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GROUP MEMBERS:    Shelonica Joree Katherine N. Marray Poonam PnaguCarissa Bhanedatt Ameenah KhanRoshnie SinghSmita TikaramNickeshia DaCostaAmrita HardeoJason Glasgow 1 HEALTH PROMOTION ASSIGNMENT
BREAST CANCER 2
Breast cancer refers to cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. 3 What is breast cancer?
4
TYPES OF BREAST CANCER The type of Breast Cancer you have helps to determine the best approach to treating the disease. Whether your cancer is Invasive or Non Invasive helps your doctor determine whether your cancer may have spread beyond your breast, and your risk of developing cancer in the same breast or your other breast. 5
Non-invasive breast cancer refers to cancer in which the cells have remained within their place of origin. They haven’t spread to breast tissue around the duct or lobule. The most common type of Non-Invasive breast cancer is Ductal Carcinoma, which is confined to the lining of the milk ducts. The abnormal cells haven’t spread through the duct walls into surrounding breast tissue. 6 Non-Invasive Breast Cancer
Invasive Breast Cancer is cancer that spreads outside the membrane of the lobule or duct into the breast tissue. The cancer can then spread into the lymph nodes of the armpit. 7 Invasive breast cancer
Stage 0- Non-invasive breast cancer where there is no evidence of non-cancerous abnormal cells breaking out of the breast. Stage I- Invasive breast cancer in which the tumor can measure up to 2cm. No lymph nodes are involved. Stage II- The tumor measures from 2-5cm and may or may not spread to the axillary lymph nodes. 8 Stages of breast cancer
Stage III- Inflammation occurs and the tumor maybe of any size.  The cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes in the breastbone, to the chest walls, and the skin of the breast. Stage IV- The cancer is invasive and it spreads to other organs of the body like the lungs, liver, bone or brain.  It is considered metastatic cancer at this stage. 9
You may also hear terms such as “early” or “earlier” stage, “later” or “advanced” stage breast cancer. Though these terms are not medically precise, they may be used differently by doctors. For example: Early Stage Advanced Stage     Stage 0                                                     Other Stage III    Stage I                                                          Stage IV    Stage II Some stage III 10
11
The first noticeable symptom of breast cancer is typically a lump that feels different from the rest of the breast tissue. More than 80% of breast cancer cases are felt when women feel a lump. Lumps found in the lymph nodes located in the armpits can also indicate breast cancer. Change in size or shape of the nipple Changes of color, shape or texture of the nipple or the areola Unusual pain in the breast or in the armpit 12 Signs & Symptoms
Nipple discharge or tenderness Inversion of nipple Dimpling of the skin Enlargement of axillary lymph node 13
14
Gender-women are much more likely to develop breast cancer than men. Age- the risk of breast cancer increases as you get older. Women older than 60 years have a greater risk than younger women. History of breast cancer- if you have a mother, sister or daughter breast cancer, you have a greater chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Still, the majority of people diagnosed with breast cancer have no family history of the disease. 15 RISK FACTORS
Inherited genes- certain gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer can be passed from parents to children. The most common gene mutations are referred to as BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes can greatly increase your risk of breast cancer and other cancers, but they don’t make cancer inevitable Radiation exposure- if you have received radiation treatments to your chest as a child or young adult, you’re more likely to develop breast cancer in life. Obesity- being overweight or obese increases your risk of breast cancer. 16
Having your first child at an older age- women who give birth to their first child after age 35 may have an increased risk of breast cancer. Post menopausal hormone therapy- women who take hormone therapy medications that combine estrogen and progesterone to treat the signs and symptoms of menopause have an increased risk of breast cancer. Drinking alcohol- drinking alcohol may increase the risk of breast cancer.  17
Breast cancer prevention starts with your own health habits. Stay physically active—Regular exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight and, as a consequence, may aid in breast cancer prevention. Aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise on most days of the week. Try to include weight-bearing exercises such as walking, jogging or aerobics.  Consider limiting fat in your diet—studiessuggest a slight decrease in risk of invasive breast cancer for women who eat a low-fat diet. 18 PREVENTION
Maintain a healthy weight—There is a clear link between obesity and breast cancer. This is especially true if you gain the weight later in life, particularly after menopause. Experts speculate that estrogen production in fatty tissue may be the link between obesity and breast cancer risk. Screening—Mammographic screening for breast cancer uses x-rays to examine the breast for any uncharacteristic masses or lumps. A clinical or self breast exam involves feeling the breast for lumps or other abnormalities.  19
The tests used for detecting breast cancer are: Biopsy Digital Mammography  Ultrasound PET Scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Lymphatic Mapping 20 Diagnosis
Breast cancer treatment can consist of one or several of the following: surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation therapy. Therapeutic options depend on the stage of the cancer (whether the cancer is only in the breast or has spread to the lymph nodes or beyond), the type of breast cancer, the number of estrogen and progesterone receptors on the tumor cells, the patient's age, health and menopausal status, and whether the cancer is recurrent. 21 Treatment
What Is Male Breast Cancer? Male breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Men Don’t Have Breasts, How Can They Get Breast Cancer? Although men have no breast like women, they have a small amount of breast tissue which is similar to the breasts of a girl before puberty, and consist of a few ducts surrounded by breast and other tissue. 22 MALE BREAST CANCER
  Why Do I Not Hear About Breast Cancer In Men As Much As I Hear About Breast Cancer In Women? Breast cancer in men is a very rare disease due to the small amount of breast tissue present. Male breast cancer accounts for 1% of all breast cancer cases. What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Breast Cancer In Men? A lump on the chest Skin dimpling or puckering Nipple retraction (turning inwards) Redness or scaling of the nipple or breast Nipple discharge 23
How Serious Is Breast Cancer In Men? Breast cancer in men is often diagnosed later than breast cancer in women and this is because men are less likely to be suspicious of an abnormality in that area. Which Men Are Most Likely To Get Breast Cancer? The likelihood of developing the disease increases with age, with most being detected between the ages of 60-70 years Family history in a close female relative A history of radiation exposure of the chest 24
Men with severe liver disease Individuals with a rare genetic disease called Klinefelter’s syndrome How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed In Men? The same techniques-physical exams, mammograms and biopsies-that are used to diagnose breast cancer in women. How Is Breast Cancer Staged In Men? Staging of breast cancer in men is carried out identically to the staging of breast cancer in women.      25
How Is Breast Cancer Treated In Men?   Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and hormone therapy-the same treatments that are used to treat the disease in women.  26
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, after skin cancer, representing 16% of all female cancers. According to the American Cancer Society, about 1.3 million women will be diagnosed with breast cancer annually.  Worldwide about 465,000 will die from the disease each year. Every 29 seconds a new case of breast cancer is diagnosed somewhere in the world, and more than 1 million women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year. Globally, breast cancer kills one woman every minute.  27 STATISTICS—WORLDWIDE
WORLDWIDE INCIDENCE OF BREAST CANCER 28
WORLDWIDE MORTALITY OF BREAST CANCER Breast cancer mortality is declining in the United States as well as in certain industrialized areas-such as Canada, Austria, Germany and the United Kingdom. In contrast, certain European nations-Spain, Portugal, Greece, Hungary, Poland and Italy-have not reported these favourable trends. The lowest mortality rates are reported in Asian regions leading researchers to speculate that dietary, cultural, and/or environmental factors might be implicated in the etiology of the disease. 29
30
   The Cancer Registry of Guyana, a population-based registry was established in 2000. Since then, data has been collected from the national referral hospital and other public and private institutions.  The data shows that: Indo-Guyanese women accounted for 45% of the breast cancer cases. Age group analysis indicated 81% of the cases for breast cancer were found in women between 30 and 70 years of age. The timeline for diagnosis indicated breast cancer was usually diagnosed in the early stages of the cancer (stages I and II). 31 STATISTICS—GUYANA
32
PROSTATE CANCER 33
Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate gland of the male reproductive system.   34 What is prostate cancer?
35
Stage I- the prostate cancer is found in the prostate only and it is microscopic. It cannot be felt on a digital rectal exam and cannot be seen on imaging for the prostate. Stage II- the tumor has grown inside the prostate but has not extended beyond it. Stage III- has spread outside the prostate, but only scarcely to nearby tissues like the seminal vesicles. 36 Stages of prostate cancer
Stage IV- metastasized outside the prostate tissues.  Commonly spreads to the lymph node, the bones, liver, or lungs. Stage V- the cancer has recurred after some time in remission phase. 37
38
Need to urinate often, especially at night  Intense need to urinate (urgency)  Difficulty in starting or stopping the urine flow  Inability to urinate  Weak, decreased or interrupted urine stream  A sense of incompletely emptying the bladder  Burning or pain during urination  Painful ejaculation Difficulty in having an erection Hematuria- blood in the urine Hematospermia- Blood in the semen 39 Signs & Symptoms
The primary risk factor is age and is most uncommon in men younger than 45 years but becomes more common with advancing age.  Eighty percent of men are diagnose in their 70’s while thirty percent are diagnose in their 50’s. Genetic factors also pose to be a risk for Prostate Cancer as suggested to be associated with race, family, and specific gene variants. Men who have brothers or father with prostate cancer have twice the risk of developing it.  Unhealthy eating habits have always been disadvantageous for all, and there is no exception for prostate cancer.   High levels of alcohol consumption and the lack of exercise also result in a higher risk of prostate cancer.     40 RISK FACTORS
There are a number of actions that can be taken to reduce the chances of getting Prostate Cancer.  Adapting to a healthy balance diet, maintain a healthy weight through regular exercise and regular screening for prostate cancer are measures to take to prevent Prostate Cancer. The diet recommended to prevent Prostate Cancer is one which focuses on choosing a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. The consumption of high fat foods should be avoided.   41 PREVENTION
There is some evidence that men who exercise regularly have a lower incidence of prostate cancer when compared with men who get little or no exercise.   It is recommended that a yearly visitation to the doctor is done for prostate testing after the age of 40. Regular screening for Prostate Cancer is one of the best prevention methods, as it permits an early detection.  When the symptoms of the cancer develop it would indicate much damage has already been done because like most dangerous cancers, it can spread to other organs in the body. Instead your best chance for cure or long term control is early detection and medical treatments.    42
Digital Rectal Examination Prostate-Specific Antigen Blood Test (PSA) Prostate Ultrasound and Biopsy Bladder Scope Test CAT Scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 43 DIAGNOSIS
Currently, prostate cancer is treated conventionally using radiation, surgery to remove the gland, drugs to reduce levels of the hormone testosterone that feeds the tumours, and lastly, the chemotherapy drug Taxotere, which extends the lives of patients by two months.  To decide on treatment for an individual patient, doctors categorize prostate cancers as ORGAN-CONFINED (localized to the gland), LOCALLY ADVANCED (a large prostate tumor or one that has spread only locally), or METASTATIC (spread distantly or widely).  44 TREATMENT
Prostate Cancer is the 2nd most common cancer worldwide and is the most common form of cancer affecting men in the western world.  Worldwide more than 670,000 men are diagnosed with Prostate Cancer each year. Approximately 254,000 men die as a result of Prostate Cancer each year. Rates of prostate cancer vary widely across the world. Although the rates vary widely between countries, it is least common in South and East Asia, more common in Europe, and most common in the United States.  45 STATISTICS—WORLDWIDE
According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer is least common among Asian men and most common among African men, with figures for Caucasian men are in between. Prostate cancer develops primarily in men over fifty years of age. Many factors, including genetics and diet, have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer.  46
WORLDWIDE INCIDENCE OF PROSTATE CANCER China has some of the lowest incidence rates. The highest rates are from the United States, particularly among African American men. WORLDWIDE MORTALITY OF PROSTATE CANCER Mortality remains highest in Scandinavian countries. In many areas of the world, but particularly in the United States, a steady decline in mortality has been noted during the last decade. 47
48
The data from the Cancer Registry of Guyana shows that: Afro-Guyanese men accounted for over 65% of all prostate cancer cases Age group analysis showed a predominance of prostate cancer (49.9%) in the male population over 70 years of age Unfortunately, the majority of prostate cancers were not staged. 49 STATISTICS—GUYANA
50
Diagnosing Breast Cancer, Fox Chase Cancer Centre http://www.fccc.edu/cancer/types/breast/diagnosis/   The Worldwide Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer, Gabriel P. Haas, M.D, et.al http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2706483/ Prostate Cancer Epidemiology, Wikipedia  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostate_cancer#Epidemiology   Ethnicity and cancer in Guyana, South America, Wallis S Best Plummer, et.al http://www.infectagentscancer.com/content/4/S1/S7 Types of Breast Cancer, National Breast Cancer Foundation Inc http://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/About-Breast-Cancer/Types.aspx 51 REFERENCES
Prostate Cancer, MedicineNet.com http://www.medicinenet.com/prostate_cancer/article.htm Breast Cancer, MedicineNet.com http://www.medicinenet.com/breast_cancer/article.htm Male Breast Cancer, MedicineNet.com http://www.medicinenet.com/male_breast_cancer/article.htm Breast Cancer Epidemiology, Wikipedia    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breast_cancer#Epidemiology 52

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breast and prostate cancer.

  • 1. GROUP MEMBERS: Shelonica Joree Katherine N. Marray Poonam PnaguCarissa Bhanedatt Ameenah KhanRoshnie SinghSmita TikaramNickeshia DaCostaAmrita HardeoJason Glasgow 1 HEALTH PROMOTION ASSIGNMENT
  • 3. Breast cancer refers to cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. 3 What is breast cancer?
  • 4. 4
  • 5. TYPES OF BREAST CANCER The type of Breast Cancer you have helps to determine the best approach to treating the disease. Whether your cancer is Invasive or Non Invasive helps your doctor determine whether your cancer may have spread beyond your breast, and your risk of developing cancer in the same breast or your other breast. 5
  • 6. Non-invasive breast cancer refers to cancer in which the cells have remained within their place of origin. They haven’t spread to breast tissue around the duct or lobule. The most common type of Non-Invasive breast cancer is Ductal Carcinoma, which is confined to the lining of the milk ducts. The abnormal cells haven’t spread through the duct walls into surrounding breast tissue. 6 Non-Invasive Breast Cancer
  • 7. Invasive Breast Cancer is cancer that spreads outside the membrane of the lobule or duct into the breast tissue. The cancer can then spread into the lymph nodes of the armpit. 7 Invasive breast cancer
  • 8. Stage 0- Non-invasive breast cancer where there is no evidence of non-cancerous abnormal cells breaking out of the breast. Stage I- Invasive breast cancer in which the tumor can measure up to 2cm. No lymph nodes are involved. Stage II- The tumor measures from 2-5cm and may or may not spread to the axillary lymph nodes. 8 Stages of breast cancer
  • 9. Stage III- Inflammation occurs and the tumor maybe of any size. The cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes in the breastbone, to the chest walls, and the skin of the breast. Stage IV- The cancer is invasive and it spreads to other organs of the body like the lungs, liver, bone or brain. It is considered metastatic cancer at this stage. 9
  • 10. You may also hear terms such as “early” or “earlier” stage, “later” or “advanced” stage breast cancer. Though these terms are not medically precise, they may be used differently by doctors. For example: Early Stage Advanced Stage Stage 0 Other Stage III Stage I Stage IV Stage II Some stage III 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. The first noticeable symptom of breast cancer is typically a lump that feels different from the rest of the breast tissue. More than 80% of breast cancer cases are felt when women feel a lump. Lumps found in the lymph nodes located in the armpits can also indicate breast cancer. Change in size or shape of the nipple Changes of color, shape or texture of the nipple or the areola Unusual pain in the breast or in the armpit 12 Signs & Symptoms
  • 13. Nipple discharge or tenderness Inversion of nipple Dimpling of the skin Enlargement of axillary lymph node 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. Gender-women are much more likely to develop breast cancer than men. Age- the risk of breast cancer increases as you get older. Women older than 60 years have a greater risk than younger women. History of breast cancer- if you have a mother, sister or daughter breast cancer, you have a greater chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Still, the majority of people diagnosed with breast cancer have no family history of the disease. 15 RISK FACTORS
  • 16. Inherited genes- certain gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer can be passed from parents to children. The most common gene mutations are referred to as BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes can greatly increase your risk of breast cancer and other cancers, but they don’t make cancer inevitable Radiation exposure- if you have received radiation treatments to your chest as a child or young adult, you’re more likely to develop breast cancer in life. Obesity- being overweight or obese increases your risk of breast cancer. 16
  • 17. Having your first child at an older age- women who give birth to their first child after age 35 may have an increased risk of breast cancer. Post menopausal hormone therapy- women who take hormone therapy medications that combine estrogen and progesterone to treat the signs and symptoms of menopause have an increased risk of breast cancer. Drinking alcohol- drinking alcohol may increase the risk of breast cancer. 17
  • 18. Breast cancer prevention starts with your own health habits. Stay physically active—Regular exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight and, as a consequence, may aid in breast cancer prevention. Aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise on most days of the week. Try to include weight-bearing exercises such as walking, jogging or aerobics. Consider limiting fat in your diet—studiessuggest a slight decrease in risk of invasive breast cancer for women who eat a low-fat diet. 18 PREVENTION
  • 19. Maintain a healthy weight—There is a clear link between obesity and breast cancer. This is especially true if you gain the weight later in life, particularly after menopause. Experts speculate that estrogen production in fatty tissue may be the link between obesity and breast cancer risk. Screening—Mammographic screening for breast cancer uses x-rays to examine the breast for any uncharacteristic masses or lumps. A clinical or self breast exam involves feeling the breast for lumps or other abnormalities. 19
  • 20. The tests used for detecting breast cancer are: Biopsy Digital Mammography Ultrasound PET Scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Lymphatic Mapping 20 Diagnosis
  • 21. Breast cancer treatment can consist of one or several of the following: surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation therapy. Therapeutic options depend on the stage of the cancer (whether the cancer is only in the breast or has spread to the lymph nodes or beyond), the type of breast cancer, the number of estrogen and progesterone receptors on the tumor cells, the patient's age, health and menopausal status, and whether the cancer is recurrent. 21 Treatment
  • 22. What Is Male Breast Cancer? Male breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Men Don’t Have Breasts, How Can They Get Breast Cancer? Although men have no breast like women, they have a small amount of breast tissue which is similar to the breasts of a girl before puberty, and consist of a few ducts surrounded by breast and other tissue. 22 MALE BREAST CANCER
  • 23.   Why Do I Not Hear About Breast Cancer In Men As Much As I Hear About Breast Cancer In Women? Breast cancer in men is a very rare disease due to the small amount of breast tissue present. Male breast cancer accounts for 1% of all breast cancer cases. What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Breast Cancer In Men? A lump on the chest Skin dimpling or puckering Nipple retraction (turning inwards) Redness or scaling of the nipple or breast Nipple discharge 23
  • 24. How Serious Is Breast Cancer In Men? Breast cancer in men is often diagnosed later than breast cancer in women and this is because men are less likely to be suspicious of an abnormality in that area. Which Men Are Most Likely To Get Breast Cancer? The likelihood of developing the disease increases with age, with most being detected between the ages of 60-70 years Family history in a close female relative A history of radiation exposure of the chest 24
  • 25. Men with severe liver disease Individuals with a rare genetic disease called Klinefelter’s syndrome How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed In Men? The same techniques-physical exams, mammograms and biopsies-that are used to diagnose breast cancer in women. How Is Breast Cancer Staged In Men? Staging of breast cancer in men is carried out identically to the staging of breast cancer in women.     25
  • 26. How Is Breast Cancer Treated In Men?   Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and hormone therapy-the same treatments that are used to treat the disease in women. 26
  • 27. Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, after skin cancer, representing 16% of all female cancers. According to the American Cancer Society, about 1.3 million women will be diagnosed with breast cancer annually. Worldwide about 465,000 will die from the disease each year. Every 29 seconds a new case of breast cancer is diagnosed somewhere in the world, and more than 1 million women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year. Globally, breast cancer kills one woman every minute. 27 STATISTICS—WORLDWIDE
  • 28. WORLDWIDE INCIDENCE OF BREAST CANCER 28
  • 29. WORLDWIDE MORTALITY OF BREAST CANCER Breast cancer mortality is declining in the United States as well as in certain industrialized areas-such as Canada, Austria, Germany and the United Kingdom. In contrast, certain European nations-Spain, Portugal, Greece, Hungary, Poland and Italy-have not reported these favourable trends. The lowest mortality rates are reported in Asian regions leading researchers to speculate that dietary, cultural, and/or environmental factors might be implicated in the etiology of the disease. 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. The Cancer Registry of Guyana, a population-based registry was established in 2000. Since then, data has been collected from the national referral hospital and other public and private institutions. The data shows that: Indo-Guyanese women accounted for 45% of the breast cancer cases. Age group analysis indicated 81% of the cases for breast cancer were found in women between 30 and 70 years of age. The timeline for diagnosis indicated breast cancer was usually diagnosed in the early stages of the cancer (stages I and II). 31 STATISTICS—GUYANA
  • 32. 32
  • 34. Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate gland of the male reproductive system. 34 What is prostate cancer?
  • 35. 35
  • 36. Stage I- the prostate cancer is found in the prostate only and it is microscopic. It cannot be felt on a digital rectal exam and cannot be seen on imaging for the prostate. Stage II- the tumor has grown inside the prostate but has not extended beyond it. Stage III- has spread outside the prostate, but only scarcely to nearby tissues like the seminal vesicles. 36 Stages of prostate cancer
  • 37. Stage IV- metastasized outside the prostate tissues. Commonly spreads to the lymph node, the bones, liver, or lungs. Stage V- the cancer has recurred after some time in remission phase. 37
  • 38. 38
  • 39. Need to urinate often, especially at night Intense need to urinate (urgency) Difficulty in starting or stopping the urine flow Inability to urinate Weak, decreased or interrupted urine stream A sense of incompletely emptying the bladder Burning or pain during urination Painful ejaculation Difficulty in having an erection Hematuria- blood in the urine Hematospermia- Blood in the semen 39 Signs & Symptoms
  • 40. The primary risk factor is age and is most uncommon in men younger than 45 years but becomes more common with advancing age. Eighty percent of men are diagnose in their 70’s while thirty percent are diagnose in their 50’s. Genetic factors also pose to be a risk for Prostate Cancer as suggested to be associated with race, family, and specific gene variants. Men who have brothers or father with prostate cancer have twice the risk of developing it. Unhealthy eating habits have always been disadvantageous for all, and there is no exception for prostate cancer. High levels of alcohol consumption and the lack of exercise also result in a higher risk of prostate cancer.   40 RISK FACTORS
  • 41. There are a number of actions that can be taken to reduce the chances of getting Prostate Cancer. Adapting to a healthy balance diet, maintain a healthy weight through regular exercise and regular screening for prostate cancer are measures to take to prevent Prostate Cancer. The diet recommended to prevent Prostate Cancer is one which focuses on choosing a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. The consumption of high fat foods should be avoided. 41 PREVENTION
  • 42. There is some evidence that men who exercise regularly have a lower incidence of prostate cancer when compared with men who get little or no exercise. It is recommended that a yearly visitation to the doctor is done for prostate testing after the age of 40. Regular screening for Prostate Cancer is one of the best prevention methods, as it permits an early detection. When the symptoms of the cancer develop it would indicate much damage has already been done because like most dangerous cancers, it can spread to other organs in the body. Instead your best chance for cure or long term control is early detection and medical treatments. 42
  • 43. Digital Rectal Examination Prostate-Specific Antigen Blood Test (PSA) Prostate Ultrasound and Biopsy Bladder Scope Test CAT Scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 43 DIAGNOSIS
  • 44. Currently, prostate cancer is treated conventionally using radiation, surgery to remove the gland, drugs to reduce levels of the hormone testosterone that feeds the tumours, and lastly, the chemotherapy drug Taxotere, which extends the lives of patients by two months. To decide on treatment for an individual patient, doctors categorize prostate cancers as ORGAN-CONFINED (localized to the gland), LOCALLY ADVANCED (a large prostate tumor or one that has spread only locally), or METASTATIC (spread distantly or widely). 44 TREATMENT
  • 45. Prostate Cancer is the 2nd most common cancer worldwide and is the most common form of cancer affecting men in the western world. Worldwide more than 670,000 men are diagnosed with Prostate Cancer each year. Approximately 254,000 men die as a result of Prostate Cancer each year. Rates of prostate cancer vary widely across the world. Although the rates vary widely between countries, it is least common in South and East Asia, more common in Europe, and most common in the United States. 45 STATISTICS—WORLDWIDE
  • 46. According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer is least common among Asian men and most common among African men, with figures for Caucasian men are in between. Prostate cancer develops primarily in men over fifty years of age. Many factors, including genetics and diet, have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. 46
  • 47. WORLDWIDE INCIDENCE OF PROSTATE CANCER China has some of the lowest incidence rates. The highest rates are from the United States, particularly among African American men. WORLDWIDE MORTALITY OF PROSTATE CANCER Mortality remains highest in Scandinavian countries. In many areas of the world, but particularly in the United States, a steady decline in mortality has been noted during the last decade. 47
  • 48. 48
  • 49. The data from the Cancer Registry of Guyana shows that: Afro-Guyanese men accounted for over 65% of all prostate cancer cases Age group analysis showed a predominance of prostate cancer (49.9%) in the male population over 70 years of age Unfortunately, the majority of prostate cancers were not staged. 49 STATISTICS—GUYANA
  • 50. 50
  • 51. Diagnosing Breast Cancer, Fox Chase Cancer Centre http://www.fccc.edu/cancer/types/breast/diagnosis/   The Worldwide Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer, Gabriel P. Haas, M.D, et.al http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2706483/ Prostate Cancer Epidemiology, Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostate_cancer#Epidemiology   Ethnicity and cancer in Guyana, South America, Wallis S Best Plummer, et.al http://www.infectagentscancer.com/content/4/S1/S7 Types of Breast Cancer, National Breast Cancer Foundation Inc http://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/About-Breast-Cancer/Types.aspx 51 REFERENCES
  • 52. Prostate Cancer, MedicineNet.com http://www.medicinenet.com/prostate_cancer/article.htm Breast Cancer, MedicineNet.com http://www.medicinenet.com/breast_cancer/article.htm Male Breast Cancer, MedicineNet.com http://www.medicinenet.com/male_breast_cancer/article.htm Breast Cancer Epidemiology, Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breast_cancer#Epidemiology 52