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Mr O‟Meara
Quotations
  quot;I hate quotations. Tell me what you

  know.“
 Ralph Waldo Emerson


  “I did not have sexual relation...
Speech on the page
    There are two ways of presenting the

    spoken word in the written word.
     Direct speech.
  ...
Indirect Speech
  Conveys the meaning but not the

  exact words used.
 Does not use quotation marks.
 eg. Farmer Joe s...
Direct Speech
  Uses the exact words spoken.

 These exact words are surrounded by
  quotation marks.
 Quotation marks ...
Direct Speech: Exact Words
    Quote the speech exactly as it was said.

    Do not change what was said.

    Do not co...
Direct Speech: Quotation Marks
  These are also known informally as

  talking marks.
 The proper name is quotation mark...
Direct Speech: Quotation Marks
    “Funny,” said Harry. “Really amusing.”



    „Funny,‟ said Harry. „Really amusing.‟

Not for general emphasis
  These are both incorrect uses of

  quotation marks.
 Images from
  http://www.unnecessaryquo...
Direct Speech: Double or
Single?
  British English prefers the single

  quotation mark.
 American English prefers the d...
Changing types of quotation
marks
  Sometimes you will need to have a quote

  within a quote.
 This is when you change ...
You can even swap back to
show further levels of quoting.
  “No,” he said. “It‟s not as if I am, as my

  ex claimed, „em...
Quick Quiz
    Direct or indirect?

    a) I spoke to Barry who said he was “fine”.
    b) She said she would love to see...
Quick Quiz - Answers
    Direct or indirect?

    a) I spoke to Barry who said he was “fine”.
      ○ Direct.
    b) She ...
Other Punctuation
  When your direct speech is

  followed by a speech verb, the
  full stop in the direct speech is
  re...
Other Punctuation
  Although a full stop is changed, all other

  terminal punctuation remains the same.
 Exclamation ma...
Other Punctuation
  When your direct speech is NOT

  followed by a speech verb, terminal
  punctuation is unchanged.
 “...
Your Turn
    Write the following using direct speech.

    a) An exclamation followed by a speech verb.
    b) A stateme...
Another Comma to Remember
  When you use the speech verb then the

  direct speech you must use a comma
  just before the...
Your turn again
    Write the following using direct speech.

    a) A speech verb followed by an exclamation.
    b) A s...
Longer quotations
  If you are quoting a longer passage you

  put the direct speech on in a new
  paragraph without quot...
Longer quotation example
 At the conclusion of the press
 conference, Clinton said:

  I want you to listen to me. I'm goi...
Contracting a quote
  Now and then you might want to take

  some words out of quote.
 Use an ellipsis.


    eg. Clinto...
Adding words to a quote
  You can add your own words using

  square brackets.
 This makes it clear to the reader than
 ...
Adding words - sic
  You add the word sic to a quotation

  when you know the words are somehow
  wrong but need to quote...
Other Uses: Nicknames
    eg. I used to play in a band with “Wily”

    Tim Hackett.
Other uses: Book title, etc
  I really enjoyed “Transporter 3”.

 In the Power of English we studied
  Catherine McPhail...
Other uses: someone else‟s
words
  Quotation marks can show that you are

  using someone else‟s words.
 This is usually...
Final Quiz
    Write these out correctly.

    a) “Great said Spot.
    b) During the holidays, I watched Death Race
    ...
Final Quiz - Answers
 a) “Great,” said Spot.
 b) During the holidays, I watched “Death
    Race” and “For Your Considerati...
The End
Quotations and Quotation Marks
Quotations and Quotation Marks
Quotations and Quotation Marks
Quotations and Quotation Marks
Quotations and Quotation Marks
Quotations and Quotation Marks
Quotations and Quotation Marks
Quotations and Quotation Marks
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Quotations and Quotation Marks

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Quotations and Quotation Marks

  1. 1. Mr O‟Meara
  2. 2. Quotations quot;I hate quotations. Tell me what you  know.“  Ralph Waldo Emerson “I did not have sexual relations with that  woman.”  US President Bill Clinton.
  3. 3. Speech on the page There are two ways of presenting the  spoken word in the written word.  Direct speech.  Indirect speech
  4. 4. Indirect Speech Conveys the meaning but not the  exact words used.  Does not use quotation marks.  eg. Farmer Joe said that there had not been much rain this year.  Written the same as any other sentence.
  5. 5. Direct Speech Uses the exact words spoken.   These exact words are surrounded by quotation marks.  Quotation marks are always used in pairs.  To open then close. “There‟s been no rain this year,”  complained Farmer Joe. “It‟s a real shame.”
  6. 6. Direct Speech: Exact Words Quote the speech exactly as it was said.  Do not change what was said.  Do not condense or expand it without  additional cues to the reader (more on this later). You don‟t have to quote the entire  sentence. As little as a single word.  As much as you need to (although special  formatting applies)
  7. 7. Direct Speech: Quotation Marks These are also known informally as  talking marks.  The proper name is quotation marks.  Put quotation marks before and after the exact words you are quoting.
  8. 8. Direct Speech: Quotation Marks “Funny,” said Harry. “Really amusing.”  „Funny,‟ said Harry. „Really amusing.‟ 
  9. 9. Not for general emphasis These are both incorrect uses of  quotation marks.  Images from http://www.unnecessaryquotes.com/
  10. 10. Direct Speech: Double or Single? British English prefers the single  quotation mark.  American English prefers the double quotation mark.  In Australia either double or single quotation marks are considered acceptable.  You can choose either as your personal style but be consistent.
  11. 11. Changing types of quotation marks Sometimes you will need to have a quote  within a quote.  This is when you change to the other type of quotation mark. “No,” he said. “It‟s not as if I am, as my ex  claimed, „emotionally damaged.‟”  In this example the speaker is quoting someone else‟s words: „emotionally damaged‟.
  12. 12. You can even swap back to show further levels of quoting. “No,” he said. “It‟s not as if I am, as my  ex claimed, „emotionally damaged and “prone to violence.”‟”  In this example the ex was saying he is “emotionally damaged” and, quoting someone else, “prone to violence”.  Multiple levels of quotes are possible but can become unclear.  Think carefully to see if you can say it another way.
  13. 13. Quick Quiz Direct or indirect?  a) I spoke to Barry who said he was “fine”. b) She said she would love to see the movie. c) The judge pronounced him guilty as charged. d) Dorothy whispered, “There‟s no place like home”. e) She said hello.
  14. 14. Quick Quiz - Answers Direct or indirect?  a) I spoke to Barry who said he was “fine”. ○ Direct. b) She said she would love to see the movie. ○ Indirect c) The judge pronounced him guilty as charged. ○ Indirect d) Dorothy whispered, “There‟s no place like home”. ○ Direct e) She said hello. ○ Indirect.
  15. 15. Other Punctuation When your direct speech is  followed by a speech verb, the full stop in the direct speech is replaced by a comma.  “Great,” said Spot.  Note: this punctuation is inside the quotation marks.
  16. 16. Other Punctuation Although a full stop is changed, all other  terminal punctuation remains the same.  Exclamation marks.  “Great!” said Spot. Question marks.   “Why?” asked Spot. Ellipsis   “I wonder...” pondered Spot.
  17. 17. Other Punctuation When your direct speech is NOT  followed by a speech verb, terminal punctuation is unchanged.  “Great,” said Spot. “It‟s time for dinner.”
  18. 18. Your Turn Write the following using direct speech.  a) An exclamation followed by a speech verb. b) A statement followed by a speech verb. c) A questions followed by a speech verb. Use a different speech verb for each  one.
  19. 19. Another Comma to Remember When you use the speech verb then the  direct speech you must use a comma just before the first quotation mark.  This comma is outside the quotation marks.  Spot said, “Great.”  Bill Clinton said, “I did not have sexual relations with that woman.”
  20. 20. Your turn again Write the following using direct speech.  a) A speech verb followed by an exclamation. b) A speech verb followed by a question. c) A speech verb followed by a statement. Use a different speech verb for each  one.
  21. 21. Longer quotations If you are quoting a longer passage you  put the direct speech on in a new paragraph without quotation marks.  Show that it is a quotation by using an indent or another font.  Note where the colon is used.
  22. 22. Longer quotation example At the conclusion of the press conference, Clinton said: I want you to listen to me. I'm going to say this again: I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky. I never told anybody to lie, not a single time; never. These allegations are false, and I need to go back to work for the American people. Thank you.
  23. 23. Contracting a quote Now and then you might want to take  some words out of quote.  Use an ellipsis. eg. Clinton said, “I'm going to say this  again: I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky...These allegations are false”
  24. 24. Adding words to a quote You can add your own words using  square brackets.  This makes it clear to the reader than this are added words.  eg. “I never told anybody to lie [although it turned out this whole declaration was a lie], not a single time; never. These allegations are false, and I need to go back to work for the American people. Thank you.
  25. 25. Adding words - sic You add the word sic to a quotation  when you know the words are somehow wrong but need to quote them exactly.  eg. He shouted to the court, “I never did anything to me [sic] wife!”
  26. 26. Other Uses: Nicknames eg. I used to play in a band with “Wily”  Tim Hackett.
  27. 27. Other uses: Book title, etc I really enjoyed “Transporter 3”.   In the Power of English we studied Catherine McPhail‟s novel “Missing”.
  28. 28. Other uses: someone else‟s words Quotation marks can show that you are  using someone else‟s words.  This is usually done to demonstrate disagreement.  eg. I can‟t believe she thought I was a “massive faker”.
  29. 29. Final Quiz Write these out correctly.  a) “Great said Spot. b) During the holidays, I watched Death Race and For Your Consideration. c) My mother said “you can‟t hurry love” d) Help! she cried as the lion bit her arm off. e) “Bother.” she said as the lion bit of her arm and announced “that was delicious”.
  30. 30. Final Quiz - Answers a) “Great,” said Spot. b) During the holidays, I watched “Death Race” and “For Your Consideration”. c) My mother said, “you can‟t hurry love.” d) “Help!” she cried as the lion bit her arm off. e) “Bother,” she said as the lion bit of her arm and announced, “that was delicious”.
  31. 31. The End

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