2. Humayun (1530-40 AND
• After Babur's
death, his son
succeeded to the
throne in 1530
A.D. Babur had
left a vast empire
central Asia to
Bihar in India. But
3. Humayuns Difficulties:
• The Afghan and the Rajput kings in
India regarded Mughals as
foreigners and wanted to drive
them out of India.
• The vast empire had not yet been
• The collection of land revenue had
not been systematised. So the
finances of the state were poor.
4. Humayun’s wars
• Humayun succeeded in conquering the
provinces of Gujarat and Malwa. He
attacked the Mugal army at Chausa in
1539 AD. And defeated them.
• Humayun was troubled by Farid who
became the ruler of Bengal and Bihar
and assumed the title of Sher Shah.
Farid defeated Humayan in the battle
of Kannauj. The kingdom which Babur
had acquired was lost. Humayun had to
leave Sind and go to Persia.
5. Humayuns wars (cont.)
• Humayun took advantage of this
opportunity and he marched towards
India and captured Lahore.
• In July 1555 AD, Humayun occupied
Delhi and Agra by defeated Sikander
Suri, the rebel governor of Punjab.
• After 15 years, Humayun succeeded in
regaining his kingdom.
• Humayun could not live long after this
7. Sher shah suri (1540-45 A.D.)
• Sher Shah was the son
of a noble (a jagirdar)
of Jaunpur in Bihar. His
real name is Farid.
• He was an ambitious
general. He aimed at
driving the Mughals out
of India to re-establish
• He defeated Humayun
two times, once at
Chausa in 1539 AD and
another time at Kannauj
in 1540 AD.
• A brave warrior and a
successful general, Sher
Shah died of an
8. Sher Shah’s Administration
• Sher Shah was a brilliant administrator.
He introduced many reforms and
innovations in the administration of the
country. Some of these are mentioned
• 1) He paid to his army (both soldiers and
the officers) salaries in cash regularly.
• 2) For the general welfare of the people,
Sher Shah built many roads.
• 3) He introduced gold, silver and copper
coins known as Tanka or Rupia.
• 4) He started the new postal system by
10. Akbar’s Accession 1556 AD
• Humayun died suddenly due to
an accidental fall from the
stairs of his library in 1556 AD.
At that time, Akbar was at
Kalanaur, in District Gurdaspur
• He was crowned there in a
simple ceremony at the tender
11. Expansion of the Empire by
• In 1556 Akbar’s guardian Bairam Khan
defeated Hemu in the second Battle of
Panipat. Agra, Gwalior and Delhi fell into
the hands of Mughals.
• In 1564 Akbar attacked Gondwana and
• Akbar also expanded his empire by keeping
good relations with the Rajputs.
• In 1572 he conquered Gujarat.
• Akbar next extended his empire towards
the North-West of India. In a series of
campaigns, he conquered Kabul, Kashmir,
Kandhar, Lower Sindh and the Eastern
12. The Deccan Campaign (1591-
Akbar’s first move was against
Ahmednagar. The kingdom was bravely
defended by Chand Bibi and only some
part of it was annexed by the Mughals. In
1601, Akbar invaded Khandesh and
captured the famous forts of Burhanpur