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  1. 1. Chapter 2B- Part 2 Stylistic, Pragmatic and Textual Level
  2. 2. Stylistic Level • Style is relevant to meaning. • Does style impact meaning? A change of style means a change of meaning of some kind. • What is the reason behind having different styles? The style of a text aims at focusing or emphasizing something in that text. The use of certain style depends on the author’s intention. • All English sentences give the same idea (the death of her father). The accurate translations would be: • Her father died yesterday. ‫أمس‬ ‫والدها‬ ‫مات‬ • Her father was killed yesterday. ‫أمس‬ ‫والدها‬ ‫قتل‬ . • Her father passed away yesterday. ‫أمس‬ ‫والدها‬ ‫رحل‬ • Her father was hanged yesterday. ‫أمس‬ ‫والدها‬ ‫أعدم‬ .
  3. 3. Stylistic Level Definition: Style is the different choices made by writers from the language stock in regard to layout (or shape), grammar, vocabulary (or words), and phonology (or sounds), namely, from all aspects, levels and components of language. • In all cases, the style of the Arabic translation depends on, and its derived from the style of the English original. • ‘stylistic equivalence’, which is the proper choice of the style of the TL text (i.e. Arabic), based on that of the SL text (i.e. English), unless unavailable or unadvisable in the TL (e.g. informal style into formal Arabic).
  4. 4. ‘stylistic equivalence’ ST Style TT equivalent style available Yes: Use the equivalent No Keep the ST style
  5. 5. Stylistic Level 1. The style of formality and informality 2. The style of parallelism 3. The style of ambiguity 4. Complex and simple styles 5. The style of long and short sentences 6. Passive and active style 7. The style of repetition and variation 8. The style of redundancy 9. The style of fronting 10. The style of irony 11. The style of the show of muscles (expressivity, context and readership) 12. Pun 13. Metaphor 14. Punctuation 15. Rhyme and rhythm
  6. 6. 1. The style of formality and informality Joos scale of five ‘styles’ of English language: 1. Frozen formal ‫جدا‬ ‫فصيح‬ be seated  ‫اجلس‬ 2. Formal ‫فصيح‬ Have a seat  ‫بالجلوس‬ ‫تفضل‬ 3. Informal ‫فصيح‬ ‫شبه‬ ‫أو‬ ‫فصيح‬ ‫غير‬ sit down, please  ‫سمحت‬ ‫لو‬ ‫اجلس‬ 4. Colloquial ‫عامي‬ feel at home  ‫استريح‬ ،‫راحتك‬ ‫خذ‬ 5. Vulgar (or slang) ‫سوقي‬ sit bloody down  ‫مكانك‬ ‫في‬ ‫اقعد‬ ( ‫انثبر‬ ) The first and the second are ‘formal’, whereas the third, fourth and fifth are informal.
  7. 7. 1. The style of formality and informality There are four styles in Arabic: 1. Frozen formal  Classical Arabic 2. Formal Modern Standard Arabic 3. Informal 4. Colloquial  Colloquial Arabic 5. Vulgar (or slang)  Vulgar (or slang) Arabic In Arabic, Classical and Modern Standard Arabic are formal; Colloquial and vulgar are informal.
  8. 8. 1. The style of formality and informality Problem: students have a problem in distinguishing between these styles. Solution: minimize the English styles into one general style in Arabic, that is, Modern Standard Arabic Reason: it is the middle ground among Arabic styles: simple, easy, acceptable, polite, known, understandable and available to the students at different level of English. Where does the problem of formality appear? in certain texts such as spoken English and texts of general nature which are generally informal, whereas scientific, legal and some literary texts are formal.
  9. 9. 1. The style of formality and informality Example in the booklet: • ‘ you can’t paint watercolors without knowing how to lay a wash, though anyone can learn the knack if they are willing to go to a bit of trouble.’ • Informal Arabic: • ( ‫ي‬ ‫واحد‬ ‫أي‬ ‫أن‬ ‫رغم‬ ،‫األلوان‬ ‫تحضر‬ ‫كيف‬ ‫معرفتك‬ ‫دون‬ ‫المائية‬ ‫باأللوان‬ ‫ترسم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫يمكنك‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ستطيع‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫يتعلم‬ ‫الشطارة‬ ‫كانوا‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫مشكلة‬ ‫في‬ ‫الوقوع‬ ‫يريدون‬ / ‫استعداد‬ ‫عندهم‬ .) • Formal Arabic: • ( ‫كل‬ ‫فيستطيع‬ ،‫األلوان‬ ‫تحضر‬ ‫كيف‬ ‫معرفتك‬ ‫دون‬ ‫المائية‬ ‫باأللوان‬ ‫ترسم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫يمكنك‬ ‫ال‬ ‫يتعلم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫منا‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫المهارة‬ ‫استعداد‬ ‫على‬ ‫كان‬ ‫إن‬ ‫المشاكل‬ ‫لبعض‬ ‫للتعرض‬ / ‫التصدي‬ ‫قابلية‬ ‫لديهم‬ / ‫التغل‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫على‬ ‫ب‬ ‫التحدي‬ / ‫الصعاب‬ ‫هذه‬ .)
  10. 10. 2. The style of parallelism Parallelism: When two structures are identical to one another, they are described as parallel. • Such parallelism can be important to meaning, implying a balance between two or more messages. • My father is ill. • My mother nouns (subjects is verbs sad Adjectives (complements) • My sister is worried. The same style of parallelism can be reflected into Arabic: ‫مريض‬ ‫والدي‬ . ‫أمي‬ ‫حزينة‬ . ‫قلقة‬ ‫أختي‬ . ‫مريض‬ ‫أبي‬ . ‫عليه‬ ‫حزينة‬ ‫أمي‬ ‫لذا‬ . ‫عليه‬ ‫قلقة‬ ‫أختي‬ ‫وكذلك‬ / . ‫ألمي‬ ‫الحزن‬ ‫سبب‬ ‫مما‬ ‫مريض‬ ‫أبي‬ ‫ألختي‬ ‫والقلق‬ .
  11. 11. 2. The style of parallelism How to translate parallelism? The style of parallelism is functional, implying a significant part of meaning. therefore in translation into Arabic, we should insist on imitating this type of style to reflect the same function. When it is not possible to produce parallelism in Arabic, it is possible to ignore it, with loss of rhetoric, aesthetic effect, and part of the meaning though. Examples: "...and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." — Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address[3] "What you see is what you get." (English proverb) Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime. (English proverb)
  12. 12. 2. The style of parallelism { ُ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ح‬َّ‫الر‬ ( 1 ) َ‫ن‬َ‫آ‬ ْ‫ر‬ُ‫ق‬ْ‫ال‬ َ‫م‬َّ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ( 2 ) َ‫ان‬َ‫س‬ْ‫ن‬ِ ْ ‫اْل‬ َ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬ ( 3 ) َ‫ان‬َ‫ي‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ال‬ ُ‫ه‬َ‫م‬َّ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ( 4 ) } {The Most Merciful(1) Taught the Qur’an,(2) Created man,(3) [And] taught him eloquence.}
  13. 13. 3. The style of ambiguity: Definition: Ambiguity is unclarity. It a main stylistic device used to play decisive role in the understanding of the message. Types: 1. Syntactic: the shooting of the hunters is extraordinary: ‫للعادة‬ ‫خارق‬ ‫الصيادين‬ ‫صيد‬ ‫علي‬ ‫من‬ ‫يتبرأ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫الشيعة‬ ‫أحد‬ ‫من‬ ‫طلب‬ ً‫ا‬‫خارجي‬ ‫ان‬ ( ‫السالم‬ ‫عليه‬ ) ‫فقال‬ ،‫وعثمان‬ : ‫بريء‬ ‫عثمان‬ ‫ومن‬ ‫علي‬ ‫من‬ ‫أنا‬ » ( 6 . ) The chicken is ready for lunch. 2. Lexical: I smell a rat in what you say: ‫تقول‬ ‫فيما‬ ‫عبي‬ ‫في‬ ‫الفار‬ ‫يلعب‬ ،‫تقول‬ ‫فيما‬ ‫أشك‬ The fisherman went to the ​bank. ‫وى‬َ‫ه‬‫ال‬ ‫واعي‬َ‫د‬ ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ‫لبي‬َ‫ق‬ َ‫ح‬‫ي‬ َ‫و‬ ‫يا‬ َ‫د‬‫ن‬ِ‫ع‬ ُ‫الجيران‬ َ‫ل‬َ‫ح‬ َ‫ر‬ ‫ذ‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫روب‬ُ‫غ‬‫ال‬ ‫ـنوا‬َ‫ع‬‫م‬َ‫أ‬ ‫د‬َ‫ق‬ َ‫و‬ ‫ـرفي‬َ‫ط‬ ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ت‬‫ع‬َ‫ب‬‫ت‬َ‫أ‬ ِ ‫يض‬َ‫ف‬َ‫ك‬ َّ‫ي‬َ‫ن‬‫ي‬َ‫ع‬ ُ‫ع‬‫م‬َ‫د‬ َ‫و‬ ‫روب‬ُ‫غ‬‫ال‬ ٌ‫ة‬َّ‫حـر‬ ٌ‫ـة‬َ‫ل‬‫طف‬ ‫فيهم‬ َ‫و‬ ‫بانـوا‬ ‫قاحي‬َ‫أ‬ ِ‫ل‬‫ث‬ِ‫م‬ ‫ن‬َ‫ع‬ ُّ‫ر‬َ‫ت‬‫ف‬َ‫ت‬ ‫روب‬ُ‫غ‬‫ال‬ ( # ) ‫المملوءة‬ ،‫العظيمة‬ ‫الدلو‬ ‫وهو‬ ،‫غرب‬ ‫جمع‬ ‫والثاني‬ ،‫الشمس‬ ‫غروب‬ ‫األول‬ ‫فالغروب‬ . ‫الوهاد‬ ‫وهي‬ ،‫غرب‬ ‫جمع‬ ‫والثالث‬ ‫المنخفضة‬ . 3. Cultural: John went to the bar to bury his sorrows: ‫أحزانه‬ ‫ليدفن‬ ‫الحانة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫جون‬ ‫ذهب‬ • If it is difficult to translate an ambiguous sentence into Arabic, it is recommended to consult a good reference to solve it by preserving it, or at least disambiguating it.
  14. 14. 4. Complex and simple styles: Complex Simple the whole text (or most) is one single sentence which composed of several interconnected fronted subordinate clauses, the sentence structure is clear, so its meaning would be clear too. • Accumulating information to justify what has been stated in the main clause • Emphasizing certain information. • Attracting and affecting the reader. It is usually used to inform, warn, or explain something to the reader. • the style of complexity has to be reflected in Arabic without any attempt to simplify it the simple style has to be reflected in Arabic without any attempt to make it complex because it has certain functions which cannot be expressed by a complex style.
  15. 15. 4. Complex and simple styles: The style of complexity has to be reflected in Arabic without any attempt to simplify it ? Why? the same style can render the same function and effect in Arabic translation. Otherwise, meaning will be incomplete. Because it has certain functions which cannot be expressed by a simple style. The translator should read the text and analyze it into clauses, then translate the text clause by clause. • Example (complex): • It is the very first really reliable do-it-yourself fiberglass sailing dinghy with oars and a full suit of sails. • Final version (notice the use of the cohesive devices): • ‫من‬ ‫كامل‬ ‫وطقم‬ ‫بمجاديف‬ ‫والمجهز‬ ،‫يدويا‬ ‫والمصنوع‬، ‫األول‬ ‫الليفي‬ ‫الزجاجي‬ ‫اْلبحار‬ ‫قارب‬ ‫حقا‬ ‫إنه‬ ‫األشرعة‬ .
  16. 16. 5. The style of long and short sentences Long sentences Short Sentences not the norm dominant in the English text Functions: • To reflect the strong unity of the topic • To reflect the boring subject matter • Emphasis or non-emphasis of a subject, predicate, a phrase, or a clause • Avoidance of ambiguity • Heighten the tempo of action in the text • Accelerates events and arouse suspense Examples: (1) the police heard a little noise inside the bank. The robber noticed that. He wanted to escape. But, the policed arrested him. Final version (notice the use of the cohesive devices): ‫المصرف‬ ‫داخل‬ ‫خفيفة‬ ‫جلبة‬ ‫الشرطة‬ ‫سمعت‬ . ‫الهرب‬ ‫فحاول‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫اللص‬ ‫الحظ‬ ‫وقد‬ . ‫اعتقلته‬ ‫الشرطة‬ ‫لكن‬ . (2) In an attempt to help his ill mother, who needed an operation in a specialist hospital in London, the boy, who was still young, worked in a mechanical workshop day and night to earn money. Final version: ‫ك‬ ‫والتي‬ ‫المريضة‬ ‫أمه‬ ‫لعالج‬ ‫محاولة‬ ‫في‬ ‫المال‬ ‫ليكسب‬ ‫ونهارا‬ ‫ليال‬ ‫سيارات‬ ‫تصليح‬ ‫ورشة‬ ‫في‬ ،‫صغيرا‬ ‫يزال‬ ‫ما‬ ‫كان‬ ‫الذي‬ ،‫الصبي‬ ‫عمل‬ ‫بحاجة‬ ‫انت‬ ‫لندن‬ ‫في‬ ‫متخصص‬ ‫مستشفى‬ ‫في‬ ‫عملية‬ ‫إجراء‬ ‫إلى‬ .
  17. 17. 6. Passive and active style: Passive Active focus on the action, event focus on the agent, the doer of the action Translation: • Passive English sentences which ends with (by phrase: by+subject) should be translated into an active Arabic sentence. • Passive English sentences without (by+subject) phrase are translated into passive. active into active the door was broken  ‫الباب‬ ‫كسر‬ The door was broken by the thief  ‫الباب‬ ‫اللص‬ ‫كسر‬ " ‫قبل‬ ‫من‬ "
  18. 18. 7. The style of repetition and variation: In a text where important words are repeated over and again, we are required to render them fully into Arabic. Repetition may reflect something important to the whole message. It may also reflect the same effect of the original, and at the same time avoiding the problem of finding artificial synonyms, which might be awkward or hard to accept. Examples: { ِ‫ان‬َ‫ب‬ِ‫ذ‬َ‫ك‬ُ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ ِ‫ء‬ َ ‫آَل‬ ِ‫ي‬َ‫أ‬ِ‫ب‬َ‫ف‬ } [ ‫الرحمن‬ : 13 ] ، { َ‫ر‬‫د‬َ‫ق‬ َ‫ف‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ك‬ َ‫ل‬ِ‫ت‬ُ‫ق‬َ‫ف‬ } [ ‫المدثر‬ : 19 ] ‫تعالى‬ ‫وقوله‬ ‫؛‬ : { َ‫ر‬‫د‬َ‫ق‬ َ‫ف‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ك‬ َ‫ل‬ِ‫ت‬ُ‫ق‬ ‫م‬ُ‫ث‬ } [ ‫المدثر‬ : 20 ] Martin L. King Jr. 1963 Speech: “I have a dream that one day the red hills of Gorgeia, the sons of former slaves and …… I have a dream that one day …. I have a dream… “
  19. 19. 8. The style of redundancy is the use of unnecessary, extra words to express something. It is regarded as a bad style of writing. In translating, redundancy should be reflected for two reasons: 1. It may have an important function of emphasis, contrast, bad style, poor language, or poor text. 2. It is part of the translator’s faithfulness to the SL text. • If none of these two reasons applicable to the text, or if the TL equivalent expresses the emphasis, the translator has the choice of not repeating the words. • Example: As a matter of fact to say the truth, I am not interested in your offer. • ‫األمر‬ ‫حقيقة‬ ‫في‬ .. ‫الحقيقة‬ ‫في‬ .. ‫بعرضك‬ ‫مهتم‬ ‫غير‬ ‫أنا‬ . • ‫بعرضك‬ ‫مهتم‬ ‫غير‬ ‫أنا‬ ،‫األمر‬ ‫حقيقة‬ ‫في‬ .
  20. 20. 9. The style of fronting it means to move a word, a phrase, or a clause from its original place in the middle or at the end of the sentence to the beginning. It is used to emphasize something important or to achieve a function which is a part of the message. The translator should show this fronting in the TL when it is acceptable to the T reader. In my room he slept  ‫نام‬ ‫غرفتي‬ ‫في‬ ‫غرفتي‬ ‫في‬ ‫نام‬ As he had been caught red-handed, he was sentenced to death.  ‫قبض‬ ‫ألنه‬ ‫نظرا‬ ‫باْلعدام‬ ‫المجرم‬ ‫على‬ ‫حكم‬ ،‫متلبسا‬ ‫عليه‬ .  ‫ألنه‬ ‫باْلعدام‬ ‫المجرم‬ ‫على‬ ‫حكم‬ ( ‫حيث‬ ) ‫متلبسا‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫قبض‬ ‫المبتدأ‬ ‫على‬ ‫الخبر‬ ‫تقديم‬ ‫أسباب‬ ‫من‬ : ( ‫نفي‬ ‫أداة‬ + ‫الخبر‬ + ّ‫ال‬‫إ‬ + ‫المؤخر‬ ‫المبتدأ‬ ) ‫كقوله‬ : { ُ‫غ‬ َ ‫ال‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ال‬ َّ ‫ال‬ِ‫إ‬ َ‫ْك‬‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ } ( 48 ) ‫الشورى‬ ‫سورة‬ . ‫مخصصة‬ ‫نكرة‬ ‫المبتدأ‬ ‫كان‬ ‫اذا‬ ( ‫موصوف‬ ‫او‬ ‫مضاف‬ ‫أي‬ . ) ‫كقوله‬ { ٌ‫م‬‫ي‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫أ‬ ٌ‫اب‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ع‬ ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ َ‫و‬ }
  21. 21. 10. The style of irony it is a method of humorous sarcastic expression in which the intended meaning of the words is the direct opposite of their sense. difficult to realize the style of irony. How to translate irony? 1. Locating irony in the SL text. 2. Understanding its cultural, social, political, and religious implications. 3. Considering the semantic and stylistic relationships among words. 4. Checking the layout of the SL text. 5. Considering the use of the exclamation marks, because they imply the sense of irony. 6. Looking for identical style of irony in the TL. 7. Tracing a cultural, social, literary, political, etc. equivalent image of irony in the TL. 8. Going for a direct literal translation of the meaning of the ironical expression. 9. Suggesting an equivalent style of irony in the TL that can reflect the SL counterpart in a way or another. 10. Trying as a last resort, the literal translation of words. Examples: (1) Great! I have lost everything! ‫عظيم‬ . ‫شيء‬ ‫كل‬ ‫خسرت‬ ‫لقد‬ !
  22. 22. 11. The style of the show of muscles (expressivity, context and readership): Some TL equivalents have different degree of expressivity from the SL word. This style can be used for a type of readers (educated) and for a certain context (e.g. poetry, stories, political speech, advertisements,..etc.), in this case it is called ‘creative translation’. The translator should put in mind the context and the reader before translating. • Examples: • Yes  ‫نعم‬ ‫بلى‬ • Pale face  ‫شاحب‬ ‫وجه‬ ‫مكفهر‬ ‫وجه‬ • Afraid ‫خائف‬ ‫وجل‬
  23. 23. 12. Pun Pun: is a form of word play which suggests two or more meanings, by exploiting multiple meanings of words, or of similar- sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect. It is usually used in advertisements. • I've been to the dentist many times so I know the drill. • A boiled egg every morning is hard to beat. • Always trust a glue salesman. They tend to stick to their word.
  24. 24. 12. Pun In translation: • a translator can find a close alternative, which sometimes is obvious but often requires considerable thought (compensation); • or she can recreate the entire pun in a separate fashion, which requires a lot of effort and may fail. • Examples: • ( 1 ) ‫أحمد‬ ‫صديقة‬ ‫مداعبا‬ ‫إبراهيم‬ ‫حافظ‬ ‫قال‬ ‫شوقي‬ ‫إن‬ ‫يقولون‬ ‫الشوق‬ ‫ولوعة‬ ‫نار‬ . ‫بال‬ ‫فما‬ ‫شوقي‬ ‫اليوم‬ ‫؟‬ ‫باردا‬ ‫أصبح‬ ‫وهي‬ ‫البيت‬ ‫صدر‬ ‫في‬ ‫لفظية‬ ‫والقرينة‬ ‫والحنين‬ ‫الحب‬ ‫وهو‬ ‫قريب‬ ‫معنيان‬ ‫لها‬ ‫شوقي‬ ‫فكلمة‬ ( ‫الشوق‬ ) ‫شوقي‬ ‫أحمد‬ ‫الشاعر‬ ‫وهو‬ ‫مراد‬ ‫خفي‬ ‫بعيد‬ ‫ومعنى‬ ‫المراد‬ ‫غير‬ ‫المعنى‬ ‫وهذا‬ . • (2) I used to look for gold, but it didn't pan out.
  25. 25. 13. Metaphor: Metaphor: is a literary figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated object. • Metaphor is a type of analogy and is closely related to other rhetorical figures of speech that achieve their effects via association, ..etc • Compensation method of translation may sometimes be used in translating metaphor. Example: All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players; They have their exists and their entrances …
  26. 26. 14. Punctuation: Problem: Unfortunately, the problem relies in the fact that English uses punctuation systematically and emphatically in writing as part and parcel of the structure and meaning of any piece of language. However, in Arabic, punctuation is considered as an ornamentation, neither more nor less, and is, therefore, disregard, sometimes completely. In translation, the translator should follow the TL punctuation rules.
  27. 27. 14. Punctuation: The use of punctuation in English and Arabic: EnglishArabic EnglishArabic Comma comma, nothing Question mark question mark Pair of commas pair of commas, dashes, brackets Exclamation mark exclamation mark Colon colon Brackets of all types the same type Semi-colonsemi-colon, period Quotation marks quotation marks, small parentheses Periodfull stop periodfull stop Dashdash, commas,brackets
  28. 28. 15. Rhyme and rhythm: • The translator should render them as much as he can into the TL. If the translator couldn’t, then he will adopt ‘free-translation’ method. • Achieving rhyme ‫القافية‬ as possible in the TL. • Playing with synonyms. • Feeling free at changing the grammatical stylistic structure. • Employing lexical and grammatical gaps.
  29. 29. 15. Rhyme and rhythm: If ‫لو‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ Rudyard Kipling If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you; ‫ترجمة‬ : ‫نعمة‬ ‫ابن‬ ‫حالم‬ ‫راديرد‬ ‫كيبلين‬ ‫لو‬ ‫تستطيع‬ ‫أن‬ ‫تظل‬ ‫هادئا‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ما‬ ‫الكل‬ ‫في‬ ‫هياج‬ ‫ويلقي‬ ‫لومه‬ ‫عليك‬ ‫؛‬ ‫إن‬ ‫ج‬‫ن‬َ‫ت‬ ،َ‫نت‬َ‫أ‬ َ‫م‬‫وال‬ َ‫ـك‬‫ت‬ ‫الـرؤوس‬ ‫ت‬َ‫ج‬َ‫ر‬‫ح‬َ‫د‬َ‫ت‬‫وقـد‬ ‫ك‬ ‫هـا‬ُّ‫ل‬ ‫فـي‬ ‫ش‬َ‫م‬ ‫ـد‬َ‫ه‬ ‫تـب‬َ‫ع‬‫ال‬ ‫إن‬ َ‫و‬ َ‫ت‬‫ف‬َ‫ق‬ َ‫و‬ ‫راع‬‫ت‬ ‫ـي‬ َّ‫ـك‬َّ‫ش‬‫ال‬ ‫فـ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬َّ‫م‬َ‫ل‬ٍ‫ة‬‫ـ‬َ‫ق‬‫ث‬ ‫ـت‬َ‫ع‬‫ا‬َ‫د‬َ‫ت‬ َ‫عليـك‬ ‫ـاس‬َّ‫ن‬‫ال‬ ‫ـب‬َ‫ي‬‫الر‬‫ب‬
  30. 30. 15. Rhyme and rhythm: Rhyme and rhythm in advertisements: • they are more powerful than the message. • They are intended to attract the customers and draw their attention to the product. The translator should produce in the TL text the same rhythmical effect of the SL text. • Example: Drink a pinta milka day: ‫لبيب‬ ‫يا‬ ‫يوم‬ ‫كل‬ ‫حليب‬ ‫ليتر‬ ‫اشرب‬ • You recede, We reseed (about hair transplant): ،‫تصلع‬ ‫أنت‬ ‫ونحن‬ ( ‫واحنا‬ ) ‫نزرع‬ P 17 exercise on style
  31. 31. Stylistic Level 1. The style of formality and informality 2. The style of parallelism 3. The style of ambiguity 4. Complex and simple styles 5. The style of long and short sentences 6. Passive and active style 7. The style of repetition and variation 8. The style of redundancy 9. The style of fronting 10. The style of irony 11. The style of the show of muscles (expressivity, context and readership) 12. Pun 13. Metaphor 14. Punctuation 15. Rhyme and rhythm
  32. 32. Pragmatic Level: Pragmatic Level: It refers to the implicatures and strategies of avoidance during the translation process. Implicature is not about what is explicitly said but what is implied. • Therefore, the translator needs to work out implied meanings in translation in order to get the ST message across. The role of the translator is to recreate the author's intention in another culture in such a way that enables the TC reader to understand it clearly. Page 18 paragraph 2: Utterance (U) Speaker (S) Hearer (H) (Intention Conveyed ) Meaning (Mn) (Decodes) Context (C)
  33. 33. Pragmatic Level: • it is assumed that participants in a communication activity observe a set of rules and principles including the ‘ cooperative principle’ ( cf. Grice 1975) . ‘Participants expect that each will make a “conversational Contribution” such as required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange’. • One of the most intricate problems that we face when translating a conversation is how to render the message adequately from S.T into T.T in accordance with its context of use . In other words , “ how this complex reflexive communicative intention is meant to be recognized by the recipient ” ( Levinson 1983: 17).
  34. 34. Pragmatic Level: Example: • ( 1 ) ‫حاجبها‬ ‫وترعش‬ ‫رأسها‬ ‫تهز‬ ‫وهي‬ ‫حميدة‬ ‫أم‬ ‫فقالت‬ : ‫ورمح‬ ‫سن‬ ‫على‬ ‫علوان‬ ‫سليم‬ ‫السيد‬ ! • ‫المشط‬ ‫على‬ ‫قبضتها‬ ‫فشدت‬ ‫راحتها‬ ‫في‬ ‫أسنانه‬ ‫تنفذ‬ ‫كادت‬ ‫حتى‬ ‫وهتفت‬ : ‫علوان‬ ‫سليم‬ ‫الوكالة؟‬ ‫صاحب‬ • • Shaking her head and making her eyebrow dance, the match-maker replied: Mr Salim Alwan, in all his majesty ! Hamida gripped her comb so tightly that its teeth almost broke in her hand. She shouted: Salim Alwan the owner of the company? • In the above conversation, the fact of repeating the statement Salim Alwan (the owner of the company) is not a mere redundancy besides, there is no other character in the story having the same name. It is rather a way to emphasize or highlight the speaker’s astonishment when she heard the news. (1) A: did you see the instructor? ‫أ‬ : ‫األستاذة؟‬ ‫رأيت‬ ‫هل‬ B: her office is open. ‫ب‬ : ‫مفتوح‬ ‫مكتبها‬ ‫إن‬ The answer implies the presence of the instructor. Cashier: How is your day? You: Fine.
  35. 35. Textual Level (coherence & cohesion) Textual Level (coherence & cohesion): When referring to the equivalence between a SL text and a TL text in terms of information and cohesion. • Why is it important? Texture is a very important feature in translation since it provides useful guidelines for the comprehension and analysis of the ST which can help the translator in his or her attempt to produce a cohesive and coherent text for the TC audience in a specific context. Should we maintain the cohesive ties of the ST? It is up to the translator to decide whether or not to maintain the cohesive ties as well as the coherence of the SL text. His or her decision will be guided by three main factors, that is, the target audience, the purpose of the translation and the text type. Look back at conjunctions for example.
  36. 36. All Levels. • What is the process of transferring the meaning into the receptor's language? Understanding of source language text understanding the words grammatical structure communicative situation cultural context analyzing that in order to determine the meaning, Reconstruct in the target language using the appropriate lexicon grammatical structures cultural context.
  37. 37. All Levels. What are the characteristics of language which affect translation? a) Meaning components are “packaged” into lexical items, but they are ‘packaged’ differently in one language than in another. Many times a single word in the source language will need to be translated by several words. b) It is characteristic of language that the same meaning component will occur in several surface structure lexical items (forms). = A single meaning can be expressed by different structures. c) It is further characteristics of languages that one form will be used to represent several alternative meaning. = A sentence or an utterance can have more than one meaning or can be interpreted differently. d) Whole sentences may also have several functions. A question form may not be used for asking or inquiring. (rhetorical questions: reproach, exclamation, renunciation,…etc)
  38. 38. All Levels. ‘meaning expressed by a particular form in one language may be expressed by quite a different form in another language’ what should a translate do? Give examples. • It is often necessary to change the form when translating. It is not uncommon that passive constructions will need to be translated with an active construction or vice versa, depending on the natural form of the receptor language. • How does a translator make his translation as dynamic as the original text? For the translation to have the same dynamics as the original, it needs to be natural, easy to understand and communicate both the message and the emotional effect intended by the source language writer.