2. Chronic obsractive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of respiratory tract
diseases that are characterized by airflow obstraction or limitation. It is usually
caused by tobacco, smoking, but also be caused by dust.
The condition included are : chronic bronchitis, emphysema.
COPD is also known as :
CORD : Chronic Obstractive Respiratory Diseases.
COAD : Chronic Obstractive airways diseases.
COLD : Chronic Obstractive Lung Diseases .
CAL : Chronic Airways Limitation .
3. BRONCHITIS :
Bronchi means Air passages. It means imflammation .
“bronchitis is the chronic imflammation of the air passages within the
4. The main cause of COPD is smoking.characteristically
COPD starts after the age of 40.
Abnormal inflammation response of the lungs due to toxic gases.
Response accurs in the airways, parenchyma & pulmonary
Narrowing of the airways takes place.
Destrction of parenchyma leads to emphysema.
7. Non-pharmacological treatment :-
1. Avoid tobacco smoke.
2. Quite smoking.
3. Avoid people who are sick with or the
4. Pneumonia vaccination.
5. Washing hands regularly.
6. Avoid cold locations or area with air
7. Wear mask around people who are
coughing and sneezing.
8. Pulmonary rehabilitation program
9. Oxygen therapy.
8. Pharmacological treatment :-
1. Oxygen therapy.
2. Antibiotics such as;azithromycin,benzyl
Inhaled bronchodilators :-
Short acting beta agonist – salbutamol,1-2 puffs three times
a day, terbutaline 1.5 mg three times a day.
Long acting beta agonist (salmeterol,formeterol)1-2 puffs
twice a day.
Short acting antocholinergics: (ipratropium) 1-2 puffs,2-3
times a day.
Long acting anticholinergics (tiotropium)1-2 puffs once a
9. Methylxanthines :
Ing. Aminophylline 250 mg in 500 ml of 5% dextrose slowly over 8-10
hours in acute attacks.
Tab. Theophylline 100-300 mg three times a day.
Side effects of theophylline: thachycardia,nausea,and convulsions.
4. Glucocortcoids :
1. Inhaled corticosteroids: these should be given in severe
COPD or in those with repeated exacerbation
Fluticazone 1-2 puffs twice a day.
Budesonide 1-2 puffs twice a day.
2. Systemic corticosteroids:
Tab. prednisolone 30-40 mg/day for 8-10 days in tapering doses.