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Role of vitamins in aging

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Role of vitamins in aging

  1. 1. DNA degardation • cancer • Heart attack Protien degardation • Musclar degardation • atherosclerosis • hyperoxia Lipid peroxidation • Pulmonary disorder • Retinal damage • asthma
  2. 2. In 1956s Dr. Denham Harman studied -  The rate of living theory, which holds that lifespan is an inverse function of metabolic rate which in turn is proportional to oxygen consumption .  Rebbeca Gershman's observation that oxygen toxicity and radiation toxicity could be explained by the same underlying phenomenon: oxygen free radicals. On basis of these , he proposed that- Cells continuously produce free radicals by normal metabolism and oxidation of organic compounds and these free radicals damage cellular macromolecules ( like DNA , lipid , proteins ) and due accumulation of these damage over time period cause aging. In 1972s, Denham Harman modified his theory-  About 95% energy of a cell is produce in mitochondria and about 97% - 99% of oxygen is use in energy formation and 1%- 3% oxygen is utilize in reactive oxygen species formation.  It states that reactive oxygen species (ROS ) are produce in mitochondria during ETC cycle and they cause damage to macromolecules including lipid , protein, DNA of mitochondria and nucleus which lead to aging Dr. Denham Harman
  3. 3.  A free radical is defined as any species that contains one or more unpaired electron occupying an atomic or molecular orbital.  As they are highly reactive and unstable, they pull electron from other molecules and cause affected molecules to become free radical and then new free radical pull electron to next molecules , so chain is produce .  Examples of free radicals:.  Superoxide anion, Hydroxyl radical , Peroxynitrite,  Hydrogen radical, Nitric oxide , Lipid peroxyl .
  4. 4. Cellular Mitochondria Endoplasmic reticulum Enzymatic Cytochrome oxidases Membrane NADPH Oxidases Xanthenes' oxidase Environmental pollution Ionizing radiation
  5. 5.  Certain “antioxidant” compounds might “scavenge” these damaging free oxygen radicals and prevent cellular destruction and aging. Vitamin C, vitamin E, and betacarotene, often referred to as “antioxidant vitamins”, have been suggested to limit oxidative damage in humans and lower the risk of certain chronic diseases.
  6. 6. Any synthetic or natural substance that delay or inhibits oxidative damage to a target molecule and capable to neutralize free radicals by donating electron or hydrogen molecule.They prevent cell damage and tissue damage and act as scavenger. ANTIOXIDANTS Antioxidant enzymes Antioxidant Vitamins
  7. 7. How it work ?
  8. 8. Vitamins must be INGESTED everyday – and are found in foods like fresh fruits & vegetables, nutrient dense protein foods and whole grains. To get enough of each vitamin it is best to always eat a wide and colorful variety of produce. Dark leafy green vegetables have the most vitamins & minerals in them!
  9. 9. Two Groups of Vitamins FAT SOLUBLE: Vitamins A,D,E,K (All Dogs Eat Kittens) Transported through the body in fat. Too much can cause a toxicity. WATER SOLUBLE: Vitamins B & C (Be Cool) Transported through body in water –excreted in urine. Deficiency keeps body from operating at capacity.
  10. 10. Vitamin A Function: Promote good vision, normal growth, and healthy nerve function Sources: Liver, yellow & orange fruits and vegetables, pears, and broccoli Prevents: skin problems and unhealthy hair, poor vision and night blindness. TOXICITY can cause liver damage and severe birth defects. Carotene in carrots converts to Vitamin A
  11. 11. nyctalopia: inability to see clearly in dim light; due to a deficiency of vitamin A or to a retinal disorder. Night Blindness
  12. 12. Vitamin D Function: Formation of strong Bones & Teeth. Sources: Dairy Products, seafood, eggs, mushrooms, cereal, pork. Prevents: Malabsorption of calcium; Rickets / Osteoporosis TOXICITY = calcium build up / bone spurs
  13. 13. Rickets A deficiency disease resulting from a lack of Vitamin D or from insufficient exposure to sunlight. Characterized by softening of developing bone, bow legs, malnutrition, and enlargement of the liver and spleen.
  14. 14. Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) Function: Antioxidant; slows down aging, promotes healthy skin & hair Sources: Nuts, seeds, green leafy vegetables, avacados, grains (germ) Prevents: Cellular degeneration (Vitamin E and its analogs are used to prevent and repair cell and tissue damage during radiation therapy). TOXICITY can cause blurred vision, nausea, diarhea, dizziness, fatigue
  15. 15. Toxicities & consumption  Regular consumption of more than 1,000 mg (1,500 IU) of tocopherols per day may be expected to cause hypervitaminosis E, with an associated risk of vitamin K deficiency and consequently of bleeding problems. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) Age Males 0–6 months* 4 mg (6 IU) 7–12 months* 5 mg (7.5 IU) 1–3 years 6 mg (9 IU) 4–8 years 7 mg (10.4 IU) 9–13 years 11 mg (16.4 IU) 14+ years 15 mg (22.4 IU)
  16. 16. Deficiency  ataxia  myopathies  peripheral neuropathy  retinopathy  impairment of the immune response  red blood cell destruction (esp. in Premature infants) hemolytic anemia  Atherosclerosis  a 71% decrease in the risk of advanced prostate cancer.
  17. 17. Vitamin K Function: Assists with blood clotting; essential for bone healing and body repair. Source: Dark green, leafy vegetables, cabbage, liver, cauliflower. Prevents: Hemorrhaging No known TOXICITY
  18. 18. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Function: Aids in wound healing, helps promote healthy immune system, forms collagen. Sources: Citrus Fruits, Cantaloupe, strawberries, pineapple, broccoli Prevents: Scurvy TOXICITY = acid sores in soft tissues of mouth
  19. 19. Scurvy A lack of (DEFICIENCY) of Vitamin C characterized by weakness, anemia, bruising, inflamed pores, bleeding gums and loose teeth.
  20. 20. B Vitamins…. “Vitamin Complex” a GROUP of vitamins….. B1 = Thiamine B2 = Riboflavin B3 = Niacin B6 = Pyridoxine B9 = Folacin / Folic Acid B12 = Cobalamin
  21. 21. Vitamin B1 =Thiamine Function: Healthy nerve function and muscle tissue, digestive system, energy metabolism. Sources: Milk, grains, poultry, fish, dried beans Prevents: Beriberi No known TOXICITY
  22. 22. Beriberi Caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) that affects many systems of the body, including the skin, muscles, heart, nerves, and digestive system. Beriberi means… "I can't, I can't" in Singhalese, which reflects the crippling effect it has on its victims. beriberi is primarily seen in people with chronic alcoholism.
  23. 23. Vitamin B2 =Riboflavin Function: Growth, nerve function, digestion, works with protein for maintenance, energy metabolism. Sources: Milk, grains, green vegetables, meat, fish Prevents Premature aging; Cheilosis No known TOXICITY
  24. 24. Cheilosis A disorder of the lips marked by scaling and fissures at the corners of the mouth; caused by a lack of (DEFICIENCY) of riboflavin
  25. 25. Vitamin B3 = Niacin Function: Promotes healthy skin and tissues, digestion, and nervous system. Sources: Milk, grains, poultry, fish. Prevents: Pellagra No known TOXICITY
  26. 26. Pellagra An inability to absorb Niacin (B3) or the amino acid tryptophan may cause scaly sores, cellular degeneration, mucous PH imbalance, and mental barriers.
  27. 27. Vitamin B6 = Pyridoxine Function: Healthy brain function, formation of red blood cells, immune system support. Sources: Beans, legumes, nuts/seeds, eggs ,meat/fish. Prevents: Helps fight infection. No known TOXICITY.
  28. 28. Vitamin B9=Folacin (Folic Acid / Folate) Functions: Age related memory, vision and hearing loss; promotes healthy red blood cells, maintains body enzymes. Sources: beans/ legumes citrus fruit, dark green vegetables, grains, meats, poultry/eggs, liver. Prevents: Neural Tube birth Defects, anemia and Vitiligo.
  29. 29. Neural Tube Birth Defects: (NTD) is lack of (DEFICIENCY) of Folic acid causing a congenital malformation which occurs between the 20th and 28th day after conception. The cells of the neural plate make up nervous system. The cells fold back onto themselves in order to create what is called the neural tube, which becomes the back bone and spinal cord.
  30. 30. Folate deficiency…
  31. 31. Vitiligo… Skin condition in which there is a loss of brown color (pigment) from areas of skin, resulting in irregular white patches. Caused by lack (DEFICIENCY) of Vitamin B or Folic Acid and other vitamins such a B12, C and copper & zinc.
  32. 32. Vitamin B12 = Cobalamin Function: Healthy red blood cell & marrow, nervous system function, sperm production, strong immune system. Improves mental energy, memory, protects against allergies and toxins (cyanide in cigarettes) Sources: Milk, eggs, liver, dairy products, fish, and shellfish Prevents: Pernicious Anemia, intestinal malabsorption TOXICITY = slight stomach upset
  33. 33. Pernicious Anemia Chronic disease cause by lack of (DEFICIENCY) of Vitamin B12 typified by abnormally large red blood cells. Disturbs the nervous system causing depression and drowsiness.
  34. 34. Conclusion  Free radical theory of aging is only concerned with all free radicals in our body cause cumulative damage which would eventually lead to loss of functionality, and ultimately death.  This theory is supported by a vast number of experiments and observations .  This provide important view about free radicals.  There is no doubt that reactive free radicals such as hydroxyl and peroxy radicals can damage biomolecules and their activities can be suppressed by some antioxidants (free radical scavengers) such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C).  But this theory could not find differences between various free radicals .However many free radicals help to regulate many functions in cells like cell-cell signaling, killing of harmful bacteria , co-factors of enzymes.  Free radical theory of aging must be broaden and modify .
  35. 35. Made by:. 1. Mohamed el-Mekawy. 2. Mohamed Khalil. 3. Mohamed el-Hefta. 4. Mohamed Adel. 5. Mohamed Abd el-Fadel. 6. Mohamed el-Mekawy. 7. Mohamed Shafik. 8. Mohamed Ismail. 9. Mohamed Srour. 10. Essam Zayed.