Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.

Section 8 radioactive material

2.012 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

DANGEROUS GOODS radioactive material

Veröffentlicht in: Bildung
  • Als Erste(r) kommentieren

Section 8 radioactive material

  1. 1. M. Tayfour 1 Section 10 Radioactive Material Instructor : TAYFOUR
  2. 2. M. Tayfour 2 Section 10 – Radioactive Material • By the end of this section, you will be able to: • Verify that the activity limits of all packages received are within the specified limits • Check that the Shipper’s Declaration for Dangerous Goods has been completed accurately • Identify that all competent authority certificates are attached to the Shipper’s Declaration and are valid • Check that the package presented conforms to the description on the Shipper’s Declaration and that it bears all the required markings • Verify that the information found on the Radioactive label conforms to the DGD and that it is of correct category, and that all required labels are attached.
  3. 3. M. Tayfour 3 Radioactive Material Definition Radioactive materials are articles or substances which spontaneously and continuously emit certain types of radiation (ionizing radiation) which can be harmful to health – but which nevertheless, cannot be detected by any of human senses (sight, hearing, smelling, touch); these radioactive materials can also affect other materials and they can be detected and measured with an appropriate instruments.
  4. 4. M. Tayfour 4 Radioactive Isotopes • In nature we have two types of atoms, the stable and unstable ones. These unstable atoms are called radioactive isotopes as they undergo transactions every second in order to become more stable. It’s in this process that they emit a certain amount of radiation.
  5. 5. 5M. Tayfour Half Life The activity of radioactive material however decays in time. It means that after a certain amount of time, the activity diminishes and the time necessary to reduce the radioactivity to half is called half-life. This half-life is different for every isotope and can vary a few minutes up to years. For example:
  6. 6. M. Tayfour 6 Activity The average number of atomic transformations occurring per second” is called the activity which is measured in Becquerel. Since the Becquerel is such a very small unit, we will mainly use: Kilobecquerel (KBq) 1KBq = 1000 Bq Megabecquerel (MBq) 1MBq = 1000 KBq Gigabecquerel (GBq) 1GBq = 1000 MBq Terabecquerel (TBq) 1TBq = 1000 GBq
  7. 7. M. Tayfour 7 TBq GBq MBq KBq Bq 0. 0 0 9. 2 5 0. 0 0 2. 6 How to Convert Becquerel Example : Convert 600 GBq into TBq = Convert 50 GBq into KBq = Convert 35 MBq into TBq = 60. 0. 5 0000000 0000 53 0.6 TBq 50000000 KBq 0.000035 TBq
  8. 8. M. Tayfour 8 Risks of Radiation There are two primary risks which apply to radioactive material, they are: • Contamination – that is coming in direct contact with radioactive material either externally or internally • Radiation – that is being exposed to Alpha, Beta or Gamma radiation, which is emitted by radioactive material.
  9. 9. M. Tayfour 9 • The doses absorbed by the body will be monitored and are also subject to governmental control. A maximum dose limit of 5 mSv/year will be allowed for exposure on workers. • The public is only allowed to have a maximum dose limit of 1mSv/year. • Radiation could be harmful for our health if it exceeds a certain dose. This effect on our health can be measured by the radiation level, which is expressed in:
  10. 10. M. Tayfour 10 Millisievert (mSv) 1mSv = 0.001 Sv Micro Sievert (µSv) 1µSv = 0.000001 Sv Radiation = Dangerous Sievert = Sv (The old unit is Rem whereas 1Sv = 100 Rem) The Sievert is a rather larger unit, therefore we mostly use:
  11. 11. M. Tayfour 11 Forbidden Some radioactive materials are forbidden for carriage by air as with certain articles and substance in other classes, unless some form of government exemption is issued. Fissile Materials Fissile material can create a chain reaction and the package requires special design approval and shipment approval. This implies that the product is very dangerous and the limitations and packing requirements are very severe as they can cause a criticality during transport
  12. 12. M. Tayfour 12 Forms of Radioactive Material
  13. 13. M. Tayfour 13 Package of Radioactive Material • Excepted Package • Industrial Package • Type A Package • Type B (U), B (M) • Type C
  14. 14. M. Tayfour 14 Design • Packaging used for radioactive material are designed and tested to prevent leakage (avoid contamination) and to reduce to handling, storage and loading requirements, which are in DGR Section 9.
  15. 15. M. Tayfour 15 Excepted Package Package of Excepted Packages must be marked with: •UN Number preceded by letters “UN” •Full name and address of Shipper and Consignee. •Permissible gross weight if exceeds 50Kg.
  16. 16. M. Tayfour 16
  17. 17. M. Tayfour 17 Industrial Package
  18. 18. M. Tayfour 18 Type A Package
  19. 19. M. Tayfour 19 Type B Package
  20. 20. M. Tayfour 20 Each package of which conforms to Type B packaging design must be marked as follows: “TYPE B(U) or “TYPE B(M)” as appropriate; • Identification mark allocated to the design by competent authority • Serial number to uniquely identify each package • Trefoil symbol must be plainly mark by embossing, stamping or by other means resistant to effects or fire and water.
  21. 21. M. Tayfour 21 Type B Package UNILATERAL APPROVAL An approval of a design which is required to be given by the competent authority of the state of origin of the design only MULTILATERAL APPROVAL The approval of a design by the competent authority of the state of origin of the each state through or into which the consignment is to be transported
  22. 22. M. Tayfour 22
  23. 23. M. Tayfour 23
  24. 24. M. Tayfour 24 • In the Non - radioactive shipment, in order to identify which package to use, we have to know the proper shipping name first, and the maximum quantity limits before we select the appropriate package. • In the Radioactive shipment, we need to know first, which package is appropriate according to the activity limits before identifying the proper shipping name.
  25. 25. M. Tayfour 25
  26. 26. M. Tayfour 26 A1 and A2 Values for Common Radionuclide • DGR Table 10.3.A provides the maximum activity limits for Type A packages. This Table lists the: A1-(Special Form) and A2-(Other Form) values in Terabecquerels (TBq), the SI unit: •Example #1: The maximum activity limit in Type A packaging for Ac-225 in Special Form is 0.8TBq. •Example #2: The maximum activity limit in Type A packaging for Ag-105 in Other Form is 2TBq.
  27. 27. M. Tayfour 27
  28. 28. M. Tayfour 28 Exercise Are the following radionuclides acceptable in a TYPE A packages? Radionuclide Form Activity 1) Ac-225 A1 600 GBq Yes No 2) Ag-105 A2 650 GBq Yes No 3) Ar-41 Other Form 500 GBq Yes No   
  29. 29. M. Tayfour 29 Determining the Proper Shipping Name from the above exercise: 1) Ac-225 (Special Form – A1) is allowed in Type A package , The proper shipping name and UN Number will be: UN3332 , Radioactive Material, Type A package, Special Form
  30. 30. M. Tayfour 30
  31. 31. M. Tayfour 31 Determining the Proper Shipping Name from the above exercise: 2) Ag-105 (Other Form - A2) is allowed in Type A package , The proper shipping name and UN Number will be: UN2915, Radioactive Material, Type A package
  32. 32. M. Tayfour 32 Determining the Proper Shipping Name from the above exercise: 3) Ar-41 (Other Form - A2) is not allowed in Type A package Therefore, must need stronger package Type B(U) The proper shipping name and UN Number will be: UN2916, Radioactive Material, Type B(U) package
  33. 33. 33 Before using the table, the following must be established: a) Whether you have a radioactive material on its own or in an instruments/manufactured article containing radioactive material; b) The physical state of the radioactive material, i.e. solid, liquid or gas; c) For solids or gas, the “Form” i.e. “Special Form” or “Other Form” Example 1: (Radioactive Material not in an Instrument or article) Symbol of radionuclide Ag-105 Physical State Solid Form Special Form Activity of the material 150MBq
  34. 34. Therefore: Solid (Special Form) = 10-3 A1 The value of A1 can be found from Table 10.3.A; A1 = 2 TBq for Ag-105 Using the formula: 10-3 A1 0.001 x 2 TBq = 0.002 TBq (maximum activity for Excepted package) Comparing the actual activity of Ag-105 which is 150 MBq It can be accepted in Excepted Package!!!
  35. 35. M. Tayfour 35 Determining the Proper Shipping Name for Excepted Package Since it falls into Excepted Quantity package limits, we can therefore get the proper shipping name from Table 10.4.A
  36. 36. M. Tayfour 36 Example 2: (Radioactive Material, Excepted Package in Instruments) An Instrument contains the radionuclide Hg-197 Physical State Liquid Activity of item (instrument) 0.002 TBq Activity of package 0.002 TBq
  37. 37. M. Tayfour 37 From Table 10.3.D, the formula Other Form = 10-3 A2 From Table 10.3.A Hg-197 is A2 = 10TBq (for Item Limits) 10-3 A2 = 0.001 x 10 TBq = 0.01 TBq (maximum activity for an item) Therefore, the item activity of 0.002 TBq is within the item limit also. (for Package Limits) 10-1 A2 = 0.1 x 10 TBq = 1 TBq (maximum activity for a package) Therefore, the package activity of 0.002 TBq is also within package limit. The package is therefore acceptable in Excepted Quantity package!!! UN2911 Radioactive Material, Excepted Package – Instruments
  38. 38. M. Tayfour 38 Exercise 1. Convert following units: a) 2000 MBq = b) 140 GBq = c) 305000 Bq = d) 1 x 103 Bq = e) 1 x 10-4 GBq = 0.002 TBq 0.14 TBq 0.000000305 TBq 0.000000001 TBq 0.0000001 TBq
  39. 39. M. Tayfour 39 2. Indicate when below shipment (Isotopes) are classified as non-dangerous goods Isotope Activity per gram Activity per consignment Cm-248 Ba-140 1 x 100 = 1 Bq 1 x 101 = 10 Bq 1000 Bq 1 x 105 = 100,000 Bq
  40. 40. M. Tayfour 40 3. What is the maximum activity of material we can put in an excepted package: Product details Maximum activity allowed in a package Ir-189, solid, special form Au-198, solid, other form Dy-159, liquid, other form 10-3 A1 = 0.001 x 10 = 0.01 TBq 10-3 A2 = 0.001 x 0.6 = 0.0006 TBq 10-4 A2 = 0.0001 x 20 = 0.002 TBq
  41. 41. M. Tayfour 41 Transport Index (TI) The Transport Index (TI) is a number expressing the radiation level emitted from a package measured at a 1 meter distance expressed in 1mRem or 0.01mSv/h and is the basis on which carrier will decide the segregation of radioactive consignments from persons, live animals, undeveloped films and other radioactive consignments. Segregation and distance will ensure safety and limit the levels of radiation to a safe level for public and transport workers during storage and transport
  42. 42. M. Tayfour 42 Package or Overpack Category Determination: In order to determine which category for a Radioactive Material, IATA DGR Table 10.5.C must be consulted.
  43. 43. M. Tayfour 43 Exercise Tick the appropriate category for the package: a) TI 0, surface radiation; 0.005mSv/h b) TI 0, surface radiation; 0.5mSv/h c) TI 0.2, surface radiation; 0.6mSv/h d) TI 10, surface radiation; 1mSv/h e) TI 11, surface radiation; 2mSv/h
  44. 44. M. Tayfour 44 Exercise Choose the correct category and complete the marking label: Au – 194 Activity : 0.05 TBq Surface radiation : 0.4mSv/h Transport Index (TI) : 2 Au – 194 0.05 TBq 2.0
  45. 45. M. Tayfour 45
  46. 46. M. Tayfour 46
  47. 47. M. Tayfour 47
  48. 48. M. Tayfour 48
  49. 49. M. Tayfour 49 Orientation Labels Orientation labels are not required on packages containing liquid radioactive materials.
  50. 50. M. Tayfour 50 Step 1 – UN Number preceded by the prefix UN UN 2915 Step 2 – Proper shipping name Radioactive material, Type A Package Step 3 – Class Number – 7 Step 4 – Any assigned sub-risk class or division numbers in brackets Step 5 – The assigned packing group, if applicable. no packing group Shipper’s Declaration for Dangerous Goods FIRST SEQUENCE – IDENTIFICATION
  51. 51. M. Tayfour 51 SECOND SEQUENCE – Quantity and Type of Packing Step 6 – Name or symbol of the radionuclide Fe-55 (Symbol of radionuclide)  Physical and Chemical form. The physical and chemical form only when the radionuclide is in “Other Form”  If the radionuclide is in “Special Form” and “Special Form” is not included in the proper shipping name, the words “Special Form” must be shown. Solid, Metal
  52. 52. M. Tayfour 52 THIRD SEQUENCE – Packing Instruction Step 9 – Category of package(s) overpack or freight container (I-White, II-Yellow or III-Yellow) II-Yellow Transport Index for Category II-Yellow and III-Yellow only. TI 0.3 •Dimensions and dimensional units (L)ength x (W)idth x (H)eight (L) 30 x (W) 30 x (H) 30 cm
  53. 53. M. Tayfour 53 FOURTH SEQUENCE – Authorizations Step 10 – if relevant, identification marks of approval certificates attached and issued by competent authority for shipment Not applicable, therefore nothing declared  State that approval certificates are attached. Not applicable, therefore nothing declared. Step 11 – Where a consignment required to be shipped under exclusive use, the statement “Exclusive Use Shipment”. Not applicable
  54. 54. M. Tayfour 54
  55. 55. M. Tayfour 55
  56. 56. M. Tayfour 56
  57. 57. M. Tayfour 57
  58. 58. M. Tayfour 58
  59. 59. M. Tayfour 59
  60. 60. M. Tayfour 60
  61. 61. M. Tayfour 61
  62. 62. M. Tayfour 62
  63. 63. M. Tayfour 63
  64. 64. M. Tayfour 64
  65. 65. Question 1 • The completed Shipper’s Declaration for Dangerous Goods issued for this shipment may contain errors and/or omissions. Correct all errors and add missing information : M. Tayfour 65
  66. 66. M. Tayfour 66
  67. 67. M. Tayfour 67
  68. 68. M. Tayfour 68
  69. 69. Question 2 • The completed Shipper’s Declaration for Dangerous Goods issued for this shipment may contain errors and/or omissions. Correct all errors and add missing information : M. Tayfour 69
  70. 70. M. Tayfour 70
  71. 71. M. Tayfour 71
  72. 72. M. Tayfour 72
  73. 73. Question 4 • The completed Shipper’s Declaration for Dangerous Goods issued for this shipment may contain errors and/or omissions. Correct all errors and add missing information. M. Tayfour 73
  74. 74. M. Tayfour 74
  75. 75. M. Tayfour 75
  76. 76. M. Tayfour 76
  77. 77. 77 Summary & Key Learning Points • Identify the different types of Radioactive Material, forbidden, items and types of packaging required • Locate and identify information shown on the DGD and the Air Waybill • Identify minimum, additional and specific package marks together with the correct hazard and handling labels
  78. 78. M. Tayfour 78

×