• Food labelling is a
•tool to promote and protect public health
by providing accurate nutritional information.
•an instrument of marketing and product
•label can reduce the information problem
between producers and consumers.
• Also reducing search costs for consumers.
• Labelling is any written, electronic, or graphic
communications on the packaging. A panel
found on a package of food which contains a
variety of information about the nutritional
value of the food item.
• OBJECTIVE OF LABELLING
• Brand Identification
• Consumers often compare prices of food items in
the grocery store to choose the best value for
money. But comparing items using the food label
can help us choose the best value for our health.
• For example, someone with high blood pressure
who needs to watch salt (sodium) intake may
have a choice of five different types of tomato
soup on the rack. One can quickly and easily
compare the sodium content of each product by
looking at the part of the label that lists nutrition
information to choose the one with the lowest
• A food product constitutes a bundle of attributes that serve as critical
indicators for analyzing food quality and safety:
• Search attributes are those for which consumer can obtain
full information about the product prior to purchase (color,
• Experience attributes are those product characteristics that
can only be determined after consumption (taste, flavor);
• Credence attributes are product characteristics that can be
known only after a long lag; some credence attributes are
hazards that cannot be determined with certainty (nutrition,
pesticide residues, calorie).
INFORMATION ABOUT FOOD
• Govt have started several rules that have to
abide while labeling foods.
• Lets have a look on what is includes on food
labeling and issues of labeling
NAME OF FOOD
• Brand name
• What the product is
• True nature of product to distinguish from
• Mango juice and apple juice
BEST BEFORE OR USE BY DATE
• Sell by date
• Use by date
• Buy by date
• What exactly is in product
• Example some ingredient like caffeine over
150mg pel litre
• increased thirst
• State quantity in gm, kg, litre
• Nutritional information
NAME AND ADRESS OF PRODUCT
• Complains if problem is there
• Helps contact directly to producer
• Helps producer to sort out problem
• Should state ideal storage conditions to
• Must store below 20c
COUNTRY OF ORIGIN
• If products either fish, olive oil, honey, fruits
and vegetables have been exported.
• It should have indicated country of origin on
VEGETARIAN AND NON VEGETARIAN
• Many religions with restrictions do not eat
non vegetable products
• So information regarding this should be given
on the lebel.
FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS
LABELLING REGULATION 2011
• General Requirements:
1. Every pre-packaged food shall carry a label containing
2. The particulars of declaration required under these
Regulations to be specified on the label shall be in English or
3. Pre-packaged food shall not be described or presented on
any label or in any labelling manner that is false, misleading or
deceptive or is likely to create an erroneous impression
regarding its character in any respect;
4. Label in pre-packaged foods shall be applied in such a
manner that they will not become separated from the container.
WHAT SHOULD THE CONSUMER SEE IN
A FOOD LABEL?
• As per the Indian Regulations a food label must have
1. Product name and category of food
2. An ingredient list in descending order of weight
3. Logo for Vegetarian / Non Vegetarian Food
4. Nutrition facts panel or information which includes energy, protein,
carbohydrate (sugars) & fat
5. The shelf life (Use by or Best before date)
6. Storage conditions
7. The name & address of the manufacturer, packer and / or seller
8. The country of origin (in case of imported foods)
9. The weight
10. Instructions for use.
WHAT SHOULD THE CONSUMER SEE IN
A FOOD LABEL?
• Health claims establish a relationship between
a food & disease or medical condition.
• For example claims like ‘Good for Heart’,
‘Good for Growing Children’ etc.
• Nutritional claims quickly inform a consumer
of nutritional value of a product for example
‘Low Fat’ or ‘Zero Cholesterol’.
CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF FOOD ARE EXEMPTED
FROM THE LABELLING REQUIREMENTS
• For example, foods served in hotels, hospitals,
by vendors like halwaiis etc.
• Other food products include raw agricultural
commodities like rice, wheat, cereals, sugar,
salt, non-nutritive products like tea, coffee,
spices, processed and pre-packaged assorted
vegetables and fruits, products that comprise
single ingredients like papad, pickle.
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