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  1. 1. Middlesbrough Barbara Fennell Mark J. Jones Carmen Llamas
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>19C Middlesbrough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An Irish legacy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thematic analysis of found dataset </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetic/phonological analysis of elicited dataset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NURSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frication of /t/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preliminary conclusions and directions for future </li></ul>
  3. 3. The ‘infant Hercules’ <ul><li>Arrival of railway – 1830 </li></ul><ul><li>Middlesbrough Iron Works – 1841 </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of iron ore – 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Within 40 years, biggest producer of pig-iron in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in industry necessitates growth in workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Hamlet – 1831 </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Borough – 1853 </li></ul><ul><li>Major town - 1871 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Population growth 19C
  5. 5. Population growth 20C
  6. 6. Migrants <ul><li>Rural hinterland </li></ul><ul><li>Further afield -Durham, Staffordshire, South Wales, Scotland and Ireland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1861 - 73.2% born Yorkshire, 1871 - 50.1% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1840s  growing Irish migration </li></ul><ul><li>1851-1871 - large-scale Welsh migration </li></ul><ul><li>Limited employment opportunities for women </li></ul><ul><li>Compared with frontier towns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ rapid growth, the heterogeneous composition of its population, and the preponderance of the male sex, recall features generally credited only to towns of the American West’ (Ravenstein in Briggs 1996) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Irish migration -1851 Census <ul><li>Numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>324 Irish reported - 4.4% of population (national average 2.9%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place of residence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>present in all enumerators districts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ it can be stated with confidence that in 1851, there were no specifically Irish quarters in Middlesbrough’ (Willis 2003:20) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lodging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ no aversion to Irish lodgers by the non-Irish can be discerned in 1851 Middlesbrough’ (Willis 2003:24) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Irish migration -1851 Census <ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>127 male workers (55.4%) employed in nascent iron industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marital data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 mixed marriages in all 8 enumerators districts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>29% of all marriages (25/86) mixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ suggesting that the Irish were integrated into the other communities within Middlesbrough’ (Willis 2003:23) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Irish migration -1861 Census <ul><li>Irish presence increased from 6.3% in 1851 to 15.6% by 1861 - Irish born grew from 324-1793 (553.4%) </li></ul><ul><li>Irish formed the largest immigrant group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ the Irish in 1861 Middlesbrough show areas of concentration that are significant but are not a sufficient measure of segregation’ (Willis 2003:28) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ on the basis of the 1851 and 1861 enumerators returns, mixed marriages were reducing but were still high enough to suggest integration rather than segregation’ (Willis 2003:31) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Irish migration 1870s  <ul><li>By 1870s, the Irish were outnumbering the Welsh by three to one </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 5 adult males Irish </li></ul><ul><li>Middlesbrough second only to Liverpool in terms of the size of its Irish population </li></ul><ul><li>1878 - Middlesbrough became a Roman Catholic bishopric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In contradiction to occasional claims in the press, there is little if any evidence for a distinctively Irish quarter or ghetto in Middlesbrough (Chase 1995:6) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Media representations of Irish in 19C <ul><li>No overt hostility towards Irish displayed </li></ul><ul><li>Dialect features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>yur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dursn’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I gits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>furst, sur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ivver, nivver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ov </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>onykind, ony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hev </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>jist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meself </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Integration or segregation? <ul><li>Intermarriage </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed lodgings </li></ul><ul><li>No Irish quarters </li></ul><ul><li>No hostile stereotyping in press </li></ul><ul><li>Particular migration experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it may well be that because Middlesbrough was an immigrant town, prejudices that existed against the Irish elsewhere in mainland Britain were absent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Willis 2003:23) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in Middlesbrough celebrating ‘otherness’ was general to all of the immigrants and an integral part of its melting pot culture (Willis 2003:46) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The melting pot <ul><li>Koineisation – a dramatic form of dialect contact following mass settlement of a relatively sparsely populated area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the stabilized result of mixing of linguistic subsystems such as regional or literary dialects. It usually serves as a lingua franca among speakers of the different contributing varieties and is characterized by a mixture of features of these varieties and most often by reduction or simplification in comparison (Siegel 1985: 363) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Levelling </li></ul><ul><li>Focussing </li></ul>
  14. 14. An Irish legacy? <ul><li>Current perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of the Irish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent folk perceptions experiment found Middlesbrough accent commonly identified as Liverpool (Kerswill & Williams 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salient features of MbE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NURSE/SQUARE </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Manpower Services Database <ul><li>Database found in Middlesbrough Archives and in local libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Recordings of recollections of Middlesbrough and surrounding areas from 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Several informants over 100 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated on 15 Middlesbrough recordings for this project, but there are narratives from outlying areas </li></ul>
  16. 16. Three Aspects of Projects <ul><li>To provide narrative information on history and development of Middlesbrough as background to Llamas’s Boro dialect project </li></ul><ul><li>To plug gaps in holdings on local history of NEEHI universities </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate the possibility of using this database for acoustic analysis </li></ul>
  17. 17. Thematic Analysis 23 themes <ul><ul><li>Language, dialect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic concentrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Streets and landmarks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion, religious practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holidays and customs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steel works; occupation titles; work routines; company names; ethnically marked occupations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Irish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Scots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Welsh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other ethnicities/groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Germans, Jews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. workhouse, public relief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport, bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration and movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social class divisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Irish <ul><li>‘ I think it was McAlpine that brought them over from Belfast. Course they were Irish navvies, they could do the work. The finest Irish immigrants that ever come into Middlesbrough was in the early 1900’s and they all settles in what they call Foxheads. That was at the top of Marsh Street and they had to cut down by the bridge where they could go over to the works. They were puddlers . </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Most of the Irish lived in Lawson Street and on St Patrick’s Day it used to be fun. They were Northern Irish but of course some were what they called Orange Men and those people would have their tissue paper orange colour, in the window, and the Irish Catholics would have the green.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cannon St area: the police wouldn’t send anyone patrolling there alone in case they’d have to fight ‘some big hefty Irishman or whatever…’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘… we had an Irish teacher called Paddy…I forget his name, Paddy, he was a little short dumpy man. And…he ruled you with a rod of iron.’ </li></ul>
  19. 19. Scottish and Welsh <ul><li>‘ The Scottish Teals café and shop in Albert Rd, serving scotch tea rolls.’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘… the schools Inspector, who I think was a ‘hot dog’ on this business, and if you didn’t do that (arts and crafts), God help you sort your business. He was a little bullying Welshman, I’ll be quite truthful, he was, and he simply went into schools and if these, this wasn’t done he threatened to cut the grant off them…’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘… quite a lot of Welsh families were ironmasters…’ </li></ul>
  20. 20. Relgious/Ethnic/Political/Class Concentrations <ul><li>Cannon Ward/Socialists </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The finest Irish immigrants that ever come to Middlesbrough was in the early 1900’s and they all settles in what they called Foxheads’ at the top of Marsh St; most Northern Irish living in Lawson St (both RC & protestant). </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Tokyo Avenue’ was Marton Road ‘cause the right hand side coming down from Corporation Road to the station was Japanese, and in one window used to be the ‘Rising Sun’. </li></ul><ul><li>St Mary’s Catholic grammar school in Linthorpe, up Eastbourne Rd. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Religious/Ethnic/Political/Class Concentrations <ul><li>Born in the town centre, lived on Poplar St until 21/22, house backed on to the public library; ‘These streets I’m talking about ran from Russell St up to Grange Rd. And Russell St of course ran from the Town Hall frontage up to St. John’s Church (…) It was a nice area, it became a slum eventually but was quite a nice area at that time. Respectable people. Working class people.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Salvation Army meetings outside the Central, a pub at the corner of Richardson St (was maybe called the ‘River Boat’ at the time of the interview). </li></ul><ul><li>Methodist church on West Terrace (?) where some of Smeaton St School’s classes where held due to lack of space in the school house. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Religious/Ethnic/Political/Class Concentrations <ul><li>Denmark St/Cannon St area as the ‘real rough part of Middlesbrough’ </li></ul><ul><li>LB (a Catholic) had a house built in Park Rd South, facing the Albert Park, in 1939; before that rented a house in Stanhope Grove, near the cricket field. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannon St area had some ‘some real characters down there’. </li></ul><ul><li>A Wesleyan Chapel called the Park Wesley near Albert Park. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Settlement of Irish
  24. 24. Settlement of Irish
  25. 25. Linguistic Features <ul><li>Past Participles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I could have went </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple Past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He wasn’t before a lot come </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All his customers come for the pork at Christmas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The people who done it were daft, you know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There used to be a railway come up here from Linthorpe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He run that carnival and they raffled a house </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Me for my </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Me mother died when I was eleven years old </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preposition and adverb choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That was a letter that Mrs G was sent off a William C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He had his farm up Acklam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Down when we lived in Lord Street there was a bakery </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Linguistic Features <ul><li>Lack of plural after numbers in time, length and quantity expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s only in for three year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I was born in…Walkdon, about six mile from Bolton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There was for there were </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There was no houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There was some houses but there wasn’t a lot of houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If there was no seats for you, you walked </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negation of main verb have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We hadn’t a garden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No, I hadn’t to do anything like that when I was a young ‘un </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No, I hadn’t it cut till … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject verb agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you did you was off that table. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even them that was sat on the floor </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Linguistic Features <ul><li>Demonstrative plural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All them windows inside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Them days teachers were teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Them days there was no widows pension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learnt for taught </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They learnt them the traditions of ‘Erimus’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Owt for anything </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No, they never made me do owt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve never seen owt like it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I wasn’t badly off or owt like that </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT – possible result of normalisation of transcripts and needs further investigation </li></ul>
  28. 28. What next <ul><li>Need to complete thematic analysis with a view to mapping settlement patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to do a more systematic linguistic analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to test whether we can use the tapes for a qualitative analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to marry the products of this analysis with new field research on variation in East and West Middlesbrough </li></ul>
  29. 29. Irish English Influence and Middlesbrough Fricated /t/ Mark J. Jones & Carmen Llamas
  30. 30. Contact <ul><li>Irish in-migration into Middlesbrough; </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic consequences in Liverpool - very significant; </li></ul><ul><li>Middlesbrough might show similar effects; </li></ul><ul><li>Middlesbrough accent popularly misidentified as ‘Scouse’. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Contact <ul><li>Irish (English) features in Middlesbrough? </li></ul><ul><li>Occurrence of ‘film’ as  ; </li></ul><ul><li>Clear /l/ - neighbouring accents have dark /l/; </li></ul><ul><li>NURSE vowel - occurs fronted as  ; </li></ul><ul><li>/t/ realised as fricative; </li></ul>
  32. 32. Contact <ul><li>Differences: </li></ul><ul><li>Irish English varieties tend to be rhotic - Middlesbrough is non-rhotic </li></ul>
  33. 33. NURSE vowel <ul><li>Occurs fronted to  in many Irish English varieties; </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs fronted to  in Liverpool; </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs fronted to  in Middlesbrough; </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a contact feature? </li></ul>
  34. 34. NURSE vowel <ul><li>Irish English different reflexes for NURSE set based on Middle English vowels: </li></ul><ul><li>NURSE  </li></ul><ul><li>GIRL  </li></ul><ul><li>Not paralleled in Middlesbrough. </li></ul>
  35. 35. NURSE vowel <ul><li>NURSE vowel also reported as  ~  in north-east (auditory similarity/Wenglish?); </li></ul><ul><li> could be parallel development via a process of ‘unrounding’ from  ~  reported in north-east; </li></ul>
  36. 36. NURSE vowel <ul><li>No lexical patterning like GIRL vs. NURSE; </li></ul><ul><li>Possible parallel development via unrounding of local  ~  ; </li></ul><ul><li>No unambiguous evidence for contact. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Fricated /t/ <ul><li>Word final pre-vocalic /t/ realisation as fricative recorded for Irish English and in north-east (Middlesbrough, Newcastle). </li></ul><ul><li>Identified as possible Irish English influence in Liverpool, Australian English (Tollfree 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Watt and Allen (2003): similarity between Irish English and Newcastle fricated /t/. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Fricated /t/ <ul><li>Tollfree (2001): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ The assumption that AusE /t/ frication is Irish in origin fails to explain the phonetically similar variants of /t/ in regions of, for example, Britain, which have no special history of Irish immigration; such as Tyneside’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historically, this is not true, but is it a contact feature? </li></ul>
  39. 39. Fricated /t/ <ul><li>May be parallel development - cross-linguistically common </li></ul><ul><li>Frication/assibilation/affrication of voiceless plosives not unknown, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>High German ‘Wasser’ vs. English ‘water’ </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Greek, Turkana, Finnish, Korean too </li></ul>
  40. 40. Fricated /t/ <ul><li>Phonological difference: </li></ul><ul><li>not in intervocalic word-medial position in Middlesbrough, e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>water =  /  </li></ul><ul><li>Social difference: </li></ul><ul><li>ascribed to females only in Middlesbrough. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Fricatives <ul><li>Produced by turbulent airstream in vocal tract; </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetic quality shaped mainly by cavity forward of noise source; </li></ul><ul><li>Still much we do not know about fricative production and perception - no parallel acoustic measure to formant frequencies for vowels. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Fricated /t/ <ul><li>No obvious ‘phonetic space’ in which to map fricatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare fricated /t/ with /s/ and /  / in each accent. </li></ul><ul><li>Place fricated /t/ in some kind of fricative space for comparison; </li></ul><ul><li>Potential information on contrasts between phonetic fricatives. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Data elicitation <ul><li>Five repetitions of /t/, /s/ and /  / elicited </li></ul><ul><li>Environment v__# (v) </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier phrases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Say mat again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Say mass again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Say mash again </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Sample <ul><li>12 speakers recorded in Dublin (5 male, 7 female) </li></ul><ul><li>10 speakers recorded in Middlesbrough (4 male, 6 female) </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes of this paper 6 speakers analysed </li></ul>
  45. 45. Example of Dublin slit-/t/ 0 - 7000 Hz “ Say mat [ ] again”
  46. 46. Example of M’bro fricated-/t/ 0 - 7000 Hz “ Say mat  again”
  47. 47. Fricatives <ul><li>Measured duration; </li></ul><ul><li>Measured frequency of onset of frication (low-frequency cut-off); </li></ul><ul><li>Measured frequency of amplitude peak in spectrum; </li></ul><ul><li>Measured amplitude of that peak; </li></ul><ul><li>Range - slice of energy within 12 dB of the peak amplitude; </li></ul>
  48. 48. Fricatives
  49. 49. Fricatives
  50. 50. <ul><li>Considerable variation apparent in the data </li></ul><ul><li>5 speakers showed consistent use of one variant </li></ul><ul><li>Two most frequently used variants per speaker group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dublin females [ ] ~ [  ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dublin males [  ] ~ [  ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M’bro females [  ] ~  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M’bro males  ~ [  ]/[  ] </li></ul></ul>Variation
  51. 51. Dublin F4 – Peak vs. cut-off
  52. 52. Dublin F5 – Peak vs. cut-off
  53. 53. Dublin F6 – Peak vs. cut-off
  54. 54. Dublin F4 - range
  55. 55. Dublin F5 - range
  56. 56. Dublin F6 - range
  57. 57. Dublin - duration
  58. 58. M’bro F4 – Peak vs. cut-off
  59. 59. M’bro F6 – Peak vs. cut-off
  60. 60. M’bro M4 – Peak vs. cut-off
  61. 61. M’bro F4 - range
  62. 62. M’bro F6 - range
  63. 63. M’bro M4 - range
  64. 64. M’bro Results - duration
  65. 65. Comparison <ul><ul><li>DUBLIN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li> <  <  </li></ul><ul><li>Cut-off vs peak </li></ul><ul><li> ,  vs.  </li></ul><ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><li> ,  vs.  </li></ul><ul><li>MIDDLESBROUGH </li></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li> <  /  </li></ul><ul><li>Cut-of vs peak </li></ul><ul><li> vs.  ,  </li></ul><ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><li> vs.  ,  </li></ul>
  66. 66. Phonetic gradience <ul><li>Lack of clear burst in MdbF4 ‘mat’ </li></ul>
  67. 67. Phonetic gradience <ul><li>MdbF6 heavily fricated ‘mat’ showing incomplete closure throughout </li></ul>
  68. 68. Phonetic gradience <ul><li>MdbM4 fricated /t/ in ‘mat’ </li></ul>
  69. 69. Phonetic gradience <ul><li>Not seen in Dublin data; </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests that slit-/t/ is ‘more phonological’ than fricated /t/. </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns may be speaker-specific. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Conclusions <ul><li>Phonetically dissimilar - Middlesbrough shows similarities with /s/ more in keeping with cross-linguistic patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Variation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middlesbrough - gradience between pre-aspirated, pre-affricated and fricated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dublin - more categorical - plosive or fricative. </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Conclusions <ul><li>Caution required in attributing cross-linguistically common features to contact; </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetically fine-grained study shows patterns of variation missed by impressionistic analysis; </li></ul><ul><li>More work needed on gradience, and on perception. </li></ul>

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