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Analysis of the English Word and Sentence Structure
Objectives  1. Recognize different types of morphemes and their functions 2. State the form, meaning and rule of combination for the morphemes 3. Analyze the internal structure of the English words in order to know their formations and meanings. 4. Specify each unit within words correctly.
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Morphology
Morphology Morph (form) + ology (science of) -- > Morphology (the science of word forms) The study of the internal structure of words, and The rules by which words are formed
Morphemes Look at the following words Likely unlikely  developed undeveloped un- is a prefix means  No. -ly in ‘likely’ is a adverbial suffix.  -ed in ‘developed’ is a suffix morpheme.
What is morpheme?
What is morpheme? Dictionary: Morpheme   (môr ' fēm')  n.   A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word, such as  man,  or a word element, such as  -ed  in  walked,  that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. morphemic  mor·phem'ic   adj. morphemically  mor·phem'i·cal·ly   adv.   http://www.answers.com/topic/morpheme
What is morpheme? Definitions: A  morpheme  is the minimal unit of meaning. Example:       un+system+atic+al+ly Note:  morphemes ≠ words
Examples of Morphemes One morpheme          boy  (one syllable)                                    desire, lady, water  (two syllables)                                    crocodile (three syllables)                                    salamander (four syllables), or more  syllables  Two morpheme         boy + ish                                     desire + able  Three morpheme        boy + ish + ness                                     desire + able + ity  Four morpheme          gentle + man + li + ness                                     un + desire + able + ity  More than four           un + gentle + man + li + ness                                     anti + dis + establish + ment + ari +  an + ism
In all language, discrete linguistic units combine   rule-governed ways to form larger units Sound units combine to form morphemes, morphemes combine to form from words word combine to form   phrases phrases combine to form sentences
What is the relationship between morphemes and words?
Humans can understand words that have never been heard before Human can also create new words For example ,  a writ able  CD a  re writ able  CD an  un re writ able  CD What is the relationship between morphemes and words?
How many types  of morphemes are there? Bound morphemes Free morphemes Root morphemes Stem morphemes Derivational morphemes Inflectional morphemes  Affixes: prefixes and suffixes Grammatical morphemes
Classification of some (English) morphemes (English) Morphemes Bound Free Affix Root Open Class Closed Class Derivational Inflectional Prefix Suffix Suffix gruntle Nouns ( girl ) Determiners ( the , a(n) ) pre -  -ly -ing  -en mit Verbs ( kick ) Conjunctions ( and ) un- -ist  -er  -est  fer Adjectives ( happy ) Prepositions ( of  , in  ) con- -ment  -ed Adverbs ( quickly ) Pronouns ( I ,  he ,  you ) Auxiliary Verbs ( is )
 
Bound morphemes Bound morphemes  (affixes) must be attached to the word.  They are prefixes, infixes, suffixes and circumfixes. Such as {clude} as in  include ,  exclude ,  preclude ) or they may be grammatical (such as {PLU} = plural as in  boys ,  girls , and  cats ).
Free morphemes Free morphemes  are those that can stand alone as words.  Example:     girl, system, desire, hope, act, phone, happy
Root morphemes A  root  is a morphemes that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts. Example:  cran (as in cranberry), act, beauty, system, etc..   Free Root  Morpheme: run, bottle, phone, etc. Bound Root  Morpheme: receive, remit, uncount, uncouth, nonchalant, etc. 
A  stem  is formed when a root morphemes is combined with an affix. Other affixes can be added to a stem to form a more complex stem.   Stem morphemes
Example of word formation Root       believe (verb)  Stem     believe + able (verb + suffix) Word     un + believe + able   (prefix +verb + suffix)  
Example of word formation Root system Stem system + atic Stem un + system + atic Stem un + system + atic + al Word un + system + atic + al + ly
It’s time to relax Are you tried? Let’s listen to the song
Derivational morphemes Root + Derivational Morpheme --> a new word with a new meaning. (usually change grammatical class) N + Derivational Morpheme --> Adj.  Ex. Boy + ish, Verb + Derivational Morpheme --> Noun  Ex. Acquitt + al, clear + ance Adj. + Derivational Morpheme --> Adverb  Ex. Exact + ly, quiet + ly
Inflectional morphemes  Inflectional morphemes have grammatical meaning or function in the sentence. They never change  part of speech. For example, Bound Morpheme : Ex. ‘to’ in connection with a verb  (‘ an infinitive with to’) Bound Morphemes: Ex. –s, -ed He sails the ocean blue. He sailed the ocean blue.
Eight English Inflectional Morphemes -s  third-person singular present - ed past tense -ing progressive -en past participle -s plural -’s possessive - er comparative -est superlative She wait s   at home. She wait ed  at home. She is eat ing  the donuts. Mary has eat en  the donuts. She ate the donut s . Lisa ’s  hair is short. Lisa  has  short hair than Kate. Lisa has the shor test  hair.
The major differences between derivational and inflectional morphology predictable (often) unpredictable meaning? (usually) yes (often) no productive? no yes changes stem? not in English yes  addable on to?  further from stem  closer to stem  position  Inflectional   Derivational   
 
Affixes: prefixes and suffixes Affix : a morpheme that comes at the beginning (prefix) or the ending (suffix) of a base morpheme.   Note : An affix usually is a morpheme that cannot stand alone.   Examples :  -ful ,  -ly ,  -it y,  -nes s. A few exceptions are  able ,  like , and  less .
Affixes: prefixes and suffixes Prefix : an affix that comes before a base morpheme.  The  in  in the word  inspect  is a prefix. Suffix : an affix that comes after a base morpheme.  The  s  in  cats  is a suffix.
Affixes (prefix, suffix, infix and circumfix) are all bound morphemes.  Bound morphemes that are attached to a root or stem morpheme both initially and finally.  Example:  chokma  "he is good"   ik + chokm + o  "he isn?t? good"                          (Chickasaw Language) Bound morphemes which are inserted into other morphemes.  Example:   Fikas  "strong"   fumikas  "to be strong"   (Bontoc Language) Bound morphemes which occur   following other morphemes.  Examples:   -er ( singer, performer)   -ist (t ypist, pianist)   -ly ( manly, friendly) Bound morphemes which occur only before other morphemes.  Examples:   un- ( uncover, undo )  dis- ( displeased, disconnect),   pre- ( predetermine, prejudge ) Circumfixes Infixes Suffixes Prefixes
Grammatical morphemes What is the difference in meaning between  apple  and  apples ?  What is the difference in form?  What does this tell you about these two words?
Grammatical morphemes Words can have an internal structure much like the syntax of phrases.   Morphemes such as  the ,  -s , and  re-  near the grammatical end of the continuum are called  grammatical morphemes . Note that grammatical morphemes include forms that we can consider to be words like  the ,  a ,  and , and  of  and others that make up parts of words like  –s and  -ed .  Examples.  pencil s   walk ed
What are the differences between each type  of morphemes?
What is the function of each type of morphemes?
What is the relationship among each type of morphemes?
What is the difference between content/lexical words and function/grammatical words?
Content Words Content words  denote concepts such as subjects, actions, and ideas  ( noun, verb, adjective, adverb ) Content words  are open class words  ( new words can be added ) Example of new words : Steganography  ( the art of hiding information in electronic text )
Function Words   Function words  express Grammatical Functions  ( e.g., preposition, article,  conjunctions, pronouns ) Function words  connect the content words to the larger grammatical context. Functions words  are also called ‘closed class’ words  ( no new words assed to this class. )
Exercise “ I know you can do it”
"First say to yourself what you would be, and then do what  you have to do."
How are English words formed?
Different types of words from different formations. Derived words Lexical gaps Compounds: also how to differentiate compounds from noun phrases Acronyms Back formations Abbreviations/Truncation/Clipping Eponyms Blends
Derived words =  new words  with  new meanings  formed from root + derivational morpheme e.g. ir+regular = irrigular
Lexical Gaps Well-formed but nonexisting word Reason : a permissible sequence has no meaning attached to it <like “blick” or “slarm” or “krobe”> Possible comniations of morpheme   never come into use  ( Ex. “disobvious” ,“linguisticism” ) Word like *bnick is not a lexical gaps in English because English does not allow the sequence of ‘bn’
Compounds Word + word = compound word  ( meaning may or may not change ) When the two word   are in the same grammatical category, compound will be in this category. Ex. Home ( n. )  + Work ( n. ) = homework  ( noun )  Pick  ( v. )  + pocket  ( n. ) = pickpocket  ( noun )
Compounds can be more than two words: Two-word compounds are the most common in English. Three – word compounds: three-time loser Four– word compounds: four-dimensional space-time
Compounds have internal structure N. N. N. Adj. N. rack top hat N. Adj. N. top N. N. hat   rack
Rack top hat Hat rack top
Meaning of compounds Same meaning as the parts : a boathouse  =  ( a house for boats ) New meaning but relate to the meaning of the individual parts : a blackboard  ( can be in other colors, not just black ) a Redcoat  ( slang for British soldier during American Revolutionary War )
For  example black bird ( turdus merula ) blackbird
For  example hot dog hotdog
For  example red wood ( Giant Sequoia ) redwood
Acronyms Acronyms  are word derived from he initials of several word NASA <National Aeronautics and Space Agency> UNESCO <United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization>
Back formations A new word may entry the   language   because of an incorrect morphological analysis. Example,   peddle  was derived from  peddler  on the mistaken assumption that   the – er was suffix. stoke --> stoker edit --> editor
Abbreviations Abbreviations  of longer words or phrases can become lexicalized Fax <facsimile> Telly  ( The British word for ‘television’ )
Eponyms  are word   form proper names. Example:  sandwich, robot, jumbo Eponyms
Blends Similar to compounds but parts of the words that are combined are deleted. Example:  smog <from ‘smok + fog’>, motel <from ‘motor + hotel’>
The hierarchical structure of words represented by the tree diagram A word is not a simple sequence of morphemes. It has an internal structure as shown in the following tree diagram:
T ree diagrams N. Adj. ness un Adj. happy Morphological Rules 1. un + happy --> Adj. 2. adj. + ness --> N.
Other terms according to  word formation: Rule productivity Universality of compounding Suppletive Exception Expletive Allomorphs Default/elsewhere Homophonous morphemes Reduplication
Rule productivity Morphological Rules are Productive because: They can be used freely to form new words from the list of free and bound morpheme. Some morphemes are more productive than others. Productive morphemes: Ex. -able or -er Not Productive morphemes:   Ex. –let (piglet)
Universality of compounding Universality compounding  is a common and frequent process for enlarging the vocabulary of all language. Ex .  In Thai, the word ‘cat’ is m єє w, ‘watch’ is fân, and ‘house’ is bâan. The word for ‘watch cat’ is the compound m єє wfânbâan – literally, ‘catwatchhouse’
Suppletive Exception Suppletive   are treated separately in the grammar, that cannot use the regular rules of inflectional morphology to add affixes to word the exception. Ex.   child --> children woman   -->   women
Allomorph Different form of morphemes that have the same meaning e.g. ir_, il_, im_, in_ = not _en, _ø  = to make to become … to bright en  our mind to brown ø  the garlic
Zero morpheme/ default/elsewhere A zero morpheme is a morpheme, consisting of no form, that is proposed in some analyses as an  allomorph  of a  morpheme  that is ordinarily realized by a morph having some phonetic form. brown  (adj) + Ø >  brown  (verb)  = &quot;to make to become  brown  (er) &quot;  dark  (adj) + _en >  darken  (verb)  = “to make to become  dark  (er) ”
 
Homophonous morphemes Homophones : morphemes that sound alike but have different meanings and spellings.   Examples :  bear ,  bare ;  plain ,  plane ;  cite ,  sight ,  site .
Reduplication •  R eduplication  is the morphological process by which all or part of a word is copied or duplicated •  S ome examples from Lakhota: ‘ to be yellow’ zizí zí ‘ to be blue or green’ thothó thó ‘ to be red’ shashá shá ‘ to be white’ skaská ská ‘ to be rusty brown’ gigí gí gloss Reduplicated  form base
Last Exercise Good luck
A great person is an ordinary   who decides to do  the great thing.
References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morpheme http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/caneng/morpheme.htm http://www.ling.udel.edu/arena/morphology.html http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1175304 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/caneng/morpheme.htm http://introling.ynada.com/session-6-types-of-morphemes
References http://campus.sou.edu/~nash/morphology.html http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/Fall_1998/ ling001/morphology2.html http://www.indiana.edu/~hlw/Inflection/morphemes.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Back-formation http://bogglesworldesl.com/glossary/grammaticalmorphemes.htm
References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expletive_infixation http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/rbeard/homepage.html

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Morphemes

  • 1. Analysis of the English Word and Sentence Structure
  • 2. Objectives 1. Recognize different types of morphemes and their functions 2. State the form, meaning and rule of combination for the morphemes 3. Analyze the internal structure of the English words in order to know their formations and meanings. 4. Specify each unit within words correctly.
  • 3. Look at this Video. Warm Up
  • 4. What are you thinking? Warm Up
  • 5. Doubt is often the beginning of wisdom.
  • 7. Morphology Morph (form) + ology (science of) -- > Morphology (the science of word forms) The study of the internal structure of words, and The rules by which words are formed
  • 8. Morphemes Look at the following words Likely unlikely developed undeveloped un- is a prefix means No. -ly in ‘likely’ is a adverbial suffix. -ed in ‘developed’ is a suffix morpheme.
  • 10. What is morpheme? Dictionary: Morpheme   (môr ' fēm') n. A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word, such as man, or a word element, such as -ed in walked, that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. morphemic mor·phem'ic adj. morphemically mor·phem'i·cal·ly adv. http://www.answers.com/topic/morpheme
  • 11. What is morpheme? Definitions: A morpheme is the minimal unit of meaning. Example:       un+system+atic+al+ly Note: morphemes ≠ words
  • 12. Examples of Morphemes One morpheme         boy  (one syllable)                                  desire, lady, water  (two syllables)                                  crocodile (three syllables)                                  salamander (four syllables), or more syllables Two morpheme        boy + ish                                   desire + able Three morpheme       boy + ish + ness                                   desire + able + ity Four morpheme         gentle + man + li + ness                                   un + desire + able + ity More than four           un + gentle + man + li + ness                                   anti + dis + establish + ment + ari + an + ism
  • 13. In all language, discrete linguistic units combine rule-governed ways to form larger units Sound units combine to form morphemes, morphemes combine to form from words word combine to form phrases phrases combine to form sentences
  • 14. What is the relationship between morphemes and words?
  • 15. Humans can understand words that have never been heard before Human can also create new words For example , a writ able CD a re writ able CD an un re writ able CD What is the relationship between morphemes and words?
  • 16. How many types of morphemes are there? Bound morphemes Free morphemes Root morphemes Stem morphemes Derivational morphemes Inflectional morphemes Affixes: prefixes and suffixes Grammatical morphemes
  • 17. Classification of some (English) morphemes (English) Morphemes Bound Free Affix Root Open Class Closed Class Derivational Inflectional Prefix Suffix Suffix gruntle Nouns ( girl ) Determiners ( the , a(n) ) pre - -ly -ing -en mit Verbs ( kick ) Conjunctions ( and ) un- -ist -er -est fer Adjectives ( happy ) Prepositions ( of , in ) con- -ment -ed Adverbs ( quickly ) Pronouns ( I , he , you ) Auxiliary Verbs ( is )
  • 18.  
  • 19. Bound morphemes Bound morphemes (affixes) must be attached to the word. They are prefixes, infixes, suffixes and circumfixes. Such as {clude} as in include , exclude , preclude ) or they may be grammatical (such as {PLU} = plural as in boys , girls , and cats ).
  • 20. Free morphemes Free morphemes are those that can stand alone as words. Example:     girl, system, desire, hope, act, phone, happy
  • 21. Root morphemes A root is a morphemes that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts. Example: cran (as in cranberry), act, beauty, system, etc..  Free Root  Morpheme: run, bottle, phone, etc. Bound Root  Morpheme: receive, remit, uncount, uncouth, nonchalant, etc. 
  • 22. A stem is formed when a root morphemes is combined with an affix. Other affixes can be added to a stem to form a more complex stem.  Stem morphemes
  • 23. Example of word formation Root      believe (verb) Stem    believe + able (verb + suffix) Word     un + believe + able (prefix +verb + suffix)  
  • 24. Example of word formation Root system Stem system + atic Stem un + system + atic Stem un + system + atic + al Word un + system + atic + al + ly
  • 25. It’s time to relax Are you tried? Let’s listen to the song
  • 26. Derivational morphemes Root + Derivational Morpheme --> a new word with a new meaning. (usually change grammatical class) N + Derivational Morpheme --> Adj. Ex. Boy + ish, Verb + Derivational Morpheme --> Noun Ex. Acquitt + al, clear + ance Adj. + Derivational Morpheme --> Adverb Ex. Exact + ly, quiet + ly
  • 27. Inflectional morphemes Inflectional morphemes have grammatical meaning or function in the sentence. They never change part of speech. For example, Bound Morpheme : Ex. ‘to’ in connection with a verb (‘ an infinitive with to’) Bound Morphemes: Ex. –s, -ed He sails the ocean blue. He sailed the ocean blue.
  • 28. Eight English Inflectional Morphemes -s third-person singular present - ed past tense -ing progressive -en past participle -s plural -’s possessive - er comparative -est superlative She wait s at home. She wait ed at home. She is eat ing the donuts. Mary has eat en the donuts. She ate the donut s . Lisa ’s hair is short. Lisa has short hair than Kate. Lisa has the shor test hair.
  • 29. The major differences between derivational and inflectional morphology predictable (often) unpredictable meaning? (usually) yes (often) no productive? no yes changes stem? not in English yes  addable on to?  further from stem  closer to stem  position  Inflectional   Derivational   
  • 30.  
  • 31. Affixes: prefixes and suffixes Affix : a morpheme that comes at the beginning (prefix) or the ending (suffix) of a base morpheme.  Note : An affix usually is a morpheme that cannot stand alone.  Examples : -ful , -ly , -it y, -nes s. A few exceptions are able , like , and less .
  • 32. Affixes: prefixes and suffixes Prefix : an affix that comes before a base morpheme.  The in in the word inspect is a prefix. Suffix : an affix that comes after a base morpheme.  The s in cats is a suffix.
  • 33. Affixes (prefix, suffix, infix and circumfix) are all bound morphemes. Bound morphemes that are attached to a root or stem morpheme both initially and finally. Example: chokma &quot;he is good&quot;  ik + chokm + o &quot;he isn?t? good&quot;                         (Chickasaw Language) Bound morphemes which are inserted into other morphemes. Example: Fikas &quot;strong&quot;  fumikas &quot;to be strong&quot;  (Bontoc Language) Bound morphemes which occur  following other morphemes. Examples: -er ( singer, performer) -ist (t ypist, pianist) -ly ( manly, friendly) Bound morphemes which occur only before other morphemes. Examples: un- ( uncover, undo ) dis- ( displeased, disconnect), pre- ( predetermine, prejudge ) Circumfixes Infixes Suffixes Prefixes
  • 34. Grammatical morphemes What is the difference in meaning between apple and apples ? What is the difference in form? What does this tell you about these two words?
  • 35. Grammatical morphemes Words can have an internal structure much like the syntax of phrases. Morphemes such as the , -s , and re- near the grammatical end of the continuum are called grammatical morphemes . Note that grammatical morphemes include forms that we can consider to be words like the , a , and , and of and others that make up parts of words like –s and -ed . Examples. pencil s walk ed
  • 36. What are the differences between each type of morphemes?
  • 37. What is the function of each type of morphemes?
  • 38. What is the relationship among each type of morphemes?
  • 39. What is the difference between content/lexical words and function/grammatical words?
  • 40. Content Words Content words denote concepts such as subjects, actions, and ideas ( noun, verb, adjective, adverb ) Content words are open class words ( new words can be added ) Example of new words : Steganography ( the art of hiding information in electronic text )
  • 41. Function Words Function words express Grammatical Functions ( e.g., preposition, article, conjunctions, pronouns ) Function words connect the content words to the larger grammatical context. Functions words are also called ‘closed class’ words ( no new words assed to this class. )
  • 42. Exercise “ I know you can do it”
  • 43. &quot;First say to yourself what you would be, and then do what you have to do.&quot;
  • 44. How are English words formed?
  • 45. Different types of words from different formations. Derived words Lexical gaps Compounds: also how to differentiate compounds from noun phrases Acronyms Back formations Abbreviations/Truncation/Clipping Eponyms Blends
  • 46. Derived words = new words with new meanings formed from root + derivational morpheme e.g. ir+regular = irrigular
  • 47. Lexical Gaps Well-formed but nonexisting word Reason : a permissible sequence has no meaning attached to it <like “blick” or “slarm” or “krobe”> Possible comniations of morpheme never come into use ( Ex. “disobvious” ,“linguisticism” ) Word like *bnick is not a lexical gaps in English because English does not allow the sequence of ‘bn’
  • 48. Compounds Word + word = compound word ( meaning may or may not change ) When the two word are in the same grammatical category, compound will be in this category. Ex. Home ( n. ) + Work ( n. ) = homework ( noun ) Pick ( v. ) + pocket ( n. ) = pickpocket ( noun )
  • 49. Compounds can be more than two words: Two-word compounds are the most common in English. Three – word compounds: three-time loser Four– word compounds: four-dimensional space-time
  • 50. Compounds have internal structure N. N. N. Adj. N. rack top hat N. Adj. N. top N. N. hat rack
  • 51. Rack top hat Hat rack top
  • 52. Meaning of compounds Same meaning as the parts : a boathouse = ( a house for boats ) New meaning but relate to the meaning of the individual parts : a blackboard ( can be in other colors, not just black ) a Redcoat ( slang for British soldier during American Revolutionary War )
  • 53. For example black bird ( turdus merula ) blackbird
  • 54. For example hot dog hotdog
  • 55. For example red wood ( Giant Sequoia ) redwood
  • 56. Acronyms Acronyms are word derived from he initials of several word NASA <National Aeronautics and Space Agency> UNESCO <United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization>
  • 57. Back formations A new word may entry the language because of an incorrect morphological analysis. Example, peddle was derived from peddler on the mistaken assumption that the – er was suffix. stoke --> stoker edit --> editor
  • 58. Abbreviations Abbreviations of longer words or phrases can become lexicalized Fax <facsimile> Telly ( The British word for ‘television’ )
  • 59. Eponyms are word form proper names. Example: sandwich, robot, jumbo Eponyms
  • 60. Blends Similar to compounds but parts of the words that are combined are deleted. Example: smog <from ‘smok + fog’>, motel <from ‘motor + hotel’>
  • 61. The hierarchical structure of words represented by the tree diagram A word is not a simple sequence of morphemes. It has an internal structure as shown in the following tree diagram:
  • 62. T ree diagrams N. Adj. ness un Adj. happy Morphological Rules 1. un + happy --> Adj. 2. adj. + ness --> N.
  • 63. Other terms according to word formation: Rule productivity Universality of compounding Suppletive Exception Expletive Allomorphs Default/elsewhere Homophonous morphemes Reduplication
  • 64. Rule productivity Morphological Rules are Productive because: They can be used freely to form new words from the list of free and bound morpheme. Some morphemes are more productive than others. Productive morphemes: Ex. -able or -er Not Productive morphemes: Ex. –let (piglet)
  • 65. Universality of compounding Universality compounding is a common and frequent process for enlarging the vocabulary of all language. Ex . In Thai, the word ‘cat’ is m єє w, ‘watch’ is fân, and ‘house’ is bâan. The word for ‘watch cat’ is the compound m єє wfânbâan – literally, ‘catwatchhouse’
  • 66. Suppletive Exception Suppletive are treated separately in the grammar, that cannot use the regular rules of inflectional morphology to add affixes to word the exception. Ex. child --> children woman --> women
  • 67. Allomorph Different form of morphemes that have the same meaning e.g. ir_, il_, im_, in_ = not _en, _ø = to make to become … to bright en our mind to brown ø the garlic
  • 68. Zero morpheme/ default/elsewhere A zero morpheme is a morpheme, consisting of no form, that is proposed in some analyses as an allomorph of a morpheme that is ordinarily realized by a morph having some phonetic form. brown (adj) + Ø > brown (verb) = &quot;to make to become brown (er) &quot; dark (adj) + _en > darken (verb) = “to make to become dark (er) ”
  • 69.  
  • 70. Homophonous morphemes Homophones : morphemes that sound alike but have different meanings and spellings.  Examples : bear , bare ; plain , plane ; cite , sight , site .
  • 71. Reduplication • R eduplication is the morphological process by which all or part of a word is copied or duplicated • S ome examples from Lakhota: ‘ to be yellow’ zizí zí ‘ to be blue or green’ thothó thó ‘ to be red’ shashá shá ‘ to be white’ skaská ská ‘ to be rusty brown’ gigí gí gloss Reduplicated form base
  • 73. A great person is an ordinary who decides to do the great thing.
  • 74. References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morpheme http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/caneng/morpheme.htm http://www.ling.udel.edu/arena/morphology.html http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1175304 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/caneng/morpheme.htm http://introling.ynada.com/session-6-types-of-morphemes
  • 75. References http://campus.sou.edu/~nash/morphology.html http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/Fall_1998/ ling001/morphology2.html http://www.indiana.edu/~hlw/Inflection/morphemes.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Back-formation http://bogglesworldesl.com/glossary/grammaticalmorphemes.htm