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Local anasthesia in dentistry

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A lecture for third class students of dentistry college

Veröffentlicht in: Gesundheit & Medizin
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Local anasthesia in dentistry

  1. 1. Local Anasthesia in dentistry Dr.Mohamed Rhael Ali 2016 - 2017
  2. 2. Terminology
  3. 3.  Pain ; unpleasant physical sensation experienced followed the application of noxious stimuli  Analgesia ; loss of pain sensation only  Anesthesia ; loss of all modalities of sensation which include pain and touch  Parasthesia ; altered sensation (tingling sensation) and this may occur when a damaged nerve is regeneration or when a local anesthesia is either starting to work or its effect is wearing off
  4. 4. • Depolarization; rapid influx of Na ions to the interior of the nerve • Repolarization; reestablishment of polarity, especially the return of a cell's membrane potential to resting potential after depolarization. This occur by the movement of positively charged K+ ions out of the cell.
  5. 5. local anesthesia
  6. 6. Definition  loss of sensation in a circumscribed area of the body caused by depression of excitation in nerve endings or inhibition of the conduction process in peripheral nerves  differ from general anesthesia by which the loss of sensation occur without loss of consciousness.
  7. 7. Requirement of local anesthesia  it should not be irritating to the tissue to which it is applied  it should not cause any permenant alteration to the nerve structure  its systemic toxicity should be low  the time of onset of anesthesia should be as short as possible  the duration of action must be long enough to permit completion of the procedure  it should be free from producing allergic reactions  it should be either sterile or be capable of being sterilized by the heat without deterioration  it should have potency sufficient to give anesthesia without using harmful concentration  it must be effective regardless of wether it is injected into the tissue or applied locally to mucous membranes.  It should be stable in solution and readily under go transformation in the body
  8. 8. Uses of local anesthesia Diagnostic uses Therapeutic uses Preoperative uses postoperative uses
  9. 9. Indications of local anesthesia  Almost all dental procedures ….. a. in oral surgery for extraction of teeth, apicoectomy, incisions and drainage of abscesss , removal of cysts, ranula and all other surgical procedures. b. In conservative treatment c. periodontal diseases d. some cases of prosthodontics and orthodontic treatments
  10. 10. Contraindications for local anesthesia • Absolute contraindication ; as in patients with history of allergy to local anesthesia • Relative contraindications ; as in presence of acute inflammation at the site of injection ,or in patients with significant medical diseases as cardiovascular diseases,clinical hyperthyroidism
  11. 11. Advantages of local anesthesia • No special preparation of the patient is needed • No complicated apparatus are needed • No risk of respiratory obstraction • Anesthesia last for at least an hour • Patient remains awake and cooperative and no need for care posoperatively • Seriously ill patient as with heart diseases can usually tolerate local anesthesia without any risk.
  12. 12. Disadvantages of local anesthesia No true disadvantages to the use of local anesthesia when the patient is normal and there is no contraindications to its use