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Modern broadcast camera techniques, set up & operation

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Modern broadcast camera techniques, set up & operation

  2. 2. – Part I Elements of High-Quality Image Production – Part II 4K and 8K in Modern Broadcast Cameras – Part III Modern Broadcast Camera Technology – Part IV HDR and WCG in Modern Broadcast Cameras 2 OUTLINE
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Q1 Spatial resolution (HD, UHD) Q2 Temporal resolution (Frame Rate) (HFR) Q3 Dynamic Range (SDR, HDR) Q4 Color Gamut (BT. 709, BT. 2020) Q5 Component Coding (Quantization, Bit Depth) Q6 Compression artifacts . . . Total Quality of Experience (QoE or QoX) = F(Q1, Q2, Q3, … Qn) Not only more pixels, but better pixels 4 Elements of High-Quality Image Production
  5. 5. UHDTV 1 3840 x 2160 8.3 MPs Digital Cinema 2K 2048 x 1080 2.21 MPs 4K 4096 x 2160 8.84 MPs SD (PAL) 720 x 576 0.414MPs HDTV 720P 1280 x 720 0.922 MPs HDTV 1920 x 1080 2.027 MPs UHDTV 2 7680 x 4320 33.18 MPs 8K 8192×4320 35.39 MPs Wider viewing angle More immersive Q1: Spatial Resolution
  6. 6. 6 Q1: Spatial Resolution 50 inch TV DHD=0.625×3.1=1.937 m D4K=0.625×1.5=0.937 m D8k=0.625×0.75=0.468 m
  7. 7. Motion Blur Motion Judder Conventional Frame Rate High Frame Rate Wider viewing angle Increased perceived motion artifacts Higher frame rates needed 50fps minimum (100fps being vetted) 7 Q2: High Frame Rate (HFR)
  8. 8. – Deeper Colors – More realistic pictures – More Colorful – Rec. 2020 color space covers 75.8%, of CIE 1931 while Rec. 709 covers 35.9%. Wide Color Space (ITU-R Rec. BT.2020) Color Space (ITU-R Rec. BT.709) Q3: Wide Color Gamut WCG
  9. 9. Images : Dolby Laboratories Standard Dynamic Range High Dynamic Range (More Vivid, More Detail) Q4: High Dynamic Range
  10. 10. Chasing the Human Vision System with HDR 10 Q4: High Dynamic Range
  11. 11. 11 Q3+Q4: Wide Color Gamut + High Dynamic Range SDR SDR HDR HDR+WCG More vivid, More details More real, More colorful
  12. 12. 12 bits 4096 Levels 10 bits 1024 Levels 8 bits 256 Levels 12 – Wide Color Gamut Makes Deeper Colors Available – With more colours to represent, higher bit sample rates (10-bit) are critical Q5: Quantization (Bit Depth)
  13. 13. Spatial Resolution (Pixels) HD, FHD, UHD1, UHD2 Temporal Resolution (Frame rate) 24fps, 30fps, 60fps, 120fps … Dynamic Range (Contrast) From 100 nits to HDR Color Space (Gamut) From BT 709 to Rec. 2020 Quantization (Bit Depth) 8 bits, 10 bits, 12 bits … 13 Five Major Elements of High-Quality Image Production
  14. 14. Next Gen Audio WCG HDR New EOTF HFR (> 50 fps) Screen Size 4K Resolution 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 14 Added Value Score/ Importance Source: Ericsson Co. 2015 and Ultra HD Froum What’s Important in UHD
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 16 8K Motivation
  17. 17. 17 8K Motivation
  18. 18. 18 8K Motivation
  19. 19. 19 8K Motivation
  20. 20. 20 8K Motivation
  21. 21. High Quality Images in Documentary 21 8K Motivation
  22. 22. 22 8K Motivation
  23. 23. – 2016 Rio Olympic Games (The world's first 8K live broadcast) – 2020 Tokyo Olympics in 8K (NHK) 23 8K Motivation
  24. 24. – 35 mm Film Process: – Expensive – Slow – Inflexible – Manual process for assembling shows – 4K emulates the resolution of 35mm Film – The cost of film processing makes 4K attractive – Film prints get scratched and dirty after only a few plays, 4K D Cinema keep a pristine image at all times. – TV Broadcasting with Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 and Q5 24 4K Motivation
  25. 25. UHD1, 4K, UHD2, 8K 25
  26. 26. 4 × HD (3840×2048 or 2(1920×1080)) Image Size 26
  27. 27. UHD is More Immersive @ Proper Viewing Distance for each format Wider viewing angle More immersive 27
  28. 28. Delivery of 4K HDR HDR Support Status IFA 2017 – 4K Ultra Blu-ray – Netflix – Amazon – VUDU – YouTube Red – UltraFlix – PlayStation Video – ULTRA – Fandango – Google play – DirecTV – Dish – Xfinity 28
  29. 29. SMPTE 435-1 Sampling Square Division (SQD) 2 Sample Interleaved (2SI) 29
  30. 30. 30 Base Band Bit rate Comparison 1.5 3.0 3.0 12.0 48.0 - 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 FULL HD 1920× 1080, 50i FULL HD 1920×1080, 50p FULL HD 1920×1080, 50p (HDR+WCG) 4K/UHD1 (HDR+WCG) 8K/UHD2 (HDR+WCG) 1.5Gb/s 3Gb/s 3Gb/s 12Gb/s 48Gb/s Gb/s Belden 1855 46m Belden 1855 52m Belden 1855 52m Belden 1855 87m Belden 1855 46m Belden 7731 106m Belden 7731 106m
  31. 31. 31 Price Comparison for Video Equipment of one Studio $510,000 $538,000 $553,000 $730,000 $2,920,000 $0 $500,000 $1,000,000 $1,500,000 $2,000,000 $2,500,000 $3,000,000 $3,500,000 FULL HD 1920× 1080, 50i FULL HD 1920×1080, 50p FULL HD 1920×1080, 50p (HDR+WCG) 4K/UHD1 (HDR+WCG) 8K/UHD2 (HDR+WCG) • 4 Studio Cameras • Lenses • Pedestals • Video Mixer • Router • MVs • Recorders/Players • Digital Glues • …
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. HUE Saturation= 255 Luminance = 128 33
  34. 34. Saturation Hue = 156 Luminance = 150 Saturation ranges =255 – 0 34
  35. 35. Luminance Hue = 156 Sat = 200 Luminance ranges =255 – 0 35
  36. 36. Color Video Signal Formats 36
  37. 37. Red, Green & Blue Components 37 – Colour pictures can be broken down into three primaries. Red Green Blue. – Original plan to use these primaries in colour television. – The colour are called components.
  38. 38. Red, Green & Blue Components 38
  39. 39. Matrix R BG Y R-Y B-Y 39
  40. 40. Pedestal/Master Black 40 Sut-up Level ─ The absolute black level or the darkest black that can be reproduced by the camera. ─ Base reference for all other signal levels ─ The pedestal can be adjusted as an offset to the set-up level. Blackish and heavier Foggy with less contrast
  41. 41. F-stop F-stop indicates: The amount of incident light at smaller iris openings. Notes:  F-stops are calibrated from the lens’s widest iris opening to its smallest, however the diameter (D) being that for the given iris opening.  F-stops are a global reference for judging the amount of light that should be allowed through the lens during a camera shoot. 41
  42. 42. F-stop 42 ─ F-stop calibrations increase by a factor of root 2, such as 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, and 22 ─ As the value of the F-stop increments by one step (e.g., 5.6 to 8.0), the amount of light passing through the lens decreases by one half.
  43. 43. Fractional stops The one-stop unit is also known as the EV (exposure value) unit. To calculate the steps in a full stop (1 EV) one could use 20×0.5, 21×0.5, 22×0.5, 23×0.5, 24×0.5 etc. The steps in a half stop (1/2 EV) series would be 20/2×0.5, 21/2×0.5, 22/2×0.5, 23/2×0.5, 24/2×0.5 etc. The steps in a third stop (1/3 EV) series would be 20/3×0.5, 21/3×0.5, 22/3×0.5, 23/3×0.5, 24/3×0.5 etc. 43
  44. 44. Flange-Back/Back Focal Length 44
  45. 45. Lens Flange-Back Adjustment Procedure 1- Set the camera and lens as follows: -Turn the lens FB adjustment knob to 0. -Place a Siemens star chart at an 3m for a studio or ENG lens, and 5 to 7 m for an outdoor lens. -Open the lens to full aperture 2- Turn the lens to the telephoto end of the zoom. 3- Turn the focusing ring to bring the image into focus. 4- Turn the lens to the wide-angle end of the zoom. 5- Loosen the FB adjustment lock and turn the adjustment ring until the green channel is in sharp focus. 6- Repeat steps 2 to 5 several times, until the image is in focus at both ends of zoom. 7- Turn the lens to the wide-angle end of the zoom and check the focus on the red and blue channels. If red or blue focus is unsatisfactory, turn the FB adjustment ring back to 0 and perform tracking readjustment. 45
  46. 46. Illumination of Transparent Test Charts 46
  47. 47. Reflective Test Charts 47
  48. 48. Flare – Flare is caused by numerous diffused (scattered) reflections of the incoming light within the camera lens. – This results in the black level of each red, green, and blue channel being raised, and/or inaccurate color balance between the three channels. 48
  49. 49. V V H H 49 CCD Imager WF MonitorIris Ideal Lens Real Lens
  50. 50. CCD Imager WF MonitorIris H H V V 50 Ideal Lens Real Lens
  51. 51. Flare – On a video monitor, flare causes the picture to appear as a misty (foggy) image, sometimes with a color shade. – In order to minimize the flare effect: A flare adjustment function is pprovided, which optimizes the pedestal level and corrects the balance between the three channels electronically. 51 Test card for overall flare measurement Test card for localized flare measurement
  52. 52. Master Flare Function The Master FLARE function enables one VR to control the level of the master FLARE with keeping the tracking of all R/G/B channels. This feature makes it possible to control during operation since the color balance is never off. 52
  53. 53. White Shading ─ Shading is any horizontal or vertical non-linearity introduced during the image capture. ─ White shading ─ It is a phenomenon in which a green or magenta cast appears on the upper and lower parts of the screen, even when white balance is correctly adjusted in the screen center (Two reasons). ─ The color-filtering characteristics of each prism slightly change according to the angle that the light enters each reflection layer (incident angle). ─ Lens’s uneven transmission characteristics. 53
  54. 54. Volts Horizontal Ideal Light Box Ideal Lens 52 u Sec Volts 20 m Sec Vertical 54
  55. 55. 55 Ideal Light Box Real Lens Volts Horizontal 52 u Sec Volts 20 m Sec Vertical
  56. 56. Volts H Volts H Shading Correction Signals Volts H + Para - Para - Saw + Saw Corrected signal 56
  57. 57. Black Shading – Black shading is a phenomenon observed as unevenness in dark areas of the image due to dark current noise of the imaging device. – A black shading adjustment function is available to suppress this phenomenon to a negligible level. Dark current noise: The noise induced in a CCD by unwanted electric currents generated by various secondary factors, such as heat accumulated within the imaging device. 57
  58. 58. We have two kinds of aberration: “Axial chromatic aberration” or “Longitudinal chromatic aberration” “Lateral chromatic aberration” or “Chromatic difference of magnification”. (In the actual video image, this appears as color fringing around color borders) 58 Chromatic Aberration
  59. 59. When light passes through glass, the path it follows gets bent. This phenomenon is called refraction. The angle of refraction depends on the light’s wavelength, which determines its color. – This fact also holds true for the lenses used in a video camera lens. – If one color is in focus on the CCD imager , other colors will be slightly out of focus. – Less chromatic aberration provide sharper images and are generally more expensive. Both axial chromatic aberration and lateral chromatic aberration become more noticeable in lenses with longer focal lengths . This results in the deterioration of picture edges. – Video camera lenses used today are designed with considerations to reduce such chromatic aberrations. – This is achieved by combining a series of converging and diverging lenses with different refraction characteristics. – The use of crystalline substances such as fluorite is also an effective means of reducing chromatic aberration. 59 Chromatic Aberration
  60. 60. Chromatic Aberration Correction Minimize the blur and colored edges caused mainly by lens chromatic aberration. 60
  61. 61. 61 Depth of Field, Depth of Focus & Permissible Circle of Confusion
  62. 62. 62 PermissibleCircleofConfusion Depth of Field, Depth of Focus & Permissible Circle of Confusion
  63. 63. 63 Permissible Circle of Confusion – In optics, a circle of confusion is an optical spot caused by a cone of light rays from a lens not coming to a perfect focus when imaging a point source. – If an image is out of focus by less than the “Permissible Circle of Confusion”, the out-of-focus is undetectable.
  64. 64. Permissible Circle of Confusion & Effect of the Image Sensor – The Permissible Circle of Confusion is re-defined by the sampling of the image sensor. – The permissible Circle of Confusion is the distance between two sampling lines. – For the Super 35mm lens, the vertical height is 13.8 mm. – For the 2/3” lens, the vertical height is 5.4 mm. 64
  65. 65. Depth of Field When focusing a lense on an object, there is a certain distance range in front of and behind the focused object that also comes into focus. – This range is called depth of field and indicates the distance between the closest and furthest points that comes into focus under the same focus adjustement. – When this distance is long ,the depth of field is deep. – When this distance is long ,the depth of field is shallow. 65
  66. 66. It is governed by the three following factors: I. The larger the iris (F-number & F-stop) , the deeper the depth of field. II. The shorter the lens’s focal length , the deeper the depth of field. III. The further the distance between the camera and the subject, the deeper the depth of field. – Depth of field can therefore be controlled by changing these factors, allowing camera operators creative expression. – For example: A shallow depth of field is used for shooting portraits, where the subject is highlighted and the entire background is blurred. 66 Depth of Field
  67. 67. The different light source types emit different colors of light (known as color spectrums) and video cameras capture this difference. 67 Color Temperature
  68. 68. Color Temperature – Our eyes are adaptive to changes in light source colors – i.e., the color of a particular object will always look the same under all light sources: sunlight , halogen lamps, candlelight, etc. – When shooting images with a color video camera, it is important for the camera to be color balanced according to the type of light source (or the illuminant) used. – This is because different light source types emit different colors of light (known as color spectrums) and video cameras capture this difference. 68 The camera color temperature is lower than environment color temperature The camera color temperature is upper than environment color temperature
  69. 69. Color Temperature – Color temperature is used to describe the spectral distribution of light emitted from a light source. – Cameras do not automatically adapt to the different spectrums of light emitted from different light source types. – In such cases, color temperature is used as a reference to adjust the camera’s color balance to match the light source used. For example, if a 3200K (Kelvin) light source is used, the camera must also be color balanced at 3200K. 69
  70. 70. Color Temperature Conversion – All color cameras are designed to operate at a certain color temperature . – Ex at 3200K, meaning that the camera will reproduce colors correctly provided that a 3200K illuminant is used. – Cameras must also provide the ability to shoot under illuminants with color temperatures other than 3200K. – For this reason, a number of selectable color conversion filters before the prism. – These filters optically convert the spectrum distribution of the ambient color temperature (illuminant) to that of 3200K, the camera’s operating temperature. – When only one optical filter wheel is available within the camera, this allows all filters to be Neutral Density types providing flexible exposure control. – The cameras also allow color temperature conversion via electronic means. – The Electronic Color Conversion Filter allows the operator to change the color temperature from 2,000K to 20,000K as typical. 70
  71. 71. 71 Color Temperature Conversion
  72. 72. Color Temperature Conversion “Why do we need color conversion filters if we can correct the change of color temperature electrically (white balance)?". – White balance electrically adjusts the amplitudes of the red (R) and blue (B) signals to be equally balanced to the green (G) by use of video amplifiers. – We must keep in mind that using electrical amplification will result in degradation of signal-to-noise ratio. – Although it may be possible to balance the camera for all color temperatures using the R/G/B amplifier gains, this is not practical from a signal-to-noise ratio point of view, especially when large gain up is required. The color conversion filters reduce the gain adjustments required to achieve correct white balance. 72
  73. 73. Variable Color Temperature The Variable Color Temp. Function allows the operator to change the color temperature from 2,000K to 20,000K 73
  74. 74. Preset Matrix Function – Preset for 3 Matrices can be set. – The Matrix level can be preset to different lightings. – The settings can be easily controlled by the control panel. 74
  75. 75. White Balance & Color Temperature The different light source types emit different colors of light (known as color spectrums) and video cameras capture this difference. 75
  76. 76. The video cameras are not adaptive to the different spectral distributions of each light source type. – In order to obtain the same color reproduction under different light sources, color temperate variations must be compensated by converting the ambient color temperature to the camera’s operating color temperature (Optically or Electrically). – Once the incoming light’s color temperature is converted to the camera’s operating color temperature (Optically or Electrically), this conversion alone does not complete color balancing of the camera, therefore more precise color balancing adjustment must be made . – A second adjustment must be made to precisely match the incoming light’s color temperature to that of the camera known as “white balance” 76 White Balance
  77. 77. White Balance White balance refers to shooting a pure white object, or a grayscale chart, and adjusting the camera’s video amplifiers so the Red, Green, and Blue channels all output the same video level. 77
  78. 78. 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 70 720 760 780 More Precise Color Balancing 78 White Balance
  79. 79. Preset White Preset White is a white-balance selection used in shooting scenarios When the white balance cannot be adjusted OR When the color temperature of the shooting environment is already known (3200K or 5600K for instance). – This means that by simply choosing the correct color conversion filter, optical or electronic, the approximate white balance can be achieved. – It must be noted however, that this method is not as accurate as when taking white balance. By selecting Preset White, the R/G/B amplifiers used for white-balance correction are set to their center values. At center values 79
  80. 80. AWB (Auto White Balance) ─ Unlike the human eye, cameras are not adaptive to different color temperatures of different light source types or environments. ─ The camera must be adjusted each time a different light source is used. ─ This is achieved by adjusting the camera’s white balance to make a ‘white’ object always appear white. ─ The AWB is achieved by framing the camera on a white object – typically a piece of white paper/clothe or grayscale chart – so it occupies more than 70% of the display. Macbeth Chart 80
  81. 81. Black Balance ─ To ensure Accurate color reproduction throughout all video levels, it is important that the red, green, and blue channels are also in correct balance when there is no incoming light. ─ When there is no incoming light, the camera’s red, green, and blue outputs represent the “signal floors” of the red, green, and blue signals, and unless these signal floors are matched, the color balance of other signal levels will not match either.. 81
  82. 82. Black Balance It is necessary when: – Using the camera for the first time – Using the camera after a significant perid out of use – Sudden change in temperature – Without this adjustment, the red, green, and blue color balance cannot be precisely matched even with correct white balance adjustments. 82
  83. 83. ND (Neutral Density) Filter 83 It reduces light of all wavelengths. It is used when the subject is too bright to be adjusted by the diaphragm alone. The ND filters reduce the amount of incoming light to a level where the lens iris can provide correct exposure for even bright images. – It is important to note that the use of ND filters does not affect the color temperature of the incoming light – they are designed so that light intensity is reduced uniformly across the entire spectrum. – The ND filters can also be used to intentionally control an image’s depth of field to make it more shallow. – This is because ND filters allow a wider iris opening to be selected, and because depth of field decreases as iris aperture (opening) increases.
  84. 84. ND (Neutral Density) Filter Strength of an ND filter may be express as:  Transmittance T  Density D D=-log T  Exposure factor Exposure factor=1/T 84
  85. 85. – A polarizer is used to intercept (stop/catch) light reflected from the surface of water or glass. – Since light scattered by the atmosphere is partly polarized, polarizer is also effective when shooting subjects against a blue sky. – It can suppress the sky and make mountains or other objects stand out. A polarizer 1- Reduces the total amount of light to about ¼ 2- Changes the color balance ,so the white balance must be readjusted. Polarizer in Camera 85
  86. 86. CRT Control Grid Output Light Input voltage Output light Ideal Real Dark areas of a signal Bright areas of a signal Gamma, CRT Characteristic CRT Gamma It is caused by the voltage to current grid-drive of the CRT and not the phosphor (i.e. a current-driven CRT has a linear response) 86
  87. 87. CRT Control Grid Light Input Input voltage Output light Camera OutputLight Output voltage Input light Input light Output light Camera Gamma CRT Gamma Legacy system-gamma is about 1.2 to compensate for dark surround viewing conditions. ITU-R BT.709 87
  88. 88. 88 lookmuchbrighter lookmuchdarker Itismadedarker Itismadebrighter
  89. 89. By lowering the gamma correction value, you can add extra color depth to image. on the contrary, setting gamma to a higher value allows you to shoot images with lighter hue. By lowering the camera gamma correction(γc ) value 89
  90. 90. CRT Control Grid CRT Gamma Camera Gamma Light Input Camera Output Light Output voltage Input light More contrast in dark picture areas, (more low-luminance detail). more noise. Less contrast in dark picture areas, (less low-luminance detail). less noise. - + Black Gamma 90
  91. 91. By decreasing black gamma dark areas are reproduced with more color and darkness . 91
  92. 92. CCD image sensors have a dynamic range that is around three to six times larger than the video signal’s dynamic range. 1) Linear Fashion Mapping: The picture content most important to us (ordinarily lighted subjects and human skin tones ) would be reproduced at very low video levels, making them look too dark on a picture monitor. Remember that the brightness (luminance) levels need to fit within the 0% to 100% (max. 109%) video signal range. 92 Knee Correction (max. 109%)
  93. 93. Knee Correction 2) Clipping Off or Discarding the Image’s Highlights This would offer bright reproduction of the main picture content, but with the tradeoff of image highlights having no contrast and appearing washed out. 93
  94. 94. Knee Correction – Knee Correction offers a solution to both issues, keeping the main content bright while maintaining a certain level of contrast for highlights. – The image sensor output is mapped to the video signal so it maintains a proportional relation until a certain video level. This level is called the knee point. 94
  95. 95. Knee Correction Input Signal Output Signal 0 0.6 0.7 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.4 Low Contrast Highlights Highlight ImagesMain Subject Low Knee point 95 Natural Contrast Main Subject
  96. 96. 0 0.6 0.7 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.4 High Knee point 96 Input Signal Output Signal Very Low Contrast Highlights Natural Contrast Main Subject Highlight ImagesMain Subject Knee Correction
  97. 97. 0 0.6 0.7 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.4 Low Compression Slope 97 Input Signal Output Signal Low Contrast Small Dynamic Range Natural Contrast Main Subject Main Subject Knee Correction
  98. 98. 0 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.4 Natural Contrast Main Subject Greater Dynamic Range High Compression Slope 98 Input Signal Output Signal Main Subject 0.1 Very Low Contrast Knee Correction
  99. 99. – Photo A shows that the scenery outside the window (image highlights) gets overexposed when Knee Correction is turned off. – In contrast, by activating the Knee Correction function, both the person inside the car as well as the scenery outside are clearly reproduced. (Photo B) 99 Knee Correction
  100. 100. 100
  101. 101. Smooth KNEE Provides natural high-light scene by a super dynamic compression system. 101
  102. 102. Super KNEE 102
  103. 103. Image Sensors – Image sensors have photo-sensors that work in a similar way to our retina’s photosensitive cells, to convert light into a signal charge. – However, the charge readout method is quite different!!!!! 103
  104. 104. 104 Three-Chip Imaging System
  105. 105. Image Sensor Size – Image sensor size is measured diagonally across the imager’s photosensitive area, from corner to corner. – A larger image sensor size generally translates into better image capture. – This is because a larger photosensitive area can be used for each pixel. The benefits of larger image sensors can be summarized as follows: 1. Higher sensitivity 2. Less smear 3. Better signal-to-noise characteristics 4. Use of better lens optics 5. Wider dynamic range 105
  106. 106. – The term full frame or ff is used by users of digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs) as a shorthand for an image sensor format which is the same size as 35mm format (36 mm × 24 mm) film. Image Sensor Size 63.26mm 106
  107. 107. CCD and CMOS Image Sensors 107 CCD and CMOS sensors perform the same steps, but at different locations, and in a different sequence.
  108. 108. Both CCD and CMOS sensors perform all of these steps. However, they differ as to where and in what sequence these steps occur. I. Light-to-charge conversion: In the photo-sensitive area of each pixel, light directed from the camera lens is converted into electrons that collect in a semiconductor "bucket.“ II. Charge accumulation: As more light enters, more electrons come into the bucket. III. Transfer: The signal must move out of the photosensitive area of the chip, and eventually off the chip itself. IV. Charge-to-voltage conversion: The accumulated charge must be output as a voltage signal. V. Amplification: The result of charge-to-voltage conversion is a very weak voltage that must be made strong before it can be handed off to the camera circuitry. 108 CCD and CMOS Image Sensors
  109. 109. CCD Image Sensor 109
  110. 110. CCD Image Sensor 110 – Charge Transfer from Photo Sensor to Vertical CCD – Like Water Draining from a Dam.
  111. 111. CCD Image Sensor 111 – Charge Transfer by CCD in a Bucket-brigade Fashion. – CCD image sensors get their name from the vertical and horizontal shift registers, which are Charge Coupled Devices that act as bucket brigades.
  112. 112. CCD Image Sensor 112 – Voltage Generated on Surface of Photo Sensor – Like the Rising Water Level of a Bucket – The downward direction indicates a high voltage. Conversely, the upward direction indicates a high negative potential, since the charge has a negative electrical value.
  113. 113. CMOS Image Sensor 113 – CMOS sensors have an amplifier at each pixel. – The charge is first converted to a voltage and amplified right at the pixel. – By placing ADCs so close to each photo site, these sensors significantly reduce the signal's exposure to noise.
  114. 114. 114 – Signal Voltage Generated by Amplifier (Like a Floodgate that Controls the Water Level of a Canal) – The downward direction indicates a high voltage. – The upward direction indicates a high negative potential, since the charge has a negative electrical value. CMOS Image Sensor
  115. 115. 115 Conventional CMOS Sensor Column Analog-to-Digital Converter An array of analog-to- digital converters (ADCs), one for each column can reduce noise in CMOS sensors Correlated Double Sampling
  116. 116. Geometric Distortion in CMOS Sensor 116 – Experienced video shooters often test this phenomenon by rapidly panning the camera back and forth past the legs of a table. – A distorted image will show "wobbly legs.“ – Image distortion in a CMOS camera can make a moving car appear to lean backwards.
  117. 117. Advantages of CCD: 1. High image quality 2. Low spatial noise (FPN) 3. Typically low dark current 4. High fill factor (relation of the photo sensitive area to the whole pixel area) generally by larger pixels 5. Perfect global shutter – Increased sensitivity – Good signal quality at low light 6. Modern CCDs with multi tap technologies – n times readout speed compared to single tap sensors 117 Advantages of CMOS: 1. High frame rates, even at high resolution 2. Faster and more flexible readout (e.g. several AOIs: Area of Interests) 3. High dynamic range or HDR mode (Acquisition of contrast-rich and extremely bright objects) 4. No blooming or smear contrary to CCD 5. Integrated control circuit on the sensor chip 6. More cost-effective and less power consumption than comparable CCD sensors Image Sensors Comparison
  118. 118. Optical Low Pass Filter – Due to the physical size and alignment of the photo sensors on a CCD imager, when an object with fine detail (such as a fine striped pattern) is shot, a rainbow-colored pattern known as Moiré may appear across the image. – This tends to happen when the image’s spatial frequency exceeds the CCD’s spatial-offset frequency or, put more simply, when – The image details are smaller than the spacing between each photo sensor. – In order to reduce such Moiré patterns from appearing, optical low pass filters are used in CCD cameras. – An optical low pass filter is placed in front of the CCD prism block to blur image details that may result in Moiré. – Since this type of filtering can reduce picture resolution, the characteristics of an optical low pass filter are determined with special care – to effectively reduce Moiré, but without degrading the camera’s maximum resolving power. 118
  119. 119. Moire Reduction Filter Effective in studio 119
  120. 120. Moire Reduction Filter 120
  121. 121. Detail Correction, Detail Signal and Detail Level 121
  122. 122. CCD Image Chip Individual Pixels Volts Time / H location Volts Time / H location CCD output signal after integration of charges Charge levels on Pixels 122
  123. 123. Volts Time / H location Time / H location Ideal Signal CCD Output Signal Volts Distinct edge: Instantaneous transition from black to white Blurred edge: Gradual transition from black to white 123
  124. 124. Ideal Signal CCD output signal Correction signal Corrected signal + = 124
  125. 125. – The video signal output from a CCD unit lacks detail information because the unit’s ability to resolve detail is limited by the size of the light sensitive pixels. – An electronic circuit in the camera compensates for the missing detail information in the Video signal. – It Makes picture edges appear sharper than the native resolution provided by the camera (also called “image enhancement”). – This is achieved by overshooting the signal at the picture edges using a spike-shaped signal called the detail signal. – The amount of detail correction can usually be adjusted. This is called detail level. – Increasing the detail level sharpens the picture, while decreasing it softens the picture. 125 Detail Correction/Signal/Level
  126. 126. H/V Ratio Detail correction is applied to both horizontal and vertical picture edges using separate horizontal detail and vertical detail circuits. H/V Ratio: The ratio between the amount of detail applied to the horizontal and vertical picture edges. – It is important to maintain the balance of the horizontal and vertical detail signals to achieve natural picture enhancement. H/V Ratio should thus be checked every time detail signals are adjusted. 126
  127. 127. Highlight DTL Provides better expression in highlight scene (High Amplitude) Conventional model 127
  128. 128. Fine DTL By expanding the small edge in the low contrast object and compressing the edge component in the high contract object, the impression for the glare (a bright unpleasant light) of picture with too much edge is reduced and the natural image can be obtained. 128 Compressing the edge component in the high contrast object Expanding the small edge component in the low contrast object
  129. 129. Increasing the detail level will sharpen the image’s picture edges, and decreasing it will soften its texture. The image will have a softer texture by decreasing the detail level. 129
  130. 130. EZ Focus EZ Focus is a feature that makes manual focusing adjustments much easier. – When activated, the camera automatically opens the lens Iris to its widest range. This allows the camera operator to make correct focus adjustments much easier. – To avoid over-exposure during this mode, the video level is automatically adjusted by activating the electronic shutter. – The lens iris will be kept open for several seconds and then return to the same iris opening before EZ Focus was activated. 130
  131. 131. Expanded Focus The center of the screen on the LCD monitor and viewfinder of the camcorder can be magnified to about twice the size, making it easier to confirm focus settings during manual focusing. 131
  132. 132. Zebra 132
  133. 133. Zebra is a feature used to assist manual iris adjustments by displaying a striped pattern (called a ‘zebra pattern’) in the viewfinder across image highlights above a designated brightness level. Two types of zebra modes are available: One to indicate highlights above 100 IRE Other indicating signal levels between the 70 and 90 IRE range – The 100 IRE Zebra displays a zebra pattern only across picture areas which exceed 100 IRE, the video level of pure white in NTSC and PAL. Using this zebra mode, camera operators adjust the lens iris ring until this zebra pattern appears in the brightest areas of the picture. – The second zebra mode displays a zebra pattern across highlights between 70-90 IRE, and disappears above the 90 IRE level. This is useful to determine the correct exposure for facial skin tones since properly exposed skin (in the case of Caucasian skin) usually falls within the 80 IRE areas. 133 Zebra
  134. 134. Gain and decibels (dB) Referring to this table:  A 20 dB signal gain up means the signal level has been boosted by 10 times. A 6 dB signal drop (= minus 6 dB) means the signal level has fallen to one half.  The most decibel values that need to be remembered are shown in the following table. 134
  135. 135. 135 Multi Matrix – The colors are selected by their Hue (Phase), Saturation, and Width (hue range). – In conventional color correction or matrix control, control parameters interact with each other. – The Multi Matrix function allows color adjustments to be applied over a single color range, while keeping other colors intact. – The Multi Matrix function divides the color spectrum into 16 areas of adjustment, where the operator can select the hue and/or saturation of the area to be color modified.
  136. 136. 136 ─ In Viewfinders due to their small size screens, resolutions can be limited, making precise focus adjustments difficult. ─ This function boosts the viewfinder signal in frequency ranges that correspond to the image’s VERTICAL picture edges. As a result, sharp images are reproduced on the viewfinder screen, allowing correct focus adjustments. ─ The PEAKING level, which determines the boost level, is adjustable depending on the operator’s preferences. ─ Although higher PEAKING levels offer sharper viewfinder images, when adjusting PEAKING, two factors must be considered: I. Raising PEAKING level equally boosts the viewfinder signal’s noise level II. Too much PEAKING can create excessively bright picture edges along viewfinder characters and icons, such as on- screen indications including Gain ,ND/CC, Shutter, settings, and markers. It is therefore important to balance these factors with the required image sharpness on the viewfinder. Peaking
  137. 137. Skin Tone Detail Correction is a function that allows the detail level of a user-specified color to be adjusted (enhanced or reduced) independently, without affecting the detail signals of other picture areas. – Skin Tone Detail Correction was originally developed to reduce unwanted image enchantement (detail signals) on facial imperfections such as wrinkles, smoothening the reproduction of human skin. – By selecting a specific skin color, the detail signals for that skin color can be individually controlled and suppressed. – High-end professional video cameras offer a Triple Skin Tone Detail Function, which allows independent detail control over three user-specified colors. This enhances the flexibility of Detail Correction – one color selection can be used for reducing the detail level of skin color, and two other selections can be used for either increasing or decreasing the detail level of two other objects. 137 Skin Tone Detail Correction Eliminates the DTL edge only for high frequency area of skin tone to have more effect.
  138. 138. VF Detail – As cameras offer higher image resolutions, focus accuracy becomes a more critical issue than ever before. – In addition to the viewfinder PEAKING function, high-end cameras incorporate a VF DETAIL function, offering a better choice for facilitating focus adjustments. – Compared to PEAKING, the VF DETAIL function offers two unique features. 1- The PEAKING sharpens only vertical picture edges, VF DETAIL increases the sharpness of viewfinder images both vertically and horizontally. 2- The PEAKING is processed within the viewfinder, however VF DETAIL takes place within the camera. This means that the VF DETAIL function applies sharpness only to video signals shot by the camera, avoiding on-display characters created in the viewfinder from being overemphasized. The VF DETAIL mechanism uses a process similar to the camera’s main detail function. However, an exclusive detail circuit is used to create the detail signals and add them to the video signal sent to the viewfinder display. 138
  139. 139. Clear VF DTL – Clear VF DTL supports fine focusing in critical situation of HDTV shooting – Enables the camera operator to focus much easier 139
  140. 140. Focus Assist Function This makes a photographer easy to adjust the VF focus. 140
  141. 141. New Focus Assist Function for 4K 141
  142. 142. Super Resolution Process – It is not just upscaling from HD signal. – It includes so called Super Resolution with image enhancement in the Ultra HD band, a new technology to reconstruct high resolution signals that is not possible in conventional HD processing! 142
  143. 143. 4K/HD Simulcast – Independent image processing for 4K and HD. – GAMMA Curve, Color and DTL can be adjust together or separately. 143
  144. 144. 4K/HD Simulcast and HDR 144
  145. 145. HD cutout function for clear images 145 – In Zoom & Perspective mode, one portion can be cut out while performing perspective transformation, according to the focal length of the lens (The cutout region can be controlled with a mouse). – In simple HD mode two portions can be cut out at the same time (The cutout region can be controlled with a mouse).
  146. 146. FWIGSS FOCUS - Prior to the start of recording, the camera operator manually sets the focus following four simple steps. Switch to manual focus mode Zoom in on subject’s eyes Adjust focus ring until sharp Zoom out to compose shot FWIGSS An acronym used for remembering the six primary device settings on a video camera: focus, white balance, iris, gain, shutter speed, and sound. 146
  147. 147. FWIGSS White Balance - Prior to the start of recording, the camera operator manually zooms in on a white card held by the subject to set the white balance. 147 FWIGSS
  148. 148. FWIGSS Iris, Gain, and Shutter Speed - Prior to the start of recording, the camera operator adjusts the iris, gain, and shutter speed as required or desired until the shot is properly exposed. The zebra lines are an aid in setting exposure. 148 FWIGSS
  149. 149. FWIGSS Sound - Prior to the start of recording, the camera operator conducts a sound check and adjusts the record levels for optimal sound reproduction. 149 FWIGSS
  150. 150. 150
  151. 151. Light Levels NIT − The measure of light output over a given surface area. 1 Nit = 1 Candela per Square Meter Dynamic Range − The range of dark to light in an image or system. − Dynamic range is the ratio between the whitest whites and blackest blacks in an image (10000:0.1) High Dynamic Range − Wider range of dark to light. 151
  152. 152. In Rec709 100% white (700mV) is reference to 100 Nits 152 Light Levels
  153. 153. Light Levels in Stop 𝐻𝑉𝑆 𝐷. 𝑅 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑎 𝑓𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑝𝑢𝑝𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑝 = log2 10,000 𝑛𝑖𝑡 0.1 𝑛𝑖𝑡 = 16 The dynamic range of the human eye with a fixed pupil is normally 105. 104 10−1 𝐻𝑉𝑆 𝐷. 𝑅 𝑖𝑛 𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑝 = log2 100,000 𝑛𝑖𝑡 0.001 𝑛𝑖𝑡 = 26.6 153
  154. 154. HDR Two Parts – There are two parts to High Dynamic Range (HDR) – Monitor (Display) – Camera (Acquisition) – In the Monitor, it is trying to have the range of the material presented to it. Making things brighter with more resolution. – In the Camera it is trying to get many more ‘F’ stops, wider dynamic range with the data for that range. – HDR increases the subjective sharpness of images , perceived color saturation and immersion. – SDR or LDR is Standard Dynamic Range 154
  155. 155. (Inner triangle: HDTV primaries, Outer triangle: UHDTV primaries) 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 y 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 y (a) Carnation x (b) Geranium and marigold x Wide Color Gamut Makes Deeper Colors Available 155
  156. 156. BT. 601 and BT.709 Color Spaces – The maximum (“brightest”) and minimum (“darkest”) values of the three components R, G, B define a volume in that space known as the “color volume”. – Rec-601 and Rec-709 are basically on top of each other – So, we can use the same screen for SD and HD with out going through conversion in the Monitor to change the color space 156
  157. 157. BT. 2020 Color Space – Rec. 2020 color space covers 75.8%, of CIE 1931 while Rec. 709 covers 35.9%. 157
  158. 158. Color Gamut Conversion (Gamut Mapping and Inverse Mapping) 158 Wide Color Space (ITU-R Rec. BT.2020) 75.8%, of CIE 1931 Color Space (ITU-R Rec. BT.709) 35.9%, of CIE 1931 A 1 B C 2 D 3 RGB 100% Color Bar Rec. 709 Rec. 2020 CIE 1931 Color Space
  159. 159. (ITU-R Rec. BT.2020) (ITU-R Rec. BT.709) Transformation from a Wider Gamut Space to a Smaller One 159 BT.2020 Signal BT.709 – Without any corrections (gamut mapping), the image appear less saturated. Munsell Chart A 1 Three Approaches: I. Clipping the RGB (clipping distortions) II. Perceptual gamut mapping (more computations and possibly changing the ‘creative intent’) III. Leaving the RGB values as they are and let the screen think that they relate to primaries of ITU-R BT.709.
  160. 160. – Without any corrections color saturation will be increased. Smaller Gamut Space in a Wide Gamut Display 160 Munsell Chart BT.709 Signal BT.2020 (ITU-R Rec. BT.2020) (ITU-R Rec. BT.709) D 3
  161. 161. – Opto-Electronic Transfer Function (OETF): Scene light to electrical signal – Electro-Optical Transfer Function (EOTF): Electrical signal to scene light Gamma, EOTF, OETF 161
  162. 162. – Opto-Electronic Transfer Function (OETF): Scene light to electrical signal – Electro-Optical Transfer Function (EOTF): Electrical signal to scene light Gamma, EOTF, OETF The CRT EOTF is commonly known as gamma 162
  163. 163. – Adjustment or Artistic Intent (Non-Linear Overall Transfer Function) – System (total) gamma to adjust the final look of displayed images (Actual scene light to display luminance Transfer function) – The “reference OOTF” compensates for difference in tonal perception between the environment of the camera and that of the display specification (OOTF varies according to viewing environment and display brightness) OOTF (Opto-Optical Transfer Function) OOTF Same Look 163
  164. 164. – On a flat screen display (LCD, Plasa,..) without OOTF, it appears as if the black level is elevated a little. – To compensate the black level elevation and to make images look closer to CRT, a display gamma = 2.4 has been defined under BT.1886. – As a result, OOTF = 1.2 Display EOTF gamma 2.4 Camera OETF 1/2.2 OOTF = 1.2 OOTF (Overall System Gamma, Artistic Rendering Intent) Opto-Optical Transfer Function (OOTF) Non-Linear Overall Transfer Function 164
  165. 165. – Perceptual Quantization (PQ) (Optional Metadata) – Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) OOTF Position For viewing in the end-user consumer TV, a display mapping should be performed to adjust the reference OOTF on the basis of mastering peak luminance metadata of professional display 165 OOTF is implemented within the display and is aware of its peak luminance and environment (No metadata)
  166. 166. Scene-Referred and Display-Referred Scene-Referred: – The HLG signal describes the relative light in the scene – Every pixel in the image represents the light intensity in the captured scene – The signal produced by the camera is independent of the display – The signal is specified by the camera OETF characteristic Display-Referred: – The PQ signal describes the absolute output light from the mastering display – The signal is specified by the display EOTF 166
  167. 167. Code Levels Distribution in HDR Uniform CodeWords for Perceived Brightness 167
  168. 168. Barten Ramp Human eye’s sensitivity to contrast in different levels 100 MinimumDetectableContrast(%) MinimumContrastStep(%) Luminance (nit) Contouring Banding ∆𝐿 𝐿 ×100 ∆𝐿 & L are Large,Less bits are required,Larger quantize step size∆𝐿 & L are small,More bits are required,Smaller quantize step size Minimum detectable contrast (%) = 𝐌𝐢𝐧𝐢𝐦𝐮𝐦 𝐝𝐞𝐭𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐝𝐢𝐟𝐟𝐞𝐫𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐞 𝐢𝐧 𝐥𝐮𝐦𝐢𝐧𝐚𝐧𝐜𝐞 𝐋𝐮𝐦𝐢𝐧𝐮𝐧𝐜𝐞 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎 = ∆𝑳 𝑳 ×100 2 L ∆𝑳 𝑳 ×100 ∆𝑳 𝑳 ×100 168  The threshold of visibility for quantization error (Minimum detectable contrast) (banding or contouring) becomes higher as the image gets darker.  The threshold for perceiving quantization error (banding or contouring) is approximately constant in the brighter parts and highlights of an image.
  169. 169. PQ EOTF Code words are equally spaced in perceived brightness over this range nits. BrightnessCodeWords 169 Minimum Detectable Contrast (%) = 𝐌𝐢𝐧𝐢𝐦𝐮𝐦 𝐃𝐞𝐭𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐃𝐢𝐟𝐟𝐞𝐫𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐞 𝐢𝐧 𝐋𝐮𝐦𝐢𝐧𝐚𝐧𝐜𝐞 𝐋𝐮𝐦𝐢𝐧𝐮𝐧𝐜𝐞 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎 = ∆𝑳 𝑳 ×100 2 L
  170. 170. Code Words Utilization by Luminance Range in PQ – PQ headroom from 5000 to 10,000 nits = 7% of code space – 100 nits is near the midpoint of the code range 170
  171. 171. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 SignalValue Linear light SDR gamma curve SDR with Knee HDR HLG Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) HDR-TV E : The signal for each color component {RS, GS, BS} proportional to scene linear light and scaled by camera exposure, normalized to the range [0:12]. E′ :The resulting non-linear HLG coded signal {R',G',B'} in the range [0:1]. a = 0.17883277, b = 0.28466892, c = 0.55991073 More CodeWords for DarkArea          112ln 03 OETF 12 1 12 1 EcbEa EE EE 171 Less CodeWords for BrightArea ITU-R Application 2 ,ARIB B67 (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses)
  172. 172. HDR & SDR Mastering HDR BT.2020 SDR BT.709 172
  173. 173. Tone Mapping and Inverse Tone Mapping Tone Mapping (Down-conversion) Limiting Luminance Range Inverse Tone Mapping (Up-conversion) Expanding Luminance Range 173 HDR BT.2020 SDR Signal (BT.709 or BT.2020) HDR HDR Signal (BT.2020) SDR Signal (BT.709 or BT.2020) SDR (BT.709 or BT.2020) HDR Signal (BT.2020) SDR
  174. 174. 174 – Optimized only for the brightest scene in the contents – This avoids hard clipping of detail in the highlights – It is not invariant under blind multiple round-trip conversions. Static Tone Mapping (HDR10) Static and Dynamic Tone Mapping 200 1500
  175. 175. 175 – Optimized for each scene in the contents – Ex: frame-by-frame, or scene-by-scene basis (Varying the EETF based on statistics of the image). – This approach could survive multiple round-trip conversions Dynamic Tone Mapping Static and Dynamic Tone Mapping
  176. 176. Static and Dynamic Metadata in HDR Static Metadata – Mastering Display Color Volume (MDCV) Metadata (SMPTE ST2086) – The chromaticity of the red, green, and blue display primaries – White point of the mastering display – Black level and peak luminance level of the mastering display – Content Light Levels Metadata (The Blu-ray Disc Association and DECE groups): – MaxCLL (Maximum Content Light Level): Largest individual pixel light value of any video frame in the program – MaxFALL (Maximum Frame-Average Light Level): Largest average pixel light value of any video frame in the program (The maximum value of frame-average maxRGB for all frames in the content) (The frame-average maxRGB : The average luminance of all pixels in each frame) – They could be generated by the color grading software or other video analysis software. Dynamic Metadata – Content-dependent Metadata (SMPTE ST2094 (pending)) – Frame-by-frame or scene-by-scene Color Remapping Information (CRI) – Variable color transformation along the content timeline. 176
  177. 177. Mapping – During the transition from SDR to HDR production (More SDR Display) or due to content owner preference – To preserve the “look” of the SDR content on HDR Display – Display-referred mapping To preserve the colors and relative tones of SDR on HDR Display – Scene-referred mapping To match the colors and lowlights and mid-tones of SDR camera with HDR camera. 177 SDR camera output (BT.709 or BT.2020) HDR Signal HDR BT.2020 Preserved SDR Look in HDR Program (Ex: 20%) (Without Expanded Luminance Range) HDR Signal HDR BT.2020 SDR Content (BT.709 or BT.2020) (Without Expanded Luminance Range) Preserved SDR Look in HDR Program (Ex:20%)
  178. 178. Backwards Compatibility – Most of encoder/decoder and TVs are SDR (encoders/decoders replacement !!?? ) – Dolby Vision, Technicolor, Philips and BBC/NHK are all backwards compatible. – Backwards compatibility is less of an issue in over-the-top (OTT). HDR Signal SDR UHDTV ITU-R BT.709 color space HDR metadata simply is ignored (Limited compatibility) 178 (Color Signal) (B & W Display)
  179. 179. HLG and PQ Backwards Compatibility with SDR Displays HLG BT.2020 SDR BT.2020 color space − It has a degree of compatibility. − Hue changes can be perceptible in bright areas of highly saturated color or very high code values (Specular) − Both PQ and HLG provide limited compatibility HLG/PQ BT.2020 SDR BT.709 color space 179
  180. 180. Ex: Benefit of 4K Lens for WCG and HDR – Both HD and 4K lens covers BT.2020. – Improve the transparency of Blue in 4K lens – Better S/N ratio. – 4K lens can cut the flare and reduce black floating even in a backlit conditions. – Black floating is more noticeable in HDR. – Same object and same white level, but black level of – HD: 21.9% (HD lens reduces dynamic range!) – Full 4K:11.6% Same object and same white level, but different black level 180
  181. 181. HDR & HDMI HDMI 2.0a supports ST2084 (PQ) and ST2086 (Mastering Display Color Volume Metadata) HDMI 2.0b followed up on HDMI 2.0a and added support for HLG and the HDR10 The HDMI 2.1 Specification will supersede 2.0b will support dynamic metadata and High Frame Rate 181
  182. 182. HDR Standards Dynamic Metadata for Color Transform (DMCVT) Dolby Vision, HDR10+ (License-free Dynamic Metadata), SL-HDR1, Technicolor (PQ) Static Metadata (Mastering Display Color Volume (MDCV) Metadata+ MaxCLL+ MaxFALL) HDR10 (PQ + static metadata) PQ10 (+ Optional static metadata) No Metadata HLG10, PQ10 (without metadata) StandoutExperienceSimplicity 182
  183. 183. HDR Metadata and HDR/SDR Signal ID 183
  184. 184. (FIFA World Cup 2018) 184
  185. 185. Global Picture of Sony “SR Live” for Live Productions (FIFA World Cup 2018) – 8 Cameras Dual output UHD/HDR and HD/SDR – 11 Cameras Dual output HD/HDR and HD/SDR – 21 Cameras Single output HD/SDR – All Replays HD/SDR Shading of all cameras is done on the HD/SDR (BT. 709) 185
  186. 186. Global Picture of “HLG-Live” for Live Productions Shading of all cameras is done on the HD/SDR (BT. 709) 186
  187. 187. SD and HD Vectors 709 Color Space 601 Color Space Vector look is same as each other 187
  188. 188. BT.2020 and BT.709 Vectors 709 Color Space 2020 Color Space Vector look is same as each other 188
  189. 189. Standard Definition100% color bar test pattern. Standard Definition 100% color bar RGB parade Standard Definition 100% color barYPbPr parade High Definition 100% color barYPbPr parade Why small Spikes in the RGB waveform parade? The unequal rise time between Luma and Color Difference bandwidths and the conversion of SDI Y’P’bP’r back to R’G’B’ in the waveform display. 189
  190. 190. HD 100% color barsYPbPr parade, Rec. 709. UHD 100% color barsYPbPr parade, Rec. 709. UHD 100% Color BarsYPbPr parade, Rec. 2020. Spike transitions is normal because no video filtering is applied to each link. This allows the quad links to be seamlessly stitched together, otherwise a thin black line would be seen between the links. 190
  191. 191. UHD 100% Split Field Color Bars with both 709 and 2020 color spaces inYPbPr Parade display. 191
  192. 192. RGB Paraded waveform display of 100% Color Bar split field test signal with Rec. 709 and Rec. 2020 color spaces.  In some cases the SMPTE 352 VPID may contain information on the colorimetry data that is used. Often however, this may not be the case and a known test signal such as color bars will be necessary to assist the user in determining the correct color space.  The user must manually select from the configuration menu between the 709 and 2020 colorspaces.  When the correct colorspace is selected then the traces will be at 0% and 100% (700mv) levels. 192
  193. 193. White and Highlight Level Determination for HDR Diffuse white (reference white) in video: Diffuse white is the reflectance of an illuminated white object (white on calibration card). Since perfectly reflective objects don’t occur in the real world, diffuse white is about 90% reflectance (100% reflectance white card is used either). The reference level, HDR Reference White, is defined as the nominal signal level of white card. Highlights (Specular reflections & Emissive objects (self-luminous)) : The luminances that are higher than reference white are referred to as highlights. In traditional video, the highlights levels were generally set to be no higher than 1.25×diffuse white level. (in cinema up to 2.7×diffuse white). - Specular reflections Specular regions luminance can be over 1000 times higher than the diffuse surface in nit. - Emissive objects (self-luminous) Emissive objects and their resulting luminance levels can have magnitudes much higher than the diffuse range in a scene or image. (Sun, has a luminance s~1.6 billion nits). A more unique aspect of the emissive is that they can also be of very saturated color (sunsets, magma, neon, lasers, etc.). Black White 18% Reflectance 193
  194. 194. Nominal signal levels for PQ and HLG production Reflectance Object or Reference (Luminance Factor, %) Nominal Luminance Value, nit (PQ & HLG) [Display Peak Luminance, 1000 nit] Nominal Signal Level (%) PQ Nominal Signal Level (%) HLG Grey Card (18%) 26 nit 38 38 Greyscale Chart Max (83%) 162 nit 56 71 Greyscale Chart Max (90%) 179 nit 57 73 Reference Level: HDR Reference White (100%) also Diffuse White and Graphics White 203 nit 58 75 ─ PQ and HLG production on a display with 1000 nits nominal peak luminance, under controlled studio lighting (Test chart should be illuminated by forward lights and camera should shoot it from a non-specular direction). ─ The percentages represent signal values that lie between the minimum and maximum non-linear values normalized to the range 0 to 1. 90% Reflectance 18% Reflectance (the closest standard reflectance card to skin tones) Here, the reference level, HDR Reference White, is defined as the nominal signal level of a 100% reflectance white card. (the signal level that would result from a 100% Lambertian reflector placed at the center of interest within a scene under controlled lighting, commonly referred to as diffuse white). 194
  195. 195. Waveform View in HD, UHD or 4K ? 195
  196. 196. Camera Black Set (Lightning) 196
  197. 197. Capturing Camera Log Footage (Spider Cube) ─ Use a suitable grey scale camera chart or Spider Cube ─ This cube has a hole that produce super black, a reflective black base, and segments for 18% grey and 90% reflective white. The ball bearing on the top produces reflective specular highlights. ─ Setup your test chart within the scene. ─ Adjust the lighting to evenly illuminate the chart. ─ Adjust the camera controls to set the levels –ISO/Gain, Iris, Shutter, White Balance Specular Highlights 18% Grey 90% Reflectance White Super Black Black Data color Spider Cube. 197
  198. 198. SMPTE 2084 PQ (1K) scale with 100% reflectance white. NitsLevel (%) The 90% reflectance white of the signal should be at about 51% level that is equivalent to 100 Nits The 18% grey will be at 36% level that is equivalent to 20 Nits 10,000Nits is equal to the 100% level of HDR signal Specular Highlights 18% Grey 90% Reflectance White Super Black Black Data color Spider Cube. The 2% Black point will be at 19% level that is equivalent to 2.2 Nits Camera operators can use the graticule lines at 2%, 18% or 90% Reflectance to properly setup camera exposure with a camera test chart of 2% black, 18% gray and 90% white. 198
  199. 199. SMPTE 2084 (10K) with 90% reflectance white with graticule scale in terms of reflectance. NitsLevel (%) Specular Highlights 18% Grey 90% Reflectance White Super Black Black Data color Spider Cube. The 90% reflectance white level of the signal should be at about 51% level that is equivalent to 90 Nits The 18% grey level will be at 36% level that is equivalent to 18 Nits The 2% Black point level will be at 19% level that is equivalent to 2 Nits 9,000Nits is equal to the 100% level of HDR signal 199
  200. 200. SMPTE 2084 (10K) with 90% reflectance white with graticule scale in terms of Code Values. Level (Hex)CodeValue (Decimal) 200
  201. 201. SMPTE 2084 (10K) with 90% reflectance white with graticule scale in terms of STOPS StopLevel (%) 201
  202. 202. 10K PQ with a 1000 nits Limit, Full range Waveform in 10K PQ Full range with theVideo at 1K grade. If you use the full 10K curve and set your video grading to 1000 Nits you will have about the top 25% of the waveform screen not being used. We have implemented both Narrow (SMPTE) SDI levels and Full SDI levels. Waveform setting on 10K PQ Full range: On the waveform you see 4d as 0 nits and 1019d as 10,000 nits in Full. 202
  203. 203. HDR 1k Grade SMPTE Levels Normal reflectiveWhites are around 100Nits Peek is going to 1000Nits no more. HDR has the blacks stretch and theWhites are compressed. 203
  204. 204. HDR Reflectance View The normal reflective whites are around 100Nits, which is at 90% Reflectance (709 100 IRE) 18% grey will be at 36% level that is equivalent to 18 Nits 2% Black will be at 19% level that is equivalent to 2 Nits 1000 Nits shows up at 100% Reflectance 204
  205. 205. Stop View (Relative to 20 nits) Stop 1000 Nits The normal reflectiveWhites are around 100Nits, which is at +2.3 Stops (709 100 IRE) 0 Stop is shown as the 18% Grey point (=20 nits). 2% Black point at -3.1 Stops. 𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑝 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 1000 𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 = log2 1000 𝑛𝑖𝑡 20 𝑛𝑖𝑡 = 5.5 205
  206. 206. HDR 2K Grade SMPTE Levels. NormalWhites are just around 100Nits just a little higher. Max white is at 2000Nits HDR has the blacks stretch and theWhites are compressed. 206
  207. 207. HDR 1K Grade Full Levels Black (0) is at 4h White is around 100Nits Highlights are going up to 1000Nits Waveform setting on 10K PQ Full range: On the waveform you see 4d as 0 nits and 1019d as 10,000 nits in Full. 207
  208. 208. Rec 709 Video on the HDR Graticule Whites are going to 100%. The black are all down at the bottom of the waveform. The whites are stretched to 100% 208
  209. 209. HDR Zoom Mode 209
  210. 210. Specular Highlights Bright Ups 210
  211. 211. HDR Heat-map tool ─ 7 simultaneous and programmable color overlay bands ─ Individual upper & lower overlay threshold controls ─ User presets for SDR & HDR modes ─ Selectable background grey /color ─ Identify shadows, mid-tones or specular highlights 211
  212. 212. Capturing a Camera Log Image Gamma 0% Black 10-bit Code-Value % 18% Grey 10-bit Code-Value (20nits illumination) % 90% Reflectance 10-bitCode Value % S-Log1 90 3 394 37.7 636 65 S-Log2 90 3 347 32.3 582 59 S-Log3 95 3.5 420 40.6 598 61 Log C (ARRI) 134 3.5 400 38.4 569 58 C-Log (Canon) 128 7.3 351 32.8 614 63 ACES (Proxy) ND ND 426 41.3 524 55 BT.709 64 0 423 41.0 940 100 ─ Today’s video cameras are able to capture a wide dynamic range of 14-16 Stops depending on the camera. ─ In order to record this information a log curve is used by each camera manufacturer to be able to store this wide dynamic range effectively with 12- 16 bits or resolution as a Camera RAW file. ─ Each curve has defined Black, 18% Grey and 90% reflectance white levels. 212
  213. 213. S-Log2 Waveform to nits 540 or 1000 Nits Max Highlights Monitor dependent (Display with 540 or 1000 nits) 100 Nits (59%) NormalWhite 20 Nits (32.3%) 18% Grey 213
  214. 214. Spider Cube S-Log2 as Shot from the Camera in Log DigitalValues Stop values 214
  215. 215. Spider Cube S-Log2 as Shot from the Camera in Log Showing S-Log2 in normal 709 type screens 215
  216. 216. S-Log2 to Rec. 709 216
  217. 217. Camera (Scene) Referenced BT.709 to PQ LUT Conversion ─ SDR and HDR displays DO NOT match. ─ Blacks are stretched in the BT1886 Display but not the PQ Display (matches scene) Camera-Side Conversion BT.709 to PQ 2084 HDR 0% 2 % 18% 90% 100% BT.709 100nits 0 9 41 95 100 HDR 1000nits 0 37 58 75 76 HDR 2000nits 0 31 51 68 68 HDR 5000nit 0 24 42 58 59 9 41 95 100 217
  218. 218. Specification of color bar test pattern for high dynamic range TV systems BT.2111-07 (40%) (75%) (0%)(75%)(0%) (0%) (75%) (40%) (75% colour bars) (100% colour bars) (–2%) (+2%) (+4%) BT. 709 colour bars Ramp (–7% - 109%) Stair (–7%, 0%, 10%, 20%, ..., 90%, 100%, 109%HLG) Recommendation ITU-R BT.2111-0 (12/2017) Specification of colour bar test pattern for high dynamic range television systems BT Series Broadcasting service (television) 218
  219. 219. Color Correcting your 4K Content Image without full dynamic range. Blacks are lifted (above 0) and whites aren't at 100% (or 700 mv). 219
  220. 220. Tonal range after spreading 220
  221. 221. Before the gamma adjustmentAfter the gamma adjustment 221
  222. 222. Neutral image Warm,“golden hour” image. Cool, contrasty image 222
  223. 223. Misbalanced Chip ChartBalanced Chip Chart 223
  224. 224. Misbalanced Chip Chart. Chip Chart is only made up of black, white and gray chips, so the entire trace should be very close to the center. Balanced Chip Chart 224
  225. 225. A fairly balanced image on an RGB Parade waveform monitor, but the image contains a lot of green grass 225
  226. 226. Questions?? Discussion!! Suggestions!! Criticism!! 226