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© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Does DITA need XML? Michael Priestley Enterprise Content Technology StrategistNovember 20...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Important Disclaimer 
THEINFORMATIONCONTAINEDINTHISPRESENTATIONISPROVIDEDFORINFORMATIONAL...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Who are you? 
How many of you are using DITA today? 
How many of you have seen a lightw...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
4 
What is DITA? 
Darwin Information Typing Architecture is an XML standard for modular c...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
5 
The DITA tools ecosystem 
Authoring 
(http://www.ditawriter.com/list-of-dita-optimized...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Meet Sarah and Sam 
6 
Sarah is an IT architect 
for her company. She is 
responsible for...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Who authors our content? 
7 
Developer 
Technical writer 
Trainer 
Book author 
Tutorial ...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Barriers to collaboration 
8 
ProcessLack of governance 
Lack of feedback 
CultureLack of...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Breaking down silos 
Build a bigger silo? 
There’s no silo big enough to cover cross-com...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
What about formats? 
Formats are silos too 
People get attached to the authoring tool t...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
11 
Why XML sucks 
Tags and attributes are a pain in the #$%# 
Specialized editors cost...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
12 
Why XML is awesome 
Tags and attributes separate content from presentation, allowing...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
13 
Why HTML5 sucks 
Tags and attributes are a pain in the #$%# 
Anything goes 
Single...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
14 
Why HTML5 is awesome 
Tags and attributes separate content from presentation, allowi...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
15 
Why can’t we all just get along? 
DITA 
map 
DITA 
HTML5 
HTML5 supports adaptive dis...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Who should author our content? 
16 
Developer 
Technical writer 
Trainer 
Reusable tutori...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
If you love your content, set it free 
Avoid vendor lockin, even if you’re the vendor 
17
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Can you get there with DITA? 
But it’s too complex! 
18
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
19 
When enough is too much 
Full DITA 
Lightweight 
DITA 
“Here’s something simple!” 
“W...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
20 
Lightweight DITA vs full DITA 
Full DITA 
Lightweight DITA 
Topics 
~100 elements 
~3...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
21 
Simplified content 
Eliminate advanced features 
No related links 
Limited prolog ...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
22 
Simplified collections 
Eliminate advanced features 
No metadata or reltable 
Simp...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
23 
Simplified classification 
Eliminate advanced features 
Subject schemes only used f...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
24 
Simplified content typing 
Create new content types from reusable design components ...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Can you get there with DITA? 
But it’s still XML! 
25
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
26 
It comes in flavors! 
XDITA (DITA in XML) 
HDITA (DITA in HTML5) 
markdita (DITA in m...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Some final thoughts 
Common standards and strategies should focus on reducing and managin...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Next steps 
Lightweight DITA subcommittee now up and running: 
–https://www.oasis-open.o...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
If you like this idea… 
Talk about it. 
Tell people. 
Especially, tell the tool develo...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
Legal 
IBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of Internat...
Your opinion is important to us! Please tell us what you thought of the lecture. We look forward to your feedback via smar...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
32 
Why markdown sucks 
You can’t do anything except the basics (headers, paragraphs, li...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
33 
Why markdown is awesome 
Tags and attributes are a pain in the #$%# -the source is s...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
34 
Meet in the middle: Specialize in XML, constrain in HTML5 
XDITA 
HDITA 
<video> 
<fa...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
35 
Mapping maps 
XDITA 
HDITA 
<map> 
<topicmeta> 
<navtitle>Navigation</navtitle> 
</to...
© 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation 
® 
36 
Extend with attributes 
XDITA 
HDITA 
@props 
@data-hd-props 
@abc123 (any attribute ...
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Does DITA need XML?

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An update to my previous lightweight DITA presentations with a focus on scenarios and business value.

Video of the presentation is available here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B7NNYE-G6x0

Veröffentlicht in: Technologie
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  • Interesting stuff. I see MD is mentioned, but was wondering if Jade (http://jade-lang.com/) has been looked at?
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  • nice preso!
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Does DITA need XML?

  1. 1. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Does DITA need XML? Michael Priestley Enterprise Content Technology StrategistNovember 2014with some slides from Andrea Ames
  2. 2. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Important Disclaimer THEINFORMATIONCONTAINEDINTHISPRESENTATIONISPROVIDEDFORINFORMATIONALPURPOSESONLY. WHILEEFFORTSWEREMADETOVERIFYTHECOMPLETENESSANDACCURACYOFTHEINFORMATIONCONTAINEDINTHISPRESENTATION,ITISPROVIDED“ASIS”,WITHOUTWARRANTYOFANYKIND,EXPRESSORIMPLIED. INADDITION,THISINFORMATIONISBASEDONIBM’SCURRENTPRODUCTPLANSANDSTRATEGY,WHICHARESUBJECTTOCHANGEBYIBMWITHOUTNOTICE. IBMSHALLNOTBERESPONSIBLEFORANYDAMAGESARISINGOUTOFTHEUSEOF,OROTHERWISERELATEDTO,THISPRESENTATIONORANYOTHERDOCUMENTATION. NOTHINGCONTAINEDINTHISPRESENTATIONISINTENDEDTO,ORSHALLHAVETHEEFFECTOF: •CREATINGANYWARRANTYORREPRESENTATIONFROMIBM(ORITSAFFILIATESORITSORTHEIRSUPPLIERSAND/ORLICENSORS);OR •ALTERINGTHETERMSANDCONDITIONSOFTHEAPPLICABLELICENSEAGREEMENTGOVERNINGTHEUSEOFIBMSOFTWARE. 2
  3. 3. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Who are you? How many of you are using DITA today? How many of you have seen a lightweight DITA presentation before? How many of you care about HTML5? Markdown? PDF? EPUB? How many of you will fall asleep during this session? 3
  4. 4. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 4 What is DITA? Darwin Information Typing Architecture is an XML standard for modular content, collections and classification that allows an enterprise to: Keep many versions of content current across multiple audiences, multiple media, multiple deliverables, multiple translations across many geographies Deliver improved information quality through structured and reused content Experience faster response time when content for custom products is needed Leverage traceability and accountability features when a problem is found (fix it once, fix it everywhere; inform other affected authors) Who uses it (selected from http://www.ditawriter.com/companies- using-dita/) Accounting Automotive Aerospace Biotech Computer hardware/software/networking Consumer electronics Consumer goods E-learning/education Manufacturing Entertainment Financial services Health and wellness Hospital and healthcare Industrial automation IT services Insurance Medical devices Oil and energy Pharmaceuticals Publishing Retail Semiconductors Telecom How they use it Marketing, market research Product docs, support Learning/training Policies/procedures Standards Articles, studies, etc. Content types Collections Product •A •B •C Job role •X •Y Classification Adaptive content Omnichannel delivery Coming soon: Lightweight DITA, simple structured authoring for easier adoption and faster ROI with cross-format reuse
  5. 5. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 5 The DITA tools ecosystem Authoring (http://www.ditawriter.com/list-of-dita-optimized- editors/) inMedius DITA Storm SDL Livecontent Create Adobe FrameMaker Quark XML Author (Word) easyDITA Codex PTC Arbortext JustSystems XMetal Syntext Serna Syncrosoft Oxygen DITAWorks Vex XMLMind Altova XML Spy FontoXML SimplyXML Content Mapper DITA Exchange exeDITA Stilo AuthorBridge Migrating Stilo Migrate XMLMind DITA Converter Omni Systems DITA2Go CambridgeDocs xDoc Converter Managing (http://www.ditawriter.com/list-of-dita-capable- cmses/) PTC Arbortext CMS Astoria On-Demand Author-IT Cloud BlueStream XDocs Calenco Cinnamon Componize ConteX Ixiasoft DITA CMS DITA Exchange Inmedius DITA Storm Suite DITAToo DITAWorks Pro EMC Documentum DocZone easyDITA eXact Learning IBM FileNet RSI RSuite SDL LiveContent Architect Sibersafe DITA CMS Sirius DITA Siemens Teamcenter Vasont DITA CMS X:Point Plus others (language-specific or industry- specific) Translating SDL Trados Maxprograms Swordfish Lionbridge XTM Cloud Publishing AntennaHouse Apache FOP DITA for Publishers DITA inPrint DITA Open Toolkit DITA-FMx Elkera XML RenderX XEP Dynamic delivery Suite Solutions SuiteHelp/Share Webworks Mekon DITAWeb Antidot Fluid Topics Titania HARP AuthorIT 4D Help Mindtouch Adaptive web EPUB PDF
  6. 6. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Meet Sarah and Sam 6 Sarah is an IT architect for her company. She is responsible for building a new Web content management system for their intranet, using information about IBM products and services. Sam is a new IBM Sales rep with a client looking for information about how IBM Managed Cloud can solve their hosting challenges. While traveling he relies on his mobile device to research solutions, create, and share collateral. • Too much time searching for content • Too much time evaluating search results • Too much time determining whether information is accurate and complete • No way to filter, customize, or share custom content Sarah and Sam’s content experience has been:
  7. 7. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Who authors our content? 7 Developer Technical writer Trainer Book author Tutorial for developer site Tutorial for knowledge base Tutorial for course Tutorial chapter in book Services engineer Business partner Tutorialfor client solution Tutorial for partner course Copy and paste reuse Parallel development
  8. 8. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Barriers to collaboration 8 ProcessLack of governance Lack of feedback CultureLack of incentives for reuse Incentives for reinvention ContentInconsistent content types Inconsistent classification TechnologyLifecycle silos tie authoring to delivery Formats tie content to authoring system
  9. 9. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Breaking down silos Build a bigger silo? There’s no silo big enough to cover cross-company reuse scenarios Integrate across silos? Requires that every reuser have access to every source system What about portable content? Requires content that can be exported from a repository with its structure, metadata, and relationships intact 9
  10. 10. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® What about formats? Formats are silos too People get attached to the authoring tool that makes them productive So we need common content attributes –structure, metadata, granularity –but author-appropriate tools Every format has its strengths and weaknesses – need to preserve strengths, minimize weaknesses to enable enterprise collaboration 10
  11. 11. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 11 Why XML sucks Tags and attributes are a pain in the #$%# Specialized editors cost money, take a long time to load, take a long time to learn Long, complex processing chain can break in lots of different places, be really hard to debug <topic id=“abc”> <title>The point of it all</title> <shortdesc>I can sum it up here</shortdesc> <body> <p>I can say some more stuff</p> <section> <title>Stuff</title> <p>And so on</p> <ul> <li><p>This</p></li> <li><p>Is</p></li> <li><p>A List</p></li> </ul> </section> <section> <title>And more stuff</title> <p>With its own explanation</p> <dl> <dlentry> <dt><p>This</p></dt> <dd><p>Is explained</p></dd> </dlentry> <dlentry> <dt><p>This</p></dt> <dd><p>Is also explained</p></dd> </dlentry> </dl> </section> </body> </topic>
  12. 12. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 12 Why XML is awesome Tags and attributes separate content from presentation, allowing flexibility and control Specialized editors support different authoring roles –not one size fits all Specialized content types and structures enforce consistency and enable automation Multistage processing chain maximizes reuse and provides ready-to-view output Publish HTML5 EPUB Kindle iBook PDF Embedded help Word OpenOffice Slides Various help formats Etc. Filter, Substitute, Link, Assemble, Layout for Device or Format, Etc. Design Author
  13. 13. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 13 Why HTML5 sucks Tags and attributes are a pain in the #$%# Anything goes Single processing step can bloat and affect performance No standardized capabilities for conditional processing, reuse, etc. <html> <article> <h1>The point of it all</h1> <p>I can sum it up here</p> <p>I can say some more stuff</p> <section> <h2>Stuff</h2> <p>And so on</p> <ul> <li><p>This</p></li> <li><p>Is</p></li> <li><p>A List</p></li> </ul> <section> <h2>And more stuff</h2> <p>With its own explanation</p> <dl> <dt><p>This</p></dt> <dd><p>Is explained</p></dd> <dt><p>This</p></dt> <dd><p>Is also explained</p></dd> </dl> </section> </article> </html>
  14. 14. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 14 Why HTML5 is awesome Tags and attributes separate content from presentation, allowing flexibility and control, including responsive design Editor support widely available, even right in the browser Author and present in same interface –the browser. No complex processing chain, fewer breakage points (Filter for user) Author View
  15. 15. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 15 Why can’t we all just get along? DITA map DITA HTML5 HTML5 supports adaptive display XML supports omnichannel publishing EPUB Kindle iBook PDF Embedded help Word OpenOffice Slides Various help formats . . . Aaaand HTML5 mark down markdown supports simple contribution
  16. 16. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Who should author our content? 16 Developer Technical writer Trainer Reusable tutorial Services engineer Business partner Book author Tutorialfor client solution Tutorial for partner course Tutorial chapter in book Reuse by reference Collaborative development Content designer Identifiesrequirements and assembles team Requirements from reusing contexts
  17. 17. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® If you love your content, set it free Avoid vendor lockin, even if you’re the vendor 17
  18. 18. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Can you get there with DITA? But it’s too complex! 18
  19. 19. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 19 When enough is too much Full DITA Lightweight DITA “Here’s something simple!” “We need more features!” “It’s too complex!”
  20. 20. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 20 Lightweight DITA vs full DITA Full DITA Lightweight DITA Topics ~100 elements ~30 elements Maps 10 elements (+30 shared with topic) 3 elements (+3 shared with topic) <p>What elements are allowed in a paragraph?</p> dl parmlfig syntaxdiagramimagemapimage lines lqnote hazardstatementobject olpre codeblockmsgblockscreen simpletablesltable ulbooleancite keyword apinameoption parmnamecmdnamemsgnumvarnamewintitlephb isup sub ttu codephsynphfilepathmsgphsystemoutputuserinputmenucascadeuicontrolq term abbreviated-form tm xrefstate data data- about foreign unknown draft-comment fnindextermrefindextermrequired-cleanup image ph(phrase) b (bold) i(italic) u (underline) sup (superscript) sub (subscript) xref(link) data
  21. 21. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 21 Simplified content Eliminate advanced features No related links Limited prolog Eliminate redundant markup Only one table model Simplify content models Only place to author text is in a <p>, and <p> doesn't contain lists or other block-level content Simplify attributes Grouped by function for easy inclusion or exclusion: filtering, reuse, localization, etc. Simplify constraints Out of the box constraints to add/remove nesting of lists etc.
  22. 22. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 22 Simplified collections Eliminate advanced features No metadata or reltable Simplify content models Only one way to specify title: as <navtitle> in <topicmeta> Simplify attributes Grouped by function for easy inclusion or exclusion: filtering, reuse, localization, etc
  23. 23. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 23 Simplified classification Eliminate advanced features Subject schemes only used for simple hierarchical values Main use case is control of filtering attribute values Simplify content models Investigating whether we need specializations at all, or if any map with keys could be enough
  24. 24. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 24 Simplified content typing Create new content types from reusable design components Section specializations Phrase specializations Attribute specializations Investigating block (list, object etc.) and metadata specializations Should be as simple as authoring a topic A content type for describing content types Just fill in the fields and generate specialization artifacts like DTDs/RNGs, transforms, even authoring prototypes <specdefid=”meeting”> <title>Meeting specialization</title> <specdefbody> <sectiondef> <dl> <dlentry> <dt>Goals</dt> <dd> <p><xrefhref=”goals.dita”/></p> <p>Fill the goals of the meeting</p> </dd> </dlentry> ......
  25. 25. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Can you get there with DITA? But it’s still XML! 25
  26. 26. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 26 It comes in flavors! XDITA (DITA in XML) HDITA (DITA in HTML5) markdita (DITA in markdown) <topic> <title>The point of it all</title> <shortdesc>I can sum it up here</shortdesc> <body> <p>I can say some more stuff</p> <section> <title>Stuff</title> <p>And so on</p> <ul> <li><p>This</p></li> <li><p>Is</p></li> <li><p>A List</p></li> </ul> <section> <title>And more stuff</title> <p>With its own explanation</p> <dl> <dlentry> <dt><p>This</p></dt> <dd><p>Is explained</p></dd> </dlentry> <dlentry> <dt><p>This</p></dt> <dd><p>Is also explained</p></dd> </dlentry> </dl> </section> </body> </topic> <article> <h1>The point of it all</h1> <p>I can sum it up here</p> <p>I can say some more stuff</p> <section> <h2>Stuff</h2> <p>And so on</p> <ul> <li><p>This</p></li> <li><p>Is</p></li> <li><p>A List</p></li> </ul> <section> <h2>And more stuff</h2> <p>With its own explanation</p> <dl> <dt><p>This</p></dt> <dd><p>Is explained</p></dd> <dt><p>This</p></dt> <dd><p>Is also explained</p></dd> </dl> </section> </article> #The point of it all I can sum it up here I can say some more stuff ##Stuff -And so on -This -Is -A List ##And more stuff With its own explanation -**This** Is explained -**This** Is also explained
  27. 27. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Some final thoughts Common standards and strategies should focus on reducing and managing differences, not on eliminating them 27 Strategy Consolidate Coordinate Consolidate systems where appropriate and integrate where not Content hubs Standardize APIs(CMIS) Agree on common formats where possible, and integrate where not Standard formats Map standards across formats (lightweight DITA) Agree on common content types where possible, and specialize where not Core content types Specialize to create formal relationships among related types that allow reuse of processinglogic
  28. 28. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Next steps Lightweight DITA subcommittee now up and running: –https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=dita-lightweight-dita –Starting with scenarios, personas, content requirements analysis –Then lightweight prototype doctypes, and mappings to HTML5 and Markdown Lightweight DITA at LinkedIn for open discussion: –https://www.linkedin.com/groups/Lightweight-DITA-4943862 Events! tcworld: –The Future of DITA (panel) http://tagungen.tekom.de/h14/tagungsprogramm/programm/program/sv_869_DITA7/ DITA Europe: –Can Reuse Be Sexy? (DITA and marketing content) http://www.infomanagementcenter.com/DITAeurope/2014/abstracts.htm#Priestley 28
  29. 29. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® If you like this idea… Talk about it. Tell people. Especially, tell the tool developers, and the vendors. The two main reasons vendors say they don’t support DITA: “it’s too complicated” “people aren’t asking for it” We’re working on the first one –but we need your help for the second.
  30. 30. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® Legal IBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp., registered in many jurisdictions worldwide. Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other companies. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the Web at “Copyright and trademark information” at www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml 30
  31. 31. Your opinion is important to us! Please tell us what you thought of the lecture. We look forward to your feedback via smartphone or tablet under http://DITA4.honestly.de or scan the QR code The feedback tool will be available even after the conference!
  32. 32. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 32 Why markdown sucks You can’t do anything except the basics (headers, paragraphs, lists) Authoring experience is typically bare-bones Authoring anything complex (tables, definition lists, images, etc.) is either painful or impossible There’s no standard –so whatever you do may not work with other markdown tools #The point of it all I can sum it up here I can say some more stuff ##Stuff And so on -This -Is -A List ##And more stuff With its own explanation -**This** Is explained -**This** Is also explained
  33. 33. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 33 Why markdown is awesome Tags and attributes are a pain in the #$%# -the source is simple, compact, and readable You don’t need an editor at all, beyond notepad or a code editor Simple predictable inputs allow fast and reliable processing chain No complex processing chain, fewer breakage points Author View
  34. 34. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 34 Meet in the middle: Specialize in XML, constrain in HTML5 XDITA HDITA <video> <fallback><p>Here's a video of stuff you can't see.</p></fallback> <controls value="y"/> <poster value="screengrab.png"/> <source value="mymovie.mp4" type="video/mp4"/> <source value="backupformat.xyz" type="video/xyz"/> <track value="captions.vtt" type="captions"/> </video> <video controls=“controls” poster="screengrab.png"> <source src="mymovie.mp4" type="video/mp4"/> <source src="backupformat.xyz" type="video/xyz"/> <track value="captions.vtt" kind="captions"/> <p>Here's a video of stuff you can't see.</p> </video>
  35. 35. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 35 Mapping maps XDITA HDITA <map> <topicmeta> <navtitle>Navigation</navtitle> </topicmeta> <topicref href="abc.dita"> <topicmeta> <navtitle>Topic A</navtitle> </topicmeta> </topicref> <topicref href="bcd.dita"> <topicmeta> <navtitle>Topic B</navtitle> </topicmeta> <topicref href="b123.dita"> <topicmeta> <navtitle>Topic B1</navtitle> </topicmeta> </topicref> </topicref> </map <nav> <h1>Navigation</h1> <ul> <li><a href="abc.html">Topic A</a></li> <li><a href="bcd.html">Topic B</a> <ul> <li><a href="b123.html">Topic B1</a> </li> </ul> </ul> <nav>
  36. 36. © 2010, 2014 IBM Corporation ® 36 Extend with attributes XDITA HDITA @props @data-hd-props @abc123 (any attribute specialized from @props) @data-hd-abc123 @conref (on section, table, paragraph, and list elements) @data-hd-conref (on section, table, paragraph, and list elements) @keys (on topicref) @data-hd-keys (on <li> inside <nav>) @keyref (on <image>, <a>, and <topicref> for link indirection, on all inline elements for variable text) @data-hd-keyref (on <img> and <a> for link indirection, on all inline elements for variable text)

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