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Design Thinking for Cognitive Bias

Users' minds take shortcuts to get through the day. Usually they’re harmless. Even helpful. But what happens when they’re not? In this talk I’ll use real-world examples to identify some particularly nasty biases that frequently lead users to make bad decisions. I'll then talk about some content strategy and design choices we can use in our apps, designs, and platforms to redirect or eliminate the impact of those biases. Finally, I'll explore our own biases as designers and some methods to prevent our own blind spots from hurting users.

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Design Thinking for Cognitive Bias

  1. 1. Design Thinking for Cognitive Bias Using Mental Shortcuts for Good Instead of Evil
  2. 2. #fightbias
  3. 3. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com David Dylan Thomas Content Strategy Advocate Think Company
  4. 4. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  5. 5. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  6. 6. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  7. 7. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com What is cognitive bias?
  8. 8. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com A series of shortcuts our minds take that often help, but sometimes hurt.
  9. 9. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  10. 10. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Survivorship Bias
  11. 11. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  12. 12. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Confirmation Bias
  13. 13. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  14. 14. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com These biases are extremely difficult to combat You may not know you have them (bias blind spot) 95% of cognition happens below the conscious level Even if you do know, you do it anyway!
  15. 15. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Choice architecture: or why you need to know about cognitive bias
  16. 16. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  17. 17. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Think about what decisions your user needs to make
  18. 18. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Then think about how people make decisions
  19. 19. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com There are content and design choices we can make that help keep harmful cognitive biases in check (or leverage them for good).
  20. 20. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Blind Résumés
  21. 21. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Whom would you rather hire?
  22. 22. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Why do you need that information?
  23. 23. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Content Strategy: Signal vs. Noise Signal Qualifications Experience Noise Gender Race
  24. 24. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  25. 25. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  26. 26. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  27. 27. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Cognitive Fluency
  28. 28. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Easy to read = Easy to do
  29. 29. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Hard to read = Hard to do
  30. 30. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  31. 31. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  32. 32. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  33. 33. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Which of these looks easier to use?
  34. 34. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Which of the following is true? Rosa Parks was born in 1912 Rosa Parks was born in 1914
  35. 35. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com “An apple a day keeps the doctor away”
  36. 36. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com “If it doesn’t fit, you must acquit”
  37. 37. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Whom do you trust?
  38. 38. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com “Pregnant smokers and ex-smokers who received a specially designed intervention with materials written at the third grade reading level were more likely to achieve abstinence during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum than those who received standard materials.” source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11942/
  39. 39. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com “A plain language, pictogram-based intervention used as part of medication counseling resulted in decreased medication dosing errors and improved adherence among multiethnic, low socioeconomic status caregivers whose children were treated at an urban pediatric emergency department.” source: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/579933
  40. 40. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com “Click it or ticket”
  41. 41. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com “National belt use among young men and women ages 16-24 moved from 65 percent to 72 percent, and 73 percent to 80 percent, respectively…” source: https://web.archive.org/web/20040605123409/http://buckleupamerica.org/news/news_services.php?id=101
  42. 42. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com “NHTSA (2005) estimates that for ‘each percentage point increase in seat belt use, an additional 2.8 million people are buckled up, and about 270 lives are saved.’” source: https://www.ems.gov/pdf/811232.pdf
  43. 43. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  44. 44. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  45. 45. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  46. 46. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com “This holds for name evaluation, voting preferences, and occupational status.”
  47. 47. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  48. 48. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com How Amazon fights primacy
  49. 49. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  50. 50. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com How to fight the bandwagon effect
  51. 51. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  52. 52. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com How to fight the framing effect
  53. 53. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  54. 54. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  55. 55. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Should this person drive this car?
  56. 56. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com How might this person drive this car?
  57. 57. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com How might we do a better job of moving people around?
  58. 58. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  59. 59. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com What about our own cognitive biases?
  60. 60. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Notational bias
  61. 61. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  62. 62. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  63. 63. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Also, self-serving bias…
  64. 64. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Until 1986, the New York Times prohibited the use of “Ms.” as an honorific for women. 
  65. 65. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Language doesn’t just describe reality, it shapes it. Mbiyimoh Ghogomu
  66. 66. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Executive branch Legislative branch Publisher Platform
  67. 67. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  68. 68. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  69. 69. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Evidentiality
  70. 70. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com What if stuff that wasn’t confirmed was harder to read? Daniel Craig’s final outing as 007 has finally been named with the appropriately titled No Time to Die. The announcement came Tuesday with a short video teaser that showed Craig’s dapper James Bond taking a short stroll, and then the title reveal. It is rumored that the film’s previous director, Danny Boyle, left the project because he wanted to kill off James Bond in the end, a decision that Eon wouldn’t stand for. 
  71. 71. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Confirmation Bias
  72. 72. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  73. 73. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com 2 4 6 ?
  74. 74. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com 2 4 6 8
  75. 75. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com 2 4 6 7
  76. 76. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  77. 77. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Speculative design
  78. 78. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  79. 79. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Déformation Professionnelle
  80. 80. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  81. 81. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  82. 82. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Our jobs are harder than we think
  83. 83. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  84. 84. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  85. 85. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  86. 86. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  87. 87. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  88. 88. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  89. 89. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  90. 90. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  91. 91. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com
  92. 92. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Project Maven Battlefield AI
  93. 93. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Project Maven Battlefield AI Dragonfly Censored Search in China
  94. 94. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com We must rapidly begin the shift from a ‘thing-oriented’ society to a ‘person-oriented’ society. When machines and computers, profit motives and property rights are considered more important than people, the giant triplets of racism, materialism, and militarism are incapable of being conquered.
  95. 95. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com We must rapidly begin the shift from a ‘thing-oriented’ society to a ‘person-oriented’ society. When machines and computers, profit motives and property rights are considered more important than people, the giant triplets of racism, materialism, and militarism are incapable of being conquered. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  96. 96. #fightbias @movie_pundit www.daviddylanthomas.com Thank You
  97. 97. David Dylan 
 Thomas Virtual coffee? Sign up now! https://thinkpo.st/VirtualCoffeeDave Design for Cognitive Bias This summer from A Book Apart Maling list:  https://thinkpo.st/ DaveBookList