Más contenido relacionado


The Five Major Religions of the World

  1. The Five Major Religions of the World
  2. Five Major World Religions Hinduism Buddhism Judaism Christianity Islam Video
  3. Studying Religion  Academic versus theological perspective  The academic perspective does not make value judgments about the validity of a religion  The academic perspective does not preach one religion over the other  The academic perspective focuses on the history and beliefs of the religion
  4. Animism Animism is the belief that all living and nonliving things in nature have a spirit Animism was the belief system of many early civilizations Animism in early civilizations was often combined with ancestor worship
  5. What is a Religion? •An organized system of beliefs, ceremonies, practices and worship that centers on one or more gods •What is the point of religion? •Polytheism vs monotheism
  6. Numbers •Christianity: 1.9 billion people •Islam: 1.1 billion •Hinduism: 800 million •Buddhism: 325 million •Judaism: 14 million
  7. •Judaism is a monotheistic and the first major monotheistic religion in history •Some believe Judaism dates back to Adam and Eve •Many historians say that is was established around 1800 B.C. as part of a covenant between God and Abraham • Abraham would leave Ur(Babylonia) and go to Canaan(Israel) • He would be blessed with many sons and his family would be given Israel • Moses led the Jews out of Egypt(slavery) around 1500 BC
  8. •The Torah is the first five books of the Bible and contain the laws and teaching of Judaism •The Ten Commandments are the foundation of Judaism
  9. 613 Mitzvot
  10. •The Sabbath is observed as a day of rest, starting at sundown on Friday evening •2.6% of U.S. adults identify as Jewish
  11. Judaism Place of Worship •Jews worship in Synagogues or temples •Worship is led by a Rabbi
  12. •The universal symbol of Judaism is the Star of David, the emblem of King David who ruled the Kingdom of Israel from 1000 – 962 BC
  13. •A Yarmulke/Kippah is worn during prayer to show respect to G_d
  14. Rabbi with Payot
  15. •Menorah-It is a symbol of the nation of Israel and a mission to be “a light unto the nations”
  16. Bar Mitzvah—Bat Mitzvah •What is this celebration? Video-Horah Dance
  17. Ritual, Worship & Celebration •Many Jews make the pilgrimage to the “Wailing Wall in Jerusalem •Built in the 2nd century BC •Remains of a temple that had stood for close to 500 years • Destroyed by the Romans •Thought to be the most sacred of places •Praying at the Wailing Wall signifies being in the presence of the Divine
  18. The “Wailing” Wall
  19. Judaism Beliefs •Jews believe that there is a single God (Yahweh) who not only created the universe, but with whom every Jew can have a personal relationship •They await the Messiah, who will be an earthly king •They believe in heaven, but the Torah doesn’t say a lot about it and focuses more on how to live your lives(613 Mitzvat) •Ten Commandments is the basic code of law
  20. Kosher Foods •Foods are kosher when they meet all criteria that Jewish law applies to food •Characteristics that make a food non-kosher: •The mixture of meat and milk •The use of cooking utensils which had previously been used for non-kosher food •The type of animal it is
  21. •Leviticus 11:3 says that Jews may eat all animals that have cloven hooves and chew their cud •Six mammals are specifically not allowed: •Camel •Hyrax •Hare •Pig •Whales •Dolphins
  22. • Kosher animals are as follows: • Cows, goats, sheep, antelope, deer, bison, etc • Most fish(excluding shellfish, sharks, octopus, eels and squid) • Chicken, duck, and turkey • Milk and cheese are kosher but cannot be eaten with meat or mixed with meat • Preparation • The slaughter of animals is designed to minimize the pain—usually done by a slice across the throat • This eliminates the practice of hunting for food unless it can be captured alive and ritually slaughtered. • All blood and veins must be removed from meat(salting and broiling are common methods)
  23. 7 Holy Days •Rosh Hashanah-Jewish New Year •Yom Kippur-A day of fasting and praying which occurs 10 days after the first day of Rosh Hashanah •The holiest day in the year •Sukkot-8 day festival of thanksgiving •Hanukkah-The Feast of Lights is an 8 day Feast of Dedication •It recalls the war fought by the Maccabees in the cause of religious freedom
  24. •Purim-The Feast of Lots recalls the successful plan to save all of the Persian Jews from slaughter by the Persians, circa 400 BC •Pesa(Passover)-The 8 day festival recalls the exodus of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt circa 1300 BCE •A holiday meal, the Seder, is held at home •Shavuot-Pentecost recalls God's revelation of the Torah to the Jewish people
  25. Problems Facing Jews • Anti-Semitism in History • Diaspora • Pograms-Link • Holocaust-2/3 of European Jews killed • Israel established as a Jewish state after WWII(1947)-Led to several wars and a lot of terrorism in the area • Israel vs Palestinians • “land for peace” • Comments from former Iranian President Ahmadinejad and other Middle East groups • Why have Jews been despised throughout history?
  26. •Christians are divided into three main branches: Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism •Beliefs are based on the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ and founded in 33 AD •The cross is a symbol used to represent life, death, and resurrection
  27. Christian Population throughout the World
  28. •Jesus Christ’s death made salvation and forgiveness of sins possible for everyone •Three days after his death he was resurrected and later ascended to Heaven •The resurrection of Christ is celebrated on Easter, which is considered Christianity’s most important holiday •The first Christians were Jews who came to believe Jesus was the Messiah •78.4% of U.S. adults identify as Christians
  29. Christian Beliefs •Christians believe that they can have a personal relationship with God, and that they are saved by faith, and good works(according to some) •They believe in heaven and hell •They believe that the Bible is the word of God
  30. Christian Way of Life •Fellowship with God •Our relationships with others •Obedience to God's commands •Discipline •Good works
  31. Triune God
  32. •Hinduism is derived from a Sanskrit word that means “dwellers by the Indus River” •There is no single founder of Hinduism •It consists of thousands of different religious groups that have evolved since 1500 B.C. in that area •The Hindu belief is that gods can take many forms, but all form one universal spirit called Brahman
  33. •There is no single Hindu book of doctrine, but many •The Vedas are the primary literary works, containing sacred verses and hymns composed in 1500 B.C. •Two other important texts are the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita •0.4% of American adults practice Hinduism
  34. Hinduism Beliefs •The Hindu belief involves reincarnation of the soul, which is rebirth after death •Hindus believe the conditions of one’s present life are due to karma, or accumulated good or bad behavior in past lives •The purpose of life is to obtain liberation from the cycle of reincarnation •People reach true enlightenment and happiness- Moksha-when they free themselves of earthly desires
  35. Dharma •Signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with the universe •Includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and ‘‘right way of living’’ •People are encouraged to practice good Dharma and they may come back into a higher class/better life
  36. Four Stages of Life 1. Ages 12-24 you get educated and trained 2. Ages 24-48 you get married, raise a family, make money, get involved in many things 3. Ages 48-72 you become a mentor to a young person and start isolating themselves from the outside world 4. At age 72 you end ties to the outside world and get rid of your worldly possessions. Prayer and devotion become very important. •Mostly aimed at men and is not followed as much as it used to be
  37. Hindu Gods •Many consider Hinduism to be polytheistic •Most Hindus would say they worship one God. •There is only one ultimate God, Brahman, but shows itself in many forms •The gods Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, for example, are different aspects of Brahman: •Brahma reflects God's divine work of creating the universe •Vishnu reflects God's work in keeping the universe in existence •Shiva reflects God's work in destroying it Om
  38. Hinduism Information •Celebrations •Diwali • Hindu New Year •Festival of Holi • Triumph of good over evil • Arrival of spring • Festival of Colors •Pilgrimage to the Ganges River in India • Hindus believe the river has healing powers
  39. • Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) was the founder of Buddhism in 560 BC • Buddha means “the awakened one” •He grew up in a wealthy family but decided to follow a path of self-denial • He did not find truth until he sat down under a tree, now known as the Bo tree • There he was “enlightened” and obtained the knowledge he had been looking for •He discovered four noble truths and the Eightfold Path to Nirvana, or ultimate bliss
  40. The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism 1. Existence is suffering 2. The cause of suffering is craving and attachment 3. Suffering ceases at some point and turns to Nirvana 4. There is a path to Nirvana which is made up of 8 steps called the Eightfold Path
  41. •Buddhists believe in reincarnation •One must stop the cycle of rebirth as a suffering, selfish individual, and must attain Nirvana •About 1% of Americans are Buddhist
  42. Buddhism like Hinduism: Reincarnation Karma Dharma But not Caste system Hindu gods Hindu priesthood Buddhism has much in common with Hinduism with some differences
  43. Buddhism Information •Worship Practices •Meditation – deep thought & reflection •Importance of the lotus flower • Believer can blossom while rooted in the impurity of the world
  44. Major Buddhist Sects •Theravada •As close as possible to Buddha’s teachings •Mahayana •More accepting of the changing world
  45. The Dalai Lama – The present spiritual leader of Buddhism • 14th Dalai Lama • Has been DL since 1950 • Has been in exile in India since 1959
  46. • The Islamic crescent and star is the international symbol for Islam • Islam means “submission (to Allah)” in Arabic • “Allah” is an Arabic word which means “the One True God” • Muslims believe that the Quran is God’s word as revealed to the prophet Muhammad (570-632 A.D.) through the angel Gabriel • Muslims do not believe that Jesus was the Messiah, although they do believe he was a prophet
  47. •Islam is very family-oriented •The primary means of transmitting the religion are through the family •Muslims are people that practice Islam •.6% of U.S. adults follow Islam
  48. •There are two main sects of Islam: Sunni and Shiite •One of their main differences is in their beliefs about who were the leaders following the death of Prophet Muhammad •Sunni, from the Arabic word for “tradition,” accepted the succession of Muhammad’s elected successors • The majority of Muslims in the world today are Sunnis •Shiite, from the Arabic word for “faction,” believe that leaders must be descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and her husband Ali. •They rule Iran and also have a sizeable presence in Iraq and Syria.
  49. History of Islam •Founded in 622 AD •Founded by Muhammad in Saudi Arabia • Muhammad is considered to be a prophet, a messenger of Allah (God) •Two Major Sects (split c.650CE) •Sunni •Shi’a (or Shiite)
  50. 5 Pillars of Islam 1. Shahada(witness) is the Muslim profession of faith - "I witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah" • Muslims say this when they wake up in the morning and just before they go to sleep at night
  51. • 2. Salat(daily prayer) is a prayer ritual performed 5 times a day by all Muslims over the age of 10 1. Between first light and sunrise 2. After the sun has passed the middle of the sky 3. Between mid-afternoon and sunset 4. Between sunset and the last light of the day 5. Between darkness and dawn • Face the Kaaba in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  52. The Kaaba
  53. 3. Sawm(fasting) is abstaining each day during Ramadan •Ramadan is the holiest day for Islam. It marks when Muhammad had the Quran revealed to him •Sawm helps Muslims develop self-control, gain a better understanding of God's gifts and greater compassion towards the deprived. •Not only is food forbidden between dawn and sunset, but also things like smoking, chewing gum, negative thoughts and sexual activity
  54. 4. Zakat(almsgiving) is giving money to the poor • This is a compulsory gift of 2.5 % of one's savings each year • Giving in this way is intended to free Muslims from the love of money • It reminds them that everything they have really belongs to God
  55. 5. Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all physically/financially able Muslims should make at least once in their life •Mecca is the most holy place for Muslims •Takes place during days 8-13 of the 12th month of the Islamic Lunar calendar •They circle the Kaaba seven times, say prayers, drink from a holy spring, walk to Mount Arafat to pray, feast, cast stones at three pillars(to fight Satan’s temptations), shave hair and run between some hills
  56. Islamic Law •Sharia Law outlines laws for Muslims and is based from the Quran •Many African and Middle Eastern countries laws are based on Sharia Law •5 Major Crimes: •Theft, highway robbery, intoxication, adultery and falsely accusing another of adultery
  57. Food Laws •Very similar laws to the Jewish kosher foods •No alcohol, pork, blood, no pork fat products, scavenger animals •Food must be prepared similarly to the Jews •Slice to the jugular •Drain blood
  58. Issues Facing Islam Today •Radical Islamic Terrorists •ISIS •Al-Qaeda •Racial profiling •Women’s rights
  59. In Afghanistan
  60. In US
  61. Spread of Religion in History • Video

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. 3