume different types of content, including how it engaged their attention and emotions and how this translated into real-world purchasing decisions.  One of the first types of content we evaluated were banner ads that sat to the right side of the page content. These ads are notorious in the research community for “banner blindness.” In other words, people often don’t even notice them since their main task and motivation is to look at the content of interest while avoiding ads. Eye tracking confirmed that 96% of the time people stayed focused on page content, looking at the banner ads only about 4% of the time. While minimal, 0.4 seconds out of every 10 is better than nothing, especially given the low cost of banner ads.  When banner ads appeared, they tended to attract a quick glance, for about 0.1 seconds. That’s because our eyes are attracted to movement. In fact, human beings have evolved to sense motion/ change faster than any other visual attribute. The appearance of an ad is enough to instinctually yield a single saccade (rapid eye movement). After that initial glance, people decide, not necessarily consciously, to look away or to take another peek. If the ad looks relevant, they may spend a bit more time on it. However, not all banner ads are created equal. For example, ads with images of faces were viewed 23% longer than ads without faces. Why? Human beings are pro- grammed to look at faces, especially eyes. This begins nearly from birth, developing as early as within the first couple neonatal weeks. THE RESULTS: HOW CONTENT PERFORMS 6
  7. it increases the chances of storing content in memory, improving affinity, and encouraging action. HOW DO ARTICLES AND ONLINE BRAND VIDEOS PERFORM? Looking at cognitive response as recorded by brain activity, we saw an interesting effect.  For context, let’s start with a few comparison points. After testing hundreds of TV ads with our brain- wave technology, SPARK Neuro measured the average ad attention at 3.8 out of 10. While some ads score higher (9.2 is the best we have measured), the average TV ad does not foster heightened attention.  Meanwhile, movie trailers on average score 5.6 for attention, almost 50% higher than the average ad. Why? Trailers are typically highly produced. Moreover, people watch them by choice, as opposed to ads, which people prefer to ignore (unless they are really good). With those benchmarks in mind, how do articles featuring products compare? Attention for articles scored 4.7 on average. That is significantly better than the average TV ad, though not quite up to standards of movie trailers. Unlike ads (and more  like movie trailers), people choose  to read articles. That choice fosters more deliberate and intent engagement. We also measured a particular type of video commonly used in PR – branded instructional videos. These videos feature products, such as Refinery29 videos teaching people how to artfully apply different types of makeup while highlighting a specific makeup brand. Branded videos scored 5.3 with the intended audience. That score is better than TV ads and articles, and it even approaches movie-trailer status. TRANSLATING TO BRAND LOVE We know that attention was lowest for banner ads, better for articles, and better yet for branded videos. But how does that translate to brand lift? Experiment participants were asked to rate each brand before and after the study. Digital ads only contributed a 1.4% brand lift. Articles increased brand affinity 1.6%, which, although slight, was still a statistically sig- nificant difference compared to Perhaps surprisingly, the data showed a clear and significant advantage for ECUs. In fact, eye tracking results demonstrated that participants looked at ECUs for twice as long as traditional banner ads (0.8 seconds vs. 0.4 seconds).  Why is that? The unique visual style that emphasizes a more minimalist approach drew attention because of its simplicity. It also retained attention due to an absence of too many distracting visual elements.  Moreover, think about the context of the situation. People are on a site reading articles about fashion and, lo and behold, the “ad” is also featuring another article about fashion. The idea of featuring articles next to other articles feels a lot more like native, unobtrusive, and valuable content compared to most ads that are, frankly, seen as a distraction. This advantage proved highly beneficial.  In fact, the benefit of the ECU goes beyond visual attention. The challenge with eye tracking alone is that sometimes your eyes look at something, but the gears in your brain don’t turn. In other words, your eyes can be instinctually attracted to something, but that does not necessarily mean the content registered in your brain. Using EEG (electroencepha- lography), we were able to look beyond visual attention and into cognitive attention. For the same amount of looking time, ECUs showed 16% more cognitive attention. Considering ECUs were looked at twice as long, that’s 32% more brain processing.  When your brain is more engaged, The idea of featuring articles next to other articles feels a lot less obtrusive than banner ads to most content viewers - another nod to the impact of earned content 7 PEOPLE.COM 6 Legendary Beauty Products You Can Get On Sale Now At Nordstrom READ MORE DATA SHOWE D A SIG NIFICANT ADVANTAG E FOR ECUs, AS PARTICIPANTS LOOKE D AT TH E M FOR T WICE AS LONG AS TR ADITIONAL BAN N E R ADS BANNER AD
  8. digital ads. Brand videos did an even better job of reinforcing brand love, promoting a 3.6% brand lift. These trends correlate perfectly with the biometric data. TRANSLATING TO ACTION While increases in brand affinity are nice, the end goal is often sales. Measuring for purchase intent, we observed that digital banner ads  set the baseline at 13%, not much greater than purchase intent for no ad at all.  Brand videos doubled the purchase intent compared to digital ads, achieving 26%.  Meanwhile earned articles increased purchase intent to 45%. That’s 3.5 times more than digital ads. How could it be that articles performed so much better for purchase intent whereas videos performed better for brand lift? Interestingly, the instructional videos featured the brands more subtly, with the main emphasis being on topics such as how to apply makeup. This subtle and elegant featuring of brands allowed them to seep into people’s subconscious, affecting how they feel about the brand or product. On the other hand, articles had different advantages. First, they were more direct about how they featured products, linking more clearly with purchasing choices. Second, the nature of an article is considered more serious and more credible; news is looked at through a different lens than other brand content. Despite these clear and consis- tent results, we still need to determine how this all translates to the real world. The challenge with purchase intent is that it is just that — intent. The metric, while meaningful (and even more accurate because of our unique way of measuring the subconscious decision-making influence), does not necessarily equate to products flying off shelves. In order to track something closer to actual purchases, we set up a web store and asked participants to go shopping. They were provided compensation for the study and could use some of that money to buy products that were then mailed to them after the session. Fourteen percent of the items purchased were “foils,” meaning they were not promoted in any way during the study. This 14% sets a baseline from which we can track improvements due to content exposure.  Eighteen percent of items pur- chased were shown in digital banner ads, a small 4% lift from no advertisement at all. Meanwhile, 27% of the products purchased were featured in brand videos, a major lift over digital ads and consistent with the purchase intent metric.  Topping the chart, earned articles contributed to 42% of purchases – again consistent with our unique, implicit method for tracking purchase intent.  Needless to say, earned content has a significant effect and is the hero of the day. CONCLUSION: WHAT DO THESE RESULTS MEAN? In the social and digital environment in which people engage today, earned media and other PR types of content appear to play a critical role in both attention and engagement.   Ultimately, while we see clear trends from one content type to another, the true value is influenced by the quality of the content. You can make a stellar video or a boring one. The same applies across the board, in- cluding various forms of PR content. The most important step goes back to how we optimize the creative, encourage risks, and stand out from the pack. Neuroscience methods and learnings augment our capa- bility to measure and optimize each piece of content. 8
  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ART AND SCIENCE IS IMPERFECT. It’s a constant tug of war. On one hand, a research-driven approach is the best way to ensure decisions are made with the target audience in mind. On the flip side, a brilliant storyteller has a uniquely honed intuition. An inspired artist might not be able to back it up with numbers, but has a sense of when something feels right. I’m a scientist who specializes in studying human behavior and cognitive psychology and then applying actionable research to decisions for advertising and entertainment. On the topic of research versus creative, you might reasonably expect that I side with the data scientists. Alas, I don’t.  My team at SPARK Neuro is composed largely of PhD neuroscientists and some of the brightest minds plucked from academia to influence the real world. After 15 years of conducting research, we keep seeing the same thing.  To be clear, it’s the format and usage of traditional research that gives me pause. “Self-report” studies, such as surveys and focus groups, suffer from many biases – group think (“What he said!”), social-desirability bias (“Don’t judge me.”), and experimenter bias (“That’s what you wanted to hear, right?”). Moreover, trying to describe how we feel forces us to rationalize a response. Inevitably, the narratives that we invent leave something deeper, more powerful, and in- herently more “true” still hidden. The challenge is that emotion is largely a subconscious process. It’s not something of which we are constantly or consciously aware. As such, we can’t expect people to report on emotion accurately. Why do you think it takes years of therapy to figure out how you feel about your mother? MARKETING’s HOLY GRAIL: ATTENTION AND EMOTION A tree falls in the woods. No one is there to hear it. Did it make a sound?  The age-old adage teaches us an important lesson about marketing.  Your content is presented, but people tune it out. Did your content exist? Of course it did, but with- out attracting attention it simply doesn’t register. Here’s another riddle: What do you always have, only sometimes notice, and have a hard time talking about? Answer: Emotion. As discussed, emotion, by nature, is part of a THE ROLE OF NEUROSCIENCE IN UNDERSTANDING  EMOTIONAL VERSUS RATIONAL DECISIONS By Spencer Gerrol, CEO and Founder of Spark Neuro 9
  10. subconscious process. It is constantly pushing and pulling us despite the fact we aren’t always aware of it and often struggle to articulate it. Attention and emotion are the Holy Grail in marketing. If people are not tuned in to your message, it won’t register; and if your content doesn’t make people feel something, it will have a limited effect. However, attention and emotion are among the hardest things to measure.  Attention is often measured by clicks, impressions, page views, and television ratings – but these methods have their weaknesses. Just because an ad displayed or aired does not mean people noticed it; and even if they did glance at it, that does not mean they paid attention to the message. Emotion is measured even more subjectively. We simply ask people about their feelings, beliefs, and attitudes. People aren’t continuously aware of how emotions affect everything they do. Introspection is hard, even more difficult to articulate, and surveys aren’t conducive to getting either deep or specific-enough answers. Furthermore, if we are to understand how to employ emotion, we first must unravel how it all works. REASON, EMOTION, AND DECISION-MAKING Here’s a choice for you. In my left hand, I have a banana. In my right hand, I have a chocolate bar. You can only choose one. Which option would be the more emotional choice? Which would be the more rational one? We are trained to think that rational decisions are better and emotional  decisions are more destructive. Science disagrees, however. In fact, I would argue that the artificial bifurcation of reason and feeling is damaging to how we understand humanity. As such, this misconception of “rational decisions” is adverse to how we practice marketing.  In 1994, Antonio Damasio, an acclaimed neuroscientist and professor, published the seminal work that refutes this dichotomy between emotion and reason. His book, Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain, introduces a new theory. In this book, Damasio, through a series of mind-bending case studies, poses that there is no such thing as a decision without emotion. That’s worth repeating. It is not humanly possible to make a decision or take an action without a significant emotional influence. It is not realistic to believe a person can fully process the variables of a choice consciously and then come to a conclusion. Cognitive processes such as working memory would become overloaded by all the potential outcomes and we would simply freeze.  Instead, our brain takes a shortcut. We feel something. As conditioned by the combination of life experience and human evolution, if you see a certain stimulus, your heart rate increases, your palms begin to sweat, you start breathing faster, your muscles contract, and your eyebrows furrow. This response is converted to emotion in your brain, which tells you something about the situation in front of you. You then decide to pursue or avoid a course of action. This decision shortcut is what you call your “gut.” René Descartes, a 17th  century French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist, famously said, “Cogito ergo sum.” Translation: “I think, therefore I am.” The error, according to Damasio, is that your feelings, not just cognition, play a critical role in the ability to make clear, rational decisions. Perhaps it should be: “I feel, therefore I am.” 10
  11. Since we can’t make decisions or take an action without the presence of emotion, marketers need a better way to measure emotion. But if we can’t rely on surveys and focus groups to help us dissect emotion, what can we do? RESEARCH 2.0: ENTER NEUROSCIENCE We have acknowledged that the flaws with self-reported data are limiting; asking people to articulate what is buried in the subconscious creates unavoidable biases. We also reviewed how emotion is critical to changing perceptions and behaviors and that without “qualitative” data we are missing something important. Qualitative, however, does not have to mean subjective. Enter neuroscience. Neuroscience involves studying the brain and nervous system and holds the key to more accurately measuring attention and emotion. Unfortunately, like most cutting-edge research, neuroscience methods are often confined to academia and don’t make their way into practical application. SPARK Neuro exists to create real-world solutions with the scientific methods that are otherwise stuck in the “ivory tower.”  Instead of asking people, we go right to the source, reading brain activity and other neurological responses to quantify what is otherwise subjective — to what degree people are engaged in content, their emotional experience, and how that translates into decisions. We use EEG (Electroencephalography) to measure brain activity, GSR (Galvanic Skin Response) to measure skin conductance, Eye Tracking to quantify visual attention, as well as computerized Micro-Facial Expression Encoding to capture every smile and smirk. This combination of biometric signals gives us deep insights into the Holy Grail — is content captivating people? How much? And exactly when (down to the second)? Our metrics, which are processed through complex algorithms that make sense of thousands of data points per second, have been shown to predict marketing effectiveness. Higher scores correlate with more sharing and liking in social media, improved brand affinity, and increased purchase intent. In other words, when people’s attention is captivated and when their emotions are stirred, they like brands more and are more likely to buy. A DIFFERENT RESULT One of the common complaints about traditional research is that it can often water down creativity because with surveys and focus groups people often object to things that violate their expectations. Why is neurometric research different? When reading how someone’s brain and body responds, we emphasize different measures of success.  We look for peaks in attention, which are often caused by the unexpected. A dramatic pause, a surprising twist, and a mystery waiting to be uncovered are all examples of elements that raise attention. Human beings are attracted to things that are different, causing increased focus. We also look for peaks in emotional intensity. A dramatic story with a mix of positive and negative emotions causes increased engagement. For example, fear followed quickly by relief and then love creates an emotional rollercoaster that causes us to focus even harder and remember even more. Regardless of the medium, it has been proven time and time again that the most effective marketing messages are those that evoke strong emotions, surprise you, and seamlessly integrate with the brand. 11 Spencer Gerrol spends every waking moment thinking about the intersection of art and science. As CEO of SPARK Neuro, he leads an applied neuroscience company that studies how people think, feel, decide, and act. The complexities of how humans attend to information and experi- ence emotion push and pull us, altering our perceptions and in- fluencing our behaviors. But when it comes to understanding these forces, Gerrol notes that traditional research methods don’t cut it. As such, SPARK Neuro doesn’t just rely on what people have to say. Instead, it bypasses biased responses by measuring brain and nervous system activity. A sought-after speaker, Gerrol has presented at Google, TED, the Pentagon, the United Nations, the White House, and Cannes Lions. Additionally, Gerrol was honored at the White House for founding one of the top 100 companies started by young entrepreneurs and was named a Global Shaper by the World Economic Forum. Having worked with many top global brands and film studios, Gerrol specializes in how to make advertising and entertainment truly affect people. His academic background in the burgeoning field of Human Factors – the study of cognitive psychology and human behavior research as applied to technology and design – enables Gerrol to illuminate opportunities to influence human behavior through marketing. SPENCER GERROL
  12. ABOUT SPARK NEURO SPARK Neuro is an applied neuroscience company revolutionizing the evaluation of audience engagement in advertising and entertainment. Instead of relying on traditional, biased research methods, SPARK Neuro goes right to the source, measuring brain and nervous system activity so it can see exactly when people are engaged and when they are not. SPARK Neuro quantifies attention and emotional levels with second-by-second precision. SPARK’s research is trusted by major brands including GM, Clorox, Toyota, NBC, Universal Pictures, Telemundo, and Netflix. SPARK Neuro has been featured for its innovative research by CNN, ABC News, and The Washington Post. CONNECT WITH SPARK NEURO Web: sparkneuro.com Twitter: @SparkNeuro Facebook: Facebook.com/Sparkneuro LinkedIn: linkedin.com/company/spark-neuro ABOUT MSL MSL is Publicis Groupe’s strategic communications and engagement group. It is one of the world’s largest public relations and integrated communications networks and provides strategic counsel and creative thinking. It champions its clients’ interests through fearless and insightful campaigns that engage multiple perspectives and holistic thinking to build influence and deliver impact. With more than 3,100 people across more than 110 offices worldwide, MSL is also the largest PR network in Europe, fast-growing China, and India. CONNECT WITH MSL Web: mslgroup.com Twitter: @MSL_GROUP Facebook: facebook.com/MSLGROUP LinkedIn: linkedin.com/company/mslgroup YouTube: youtube.com/MSLGROUPofficial Slideshare: slideshare.net/mslgroup Instagram: instagram.com/mslgroupglobal For more information about Conversation2Commerce, email Erin.Lanuti@mslgroup.com or visit www.publicisC2C.com. Produced by Haymarket Media © Haymarket Media Group Ltd.
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