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Iden%ty,	Academia	
and	Community:	
Research	and	Implica%ons	
for	Broadening	Par%cipa%on	
#SACNAS2015
TODAY	
•  How	social	and	scien%fic	iden%ty	
influences	academic	STEM	interest	and	
persistence	
•  Factors	that	create	perce...
Dr.	Paul	Hernandez	 Dr.	Kenneth	Gibbs,	Jr.	
@KennyGibbsPhD	
Dr.	Giovanna	Guerrero-Medina	
@sefini	
Dr.	Yaihara	For%s-San%ag...

The Importance of Scientific
Identity (and Values) for
Persistence in STEM
Presentation at the Society for Advancing
Chi...
Research
Team
Wesley Schultz (PI)
Mica Estrada (Co-PI)
Anna Woodcock
Paul Hernandez
Richard Serpe
Victor Rocha
Stephen Qua...
Minority Training
Programs
• Concerted effort for over 40 years to increase the diversity in
the sciences
• Many programs ...
Do These Programs Work?
Problems with Existing Data
1. Programs can “cherry pick” students who are likely to
succeed
- The...
 Longitudinal study of underrepresented minority
science students who had a strong interest in pursuing
a biomedical rese...
25 R.I.S.E. Programs
6
Longitudinal Panel
 72% Female
 Ethnicity/Race:
 49% African American
 39% Hispanic/Latino(a)
 1% Native American
 M...
Survey Data Collection
Data collected through secure web interface
www.TheScienceStudy.com
8

Persistence/Integration
into the Scientific
Community
Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influence
(TIMSI)
9
Individuals Orient to the Academic Community
on Different Levels
• Resources (e.g., Money, scholarships)
• Ability (self-e...
Expansion of Kelman’s Model
 Kelman’s Model Expansion: Tripartite Integration Model of
Social Influence (TIMSI)
(Estrada,...
Who Integrates into the Scientific
Community?
Tripartite Integration Model of Social
Influence (TIMSI)
• I can do what sci...
Scientific
Integration
Identity
Self-
Efficacy
Value
Undergraduate students
.43*
.22*
.51*
.60*
.54*
(.28)
TIMSI Predictin...
Scientific
Integration
Identity
Self-
Efficacy
Value
.20+
.28*
.52*
.45*
.56*
Conduct
Research
(.24)
Scientific
Integratio...
Panel: Career Trajectories Now
In
Science
Out of
Science
Medical
Series1 253 431 321
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
...
Science
Identity
Science
Efficacy
Science
Values
STEM
Career
Medical /
Clinical
Career
Other
Career
Longitudinal Predictio...
Making Sense of Longitudinal
Prediction Model
74%
43%
16%
9%
25%
50%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
High (+1 SD) Average Low (-1 ...
Program Recommendations
 I can
 Sustain efficacy. Provide opportunities to
successfully practice scientific skills
 I a...

So I’ll stay….
19
Thank You
20
Example of Science Efficacy Questions
Extent to which you are confident you can successfully complete the
following tasks…...
22
Example of Science Identity Questions
Level of agreement with each statement…
 In general, being a scientist is an import...
24
 A person who feels
discovering something
new in the sciences is
thrilling.
 A person who thinks it is
important work to...
26
Panel: Educational Progress
87
74
49
30
18
12 9 7 7 5
13
18
30
39
45
44
39
34
29
23
9
21
31
37
44
52
59
65
72
0
10
20
30
4...
References & Additional Readings
28
• Hernandez, P. R., Schultz, P. W., Estrada, M., Woodcock, A., & Chance, R. C. (2013)....
Kenneth Gibbs, Jr., Ph.D., M.P.H.
Cancer Prevention Fellow
Science of Research and Technology Branch
National Cancer Insti...
¡  “The NIH mission can only be achieved if the best and brightest
biomedical researchers, regardless of race, ethnicity, ...
• Non-research career
(policy, business, consulting, etc.)
• Faculty Career, Research University
• Faculty Career, Teachin...
¡  Project 1: Focus groups exploring the process for career
interest formation (CBE Life Sciences Education, 2013)
§  N=38...
¡  October 2012- January 2013: Recruited through LinkedIn, Twitter, listservs of Ph.D.-
level science policy professionals...
¡  Career goals and knowledge
¡  Career pathway interest
§  Faculty, research-intensive university
§  Faculty, teaching-in...
¡  N=1500, American biomedical science
Ph.D. graduates (2007-2012)
	
	 Gibbs et al, PLOS ONE (2014)
Represents 5% of all A...
Men, Well-Represented (n=257) Men, URM (n=54)
Women, Well-Represented (n=547) Women, URM (n=122)
Gibbs et al, In Press
Men, Well-Represented (n=257) Men, URM (n=54)
Women, Well-Represented (n=547) Women, URM (n=122)
Gibbs et al, In Press
Men, Well-Represented (n=257) Men, URM (n=54)
Women, Well-Represented (n=547) Women, URM (n=122)
Gibbs et al, In Press
Men, Well-Represented (n=257) Men, URM (n=54)
Women, Well-Represented (n=547) Women, URM (n=122)
Gibbs et al, In Press
¡  Multiple Logistic Regression
§  Outcome: high career pathway interest at Ph.D.
completion (i.e. 4 or 5 on the interest ...
Gibbs et al, PLOS ONE (2014)
Positive Predictors:
•  High interest & intentions at
Ph.D. entry
•  Advisor investment in ca...
Gibbs et al, PLOS ONE (2014)
¡  Vicarious learning shapes outcome expectations
regarding academic careers
§  Faculty, near peers: academic job market, ...
“The freedom of academic research…just getting to do whatever you want, and
have people pay you…That is awesome!” Mark, Ma...
“There was a misalignment both in terms of my goals, and I think the goals of
the field and the goals of my department. I ...
¡  Men: Academic job market,
grant funding, postdoctoral pay
¡  Women: Life balance, climate
“I would have thought twice o...
¡  General trend away from faculty
careers (esp. at research-intensive
universities) and toward non-research
careers
¡ Car...
¡  Retention, persistence, and degree attainment are
not the same as career choice & workforce
development
§  Individual s...
¡  Combine student-centered efforts with institutional and
systemic transformation
§  Reward/evaluation structures & envir...
Gibbs et al, PLOS ONE (2014)
¡  Kimberly Griffin, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Education,
University of Maryland
§  John McGready, Ph.D., Associate Sc...
Peer-Reviewed
¡  Gibbs KD Jr., Griffin K.A. “What Do I Want to Be With My Ph.D.? The Roles of
Personal Values and Structur...
Opportunities for promoting inclusion and
persistence in STEM through networked
communities
Giovanna Guerrero-Medina, Ph.D...
Outline
•  Themes – Highlights from research
findings
•  Needs – Problems we have not yet
succesfully addressed
•  Solutio...
Research: The beginning, not
the end
•  Research skills,self-efficacy and performance are the
beginning but not the end in...
Intersectionality
•  Social identity can be parsed in multiple ways
•  Differences in career preferences, values, and
expe...
Pipeline vs. Estuary
•  Multiple contexts affect multiple outcomes
•  Many career opportunities but:
-  Early lack of focu...
•  Tension between personal values and perceived
culture & expectations of academic research
•  Social impact is often pas...
•  Unique experiences for women and URM
•  Often, feelings of isolation
Perceived & Experienced
Environment
Double Jeopard...
•  URM institutional programs are often succesful at
developing self-efficacy and scientific identity
-  Curriculum
-  Res...
URM Role Models, Advisors & Peers
If Visible, Relatable & Accessible:
•  Mitigate isolation
•  Help others visualize thems...
How can we improve access to
URM role models if they are
underrepresented in STEM?
The value of networked
communities
Ciencia Puerto Rico
•  >7,000 students, STEM
professionals and
educators with interest
in science & Puerto Rico
•  To supp...
More than a Network
Guerrero-Medina, et. al. (2013).  PLoS Biology (28)
We leverage the network to:
1.  Increase visibilit...
-	Science	Literacy	
-	Science	A.tudes	
&	Scien3st	
Percep3ons	
Science	
Communica3on	
Ac3vi3es	
AREAS	OF	NEED	
AUDIENCE	
C...
Information & Networking
• Platform connects to peers,
potential mentors, advisors, or
colleagues
Information & Networking
• Platform connects to peers,
potential mentors, advisors, or
colleagues
• Biennial academic &
pr...
Information & Networking
• Platform connects to peers,
potential mentors, advisors, or
colleagues
• Biennial academic &
pr...
Information & Networking
• Platform connects to peers,
potential mentors, advisors, or
colleagues
• Biennial academic &
pr...
Outreach for Agency &
Professional Development
Offering training and giving opportunity for
community service and outreach...
• >230 science articles for general public,
>240 podcasts with radio play, and 1 book
of essays for general public, all cr...
Innovative Program to Enhance
Research Training
Connecting PhD students with
CienciaPR network for:
•  Role model & peer d...
Addressing the Challenges
•  Isolation à Network
•  Socio-cognitive stress à Role models, Peer
support, Mentoring
•  Caree...
Ciencia Puerto Rico Team
Giovanna	Guerrero	Medina	
CienciaPR/Yale	University	
	
Mónica	I.	Feliú	Mójer	
CienciaPR/iBiology	...
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Identity, Academia & Community: Research & Implications for Broadening Participation

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Social identity, or the intersection between race/ethnicity and gender identity, strongly influences women and underrepresented minority (URM) students’ interest and persistence in STEM. This session discussed recent research findings and discuss how they can be translated into programs and practices to broaden participation in STEM. Presented at the 2015 SACNAS National Conference by Dr. Paul Hernandez, Dr. Kenny Gibbs, Jr. and Dr. Giovanna Guerrero-Medina. Moderated by Dr. Mónica I. Feliú-Mójer and Dr. Yaihara Fortis-Santiago.

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Identity, Academia & Community: Research & Implications for Broadening Participation

  1. 1. Iden%ty, Academia and Community: Research and Implica%ons for Broadening Par%cipa%on #SACNAS2015
  2. 2. TODAY •  How social and scien%fic iden%ty influences academic STEM interest and persistence •  Factors that create perceived opposi%on between social and scien%fic iden%ty •  Interven%ons that integrate findings into strategies for broadening par%cipa%on
  3. 3. Dr. Paul Hernandez Dr. Kenneth Gibbs, Jr. @KennyGibbsPhD Dr. Giovanna Guerrero-Medina @sefini Dr. Yaihara For%s-San%ago @yfor%ss Dr. Mónica I. Feliú-Mójer @moefeliu
  4. 4.  The Importance of Scientific Identity (and Values) for Persistence in STEM Presentation at the Society for Advancing Chicanos/Hispanics and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) National Conference Washington, DC, October 30th 2015 1
  5. 5. Research Team Wesley Schultz (PI) Mica Estrada (Co-PI) Anna Woodcock Paul Hernandez Richard Serpe Victor Rocha Stephen Quartucci 2
  6. 6. Minority Training Programs • Concerted effort for over 40 years to increase the diversity in the sciences • Many programs promote research careers among members of underrepresented groups • NIH, NSF, State, Local , Private • Undergraduate, graduate, post-graduate & early career • “In 2002, the number of trainees [in NIH programs] exceeded 16,000, reflecting a spending level of approximately $650 million.” Assessment of NIH Minority Research and Training Programs: Phase 3 3
  7. 7. Do These Programs Work? Problems with Existing Data 1. Programs can “cherry pick” students who are likely to succeed - These students are likely to succeed without the program 2. No control group 3. Inadequate sample size (often one program) 4. Long-term evaluations outside of funding scope 5. No way to examine the “mechanisms” of success 6. Retrospective accounts can be biased 4
  8. 8.  Longitudinal study of underrepresented minority science students who had a strong interest in pursuing a biomedical research career  From 50 campuses nationwide, 25 of these had RISE programs in 2005 (when study began)  1,420 participants  Data collected twice yearly from students  Prospective propensity score matched control design  Completed tenth year (19 waves of data) with a minimum 70% response rate Overview: The Science Study 5
  9. 9. 25 R.I.S.E. Programs 6
  10. 10. Longitudinal Panel  72% Female  Ethnicity/Race:  49% African American  39% Hispanic/Latino(a)  1% Native American  Major (when began):  63% Biological Sciences  21% Natural Sciences  12% Behavioral & Social Sciences  4% Mathematics & Engineering 7
  11. 11. Survey Data Collection Data collected through secure web interface www.TheScienceStudy.com 8
  12. 12.  Persistence/Integration into the Scientific Community Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influence (TIMSI) 9
  13. 13. Individuals Orient to the Academic Community on Different Levels • Resources (e.g., Money, scholarships) • Ability (self-efficacy) Compliance: If I get this then I’ll pursue an academic degree. • An Academic (having academic identity) • Belong in the academic community Identification: When I am this, I pursue an academic degree. • Hold the values of the academic community Internalization: Because I believe in this, I pursue an academic degree. Kelman’s Theory of Social Influence (1958, 2006)10
  14. 14. Expansion of Kelman’s Model  Kelman’s Model Expansion: Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influence (TIMSI) (Estrada, Woodcock, Hernandez, & Schultz, 2011)  Adapts constructs from Kelman’s model for Compliance (Science Efficacy), Identification (Science Identity), and Internalization (Science Community Values) to examine integration into the scientific community.  Science Efficacy, Science Identity, and Science Community Values used to predict student intentions to purse an academic career.  Participants were all underrepresented minority students 11
  15. 15. Who Integrates into the Scientific Community? Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influence (TIMSI) • I can do what scientists doScientific self- efficacy • I am a scientist Scientific identity • I agree with the values of the scientific community. Internalization of scientific values Integration + + + 12Estrada et al. (2011)
  16. 16. Scientific Integration Identity Self- Efficacy Value Undergraduate students .43* .22* .51* .60* .54* (.28) TIMSI Predicting Integration Estrada et al. (2011) 13
  17. 17. Scientific Integration Identity Self- Efficacy Value .20+ .28* .52* .45* .56* Conduct Research (.24) Scientific Integration Identity Self- Efficacy Value .21* .28** .52* .45* .56* Apply Graduate School (.20) .23* Scientific Integration Identity Self- Efficacy Value .21* .28** .52* .45* .56* Enroll Graduate School (.51) Apply Graduate School .13* .64*** .18* .21* .16* Estrada et al. (2011) 14 (.20)
  18. 18. Panel: Career Trajectories Now In Science Out of Science Medical Series1 253 431 321 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500Numberofstudents Where are they now?? 15
  19. 19. Science Identity Science Efficacy Science Values STEM Career Medical / Clinical Career Other Career Longitudinal Prediction of Career Choices Senior Year ~2 Years Post Graduation -.65* 16 Estrada, Hernandez, Woodcock, & Schultz (2013) Estrada, Hernandez, & Schultz (2015 Under Review) (.24) (.20)
  20. 20. Making Sense of Longitudinal Prediction Model 74% 43% 16% 9% 25% 50% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% High (+1 SD) Average Low (-1 SD) Endoresment of Science Community Values PredictedProbabilities Predicted Probabilities of Career Choices as a Function of Science Community Values Career Choice STEM Career Choice Other 17
  21. 21. Program Recommendations  I can  Sustain efficacy. Provide opportunities to successfully practice scientific skills  I am  Sustain identity. Provide context that supports the maintenance of a scientific identity and sense of belonging to the community  I believe  Sustain values. Communicate values of the discipline and why they are important to continue to embrace. 18
  22. 22.  So I’ll stay…. 19
  23. 23. Thank You 20
  24. 24. Example of Science Efficacy Questions Extent to which you are confident you can successfully complete the following tasks…  Report research results in a written paper.  Use scientific language and terminology.  Figure out/analyze what data/observations mean.  Use scientific literature and/or reports to guide research.  Use technical science skills (use of tools, instruments, and/or techniques). Chemers, et. al. (2010). 21
  25. 25. 22
  26. 26. Example of Science Identity Questions Level of agreement with each statement…  In general, being a scientist is an important part of my self-image.  I am a scientist.  I have a strong sense of belonging to the community of scientists.  Being a scientist is an important reflection of who I am. Modification of Chemers, et. al. (2010). 23
  27. 27. 24
  28. 28.  A person who feels discovering something new in the sciences is thrilling.  A person who thinks it is important work to identify truths using the scientific method.  A person who thinks discussing new theories and ideas between scientists is important. Example of Science Value Questions How much is this person like you?  A person who thinks it is valuable to conduct research that builds the world's scientific knowledge.  A person who believes writing up research results to be published in a leading scientific journal is a good use of time. Estrada, et al. (2011). 25
  29. 29. 26
  30. 30. Panel: Educational Progress 87 74 49 30 18 12 9 7 7 5 13 18 30 39 45 44 39 34 29 23 9 21 31 37 44 52 59 65 72 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 W0 W2 W4 W6 W8 W10 W12 W14 W16 W18 PercentofPanel Undergraduate Grad/Med Student Not Currently Enrolled 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 Note: The “not currently enrolled” category includes those who have graduated and those who have either permanently or temporarily left college before graduation.27
  31. 31. References & Additional Readings 28 • Hernandez, P. R., Schultz, P. W., Estrada, M., Woodcock, A., & Chance, R. C. (2013). Sustaining optimal motivation: A longitudinal analysis of interventions to broaden participation of underrepresented students in STEM. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1), 89-107. doi:10.1037/a0029691 • Estrada, M., Hernandez, P. R., Woodcock, A., & Schultz, W. P. (2013). I can, but I’m not staying! The integration of underrepresented minority students into the sciences. Presentation at the Annual American Psychological Association Convention - SPSSI/Division 9, Honolulu, HI. • Estrada, M., Hernandez, P. R., & Schultz, P. W. (Under Review). A longitudinal study of how quality mentorship and research experience integrate underrepresented minorities into STEM careers. • Estrada, M., Woodcock, A., Hernandez, P. R., & Schultz, P. W. (2011). Toward a model of social influence that explains minority student integration into the scientific community. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(1), 206-222. doi:10.1037/a0020743 • Schultz, P. W., Hernandez, P. R., Woodcock, A., Estrada, M., Chance, R. C., Aguilar, M., & Serpe, R. T. (2011). Patching the pipeline: Reducing educational disparities in the sciences through minority training programs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(1), 95-114. doi:10.3102/0162373710392371
  32. 32. Kenneth Gibbs, Jr., Ph.D., M.P.H. Cancer Prevention Fellow Science of Research and Technology Branch National Cancer Institute E: kenneth.gibbs@nih.gov Tw: @KennyGibbsPhD @STEMPhDCareers *View are those of the investigators, not any organization with which they are affiliated
  33. 33. ¡  “The NIH mission can only be achieved if the best and brightest biomedical researchers, regardless of race, ethnicity, disability, socioeconomic background, or gender, are recruited and retained in our workforce... ”-Tabak & Collins (2011) %Representation NIH RPG Ph.D. Graduates Postdocs NSF, 2013 NIH, 2014 URM= underrepresented minority; African-American/Black, Hispanic/Latino, Native American, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Women URM
  34. 34. • Non-research career (policy, business, consulting, etc.) • Faculty Career, Research University • Faculty Career, Teaching University • Research Career, non-academic (industry, biotech, government, etc.) 1. Decision to pursue Ph.D. 3. Decision to pursue postdoctoral training 5. Decision after postdoctoral training 4. Postdoctoral training experiences 2. Graduate training experiences Decision Point Training Path No postdoctoral training Gibbs & Griffin, CBE Life Science Education (2013) Research Questions •  What is the process of career interest formation for recent biomedical Ph.D. graduates? •  To what extent does this process differ based on social identity (i.e. race/ethnicity, gender, and their intersection)?
  35. 35. ¡  Project 1: Focus groups exploring the process for career interest formation (CBE Life Sciences Education, 2013) §  N=38 (23 women, 18 from URM backgrounds) §  Personal values and structural dynamics are shaping career interests ¡  Project 2: National survey (PLOS ONE, 2014) §  N=1890 recent STEM Ph.D.s (n=335 from URM backgrounds), most biomedical and related fields §  Disparate career interest patterns across lines of gender and race/ethnicity ¡  Project 3: In-depth interviews §  N=69 survey respondents from diverse backgrounds and pursuing diverse career pathways §  Analysis on-going Kimberly Griffin, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Education, University of Maryland
  36. 36. ¡  October 2012- January 2013: Recruited through LinkedIn, Twitter, listservs of Ph.D.- level science policy professionals, academic and government postdocs, direct contact at national scientific conferences, graduate school and postdoctoral administrators, professional societies (e.g. National Postdoctoral Association), snowball sampling ¡  N=1500, US citizens & permanent residents, completed Ph.D. between 2007-2012 Biochemistry & Cell/Molecular Biology 30.00 Neuroscience 13.20 Microbiology & Immunology 12.73 Pharmacology/Toxicology 7.40 Psychology 7.40 Biological Sciences 7.20 Genetics 5.33 Biostat/Epi/Public Health/Clinical Sciences 4.87 Bioengineering 4.73 Biomedical Sciences 3.87 Pathology 1.67 Bioinformatics 1.60 % Disciplinary Background % Current Position Postdoc 66.8 Non-Research Career (i.e. science policy, science communication, business, consulting, patent law, technology transfer) 9.2 Research Scientist/Engineer 5.67 Tenure-track Professor 4.13 Academic Position, other than tenure-track professor 4.13 Other 7.53 Unknown/Unemployed 2.47 Gibbs et al, PLOS ONE (2014)
  37. 37. ¡  Career goals and knowledge ¡  Career pathway interest §  Faculty, research-intensive university §  Faculty, teaching-intensive university §  Research career, non-academic (e.g. industry, pharmaceutical, biotech, government, start up, etc.) §  Non-research career (e.g. consulting, policy, science writing, patent law, business, etc.) ¡  Graduate and postdoctoral training experiences and career development ¡  5-point Likert scales (1= lowest, 5= highest; interest or agreement) ¡  Time points: Ph.D. entry, Ph.D. completion, currently §  Cross-sectional, retrospective
  38. 38. ¡  N=1500, American biomedical science Ph.D. graduates (2007-2012) Gibbs et al, PLOS ONE (2014) Represents 5% of all American biomedical Ph.Ds., 10% URM Ph.Ds. (9% of American biomedical postdocs, 19% of URM biomedical postdocs)
  39. 39. Men, Well-Represented (n=257) Men, URM (n=54) Women, Well-Represented (n=547) Women, URM (n=122) Gibbs et al, In Press
  40. 40. Men, Well-Represented (n=257) Men, URM (n=54) Women, Well-Represented (n=547) Women, URM (n=122) Gibbs et al, In Press
  41. 41. Men, Well-Represented (n=257) Men, URM (n=54) Women, Well-Represented (n=547) Women, URM (n=122) Gibbs et al, In Press
  42. 42. Men, Well-Represented (n=257) Men, URM (n=54) Women, Well-Represented (n=547) Women, URM (n=122) Gibbs et al, In Press
  43. 43. ¡  Multiple Logistic Regression §  Outcome: high career pathway interest at Ph.D. completion (i.e. 4 or 5 on the interest scale) ¡  Covariates: §  Personal: Interest & intentions at Ph.D. entry, confidence in research ability §  Objective: first-author publication rate, time-to- degree, h-index, institution type (Top50 yes/no) §  Graduate training: sense of belonging (intellectually or socially), advisor interactions, and career development measures
  44. 44. Gibbs et al, PLOS ONE (2014) Positive Predictors: •  High interest & intentions at Ph.D. entry •  Advisor investment in career •  Publication record •  Research self-efficacy •  Departmental support for all careers Negative Predictor: •  Ph.D. at “Top 50” university
  45. 45. Gibbs et al, PLOS ONE (2014)
  46. 46. ¡  Vicarious learning shapes outcome expectations regarding academic careers §  Faculty, near peers: academic job market, faculty lifestyles ¡  A combination of outcome expectations, personal values, and structural dynamics shape career decisions §  Values: what is important to decision-maker §  If what was important was best or only achievable in a faculty position, then the scientist pursued a faculty career §  If scientist felt her/his values were not sufficiently engaged in academia, they pursued other careers §  Dynamics at academic institutions and throughout research workforce also influenced choice of non-academic careers
  47. 47. “The freedom of academic research…just getting to do whatever you want, and have people pay you…That is awesome!” Mark, Male, Well-Represented ¡  Well-Represented Men: Academic Freedom ¡  Women & URMs: Externally-Focused Values In her applied health field, research success or “failure actually means changing someone’s life.” She says, “I’m really interested in where we are [and] getting to the finish line. That’s why I come into work every day. It’s not because of, you know, the ‘glowing’ people I get to work with all the time. It’s just the work is so much bigger than any of the individuals [I work with].” Christina, Female, URM “It’s very intimidating to think about the amount of time that I will have to spend to make sure my lab stays up and running. That I don’t have grad students or postdocs who are scared…about not having the funding to do the work and to live, to eat. But, it’s rewarding to think about being able to mentor students. That’s really what I’m passionate about.” Alicia, Female, URM “I see very few people of color in academia… I see it as a responsibility. I can do this, so I should pursue it.” Robert, Male, URM Gibbs & Griffin, CBE-LSE (2013)
  48. 48. “There was a misalignment both in terms of my goals, and I think the goals of the field and the goals of my department. I want to help society. I want to help communities that look like me, that have shared experiences that are like mine. I was receiving training to [identify] basic processes of human behavior. It was someone else’s job to then take those basic processes and apply them to social problems. But I want to fix the problems…A misalignment in the reward structure of academia and the things that I think are important on a more basic level.” Lara, Low Interest, Female, URM Trent began his Ph.D. training “completely excited” about basic research but grew frustrated at the length of time needed to translate “basic research to any practical end result…. I am choosing a career in science policy…[because] it’s an expression of science that engages directly into the public realm.” Trent, Low Interest, Male, Well Represented Gibbs & Griffin, CBE-LSE (2013)
  49. 49. ¡  Men: Academic job market, grant funding, postdoctoral pay ¡  Women: Life balance, climate “I would have thought twice or even three times about leaving academia had the prospect for [postdoc salary] been something like $50,000-55,000.” Steve, Low Interest, Male, URM “The seeming lack of control you have over your career options as an academic scientist. In terms of, whether not you get grants, or whether or not you publish, especially in this climate where the science funding has stalled or gone down in most cases over the last ten years …You have no control…and that really turns me off.” Will, Low Interest, Male, URM “I want to have a family and to be able to see my children grow up, not just get home when they are in bed.” Mandy, Low Interest, Female, Well- Represented “My interaction with [graduate school colleagues] is the thing that deterred me from…seeking a career in an academic environment. I felt that I could hold my own with them…but if I stepped back from it, I was like, there's no reason for me to work really hard to have these people be my peers. That's not what I am excited to do.” Deborah, Low Interest, Female, URM Gibbs & Griffin, CBE-LSE (2013)
  50. 50. ¡  General trend away from faculty careers (esp. at research-intensive universities) and toward non-research careers ¡ Career trends intensified in women from URM backgrounds ¡ Disparate interest patterns at Ph.D. completion by social identity when accounting for starting interest, productivity, advisor investment, and self-efficacy
  51. 51. ¡  Retention, persistence, and degree attainment are not the same as career choice & workforce development §  Individual skills, mentoring, and degrees are necessary but not sufficient for career attainment §  “Pipeline” metaphor hinders efforts at inclusive excellence ¡  Approach broadening participation in the workforce explicitly but not separately §  Think intersectionally ¡  Non-biased selection processes §  Ginther et. al., Science 2011; Moss-Racusin et al, PNAS 2012; Ceci & Williams, PNAS 2015; Connelly et al, AERA 2015
  52. 52. ¡  Combine student-centered efforts with institutional and systemic transformation §  Reward/evaluation structures & environments—department, institution, funding agency §  Attractive and accessible to scientists from a wide variety of backgrounds? ¡  Points of Intervention §  Career development: early (undergraduate and graduate training) and often §  Connect student learning activities and faculty work with student values §  Self-efficacy §  University climate: URM women; life-balance §  Funding and APT: stability/predictability, transparency ¡  Systems approach
  53. 53. Gibbs et al, PLOS ONE (2014)
  54. 54. ¡  Kimberly Griffin, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Education, University of Maryland §  John McGready, Ph.D., Associate Scientist (Biostatistics), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health §  Graduate Students: Jessica Bennett, Tykeia Robinson, Candice Staples, Shelvia English ¡  Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program §  Dave Nelson, Director §  Kara Hall, Preceptor ¡  Support §  Project: Burroughs Wellcome Fund (Carr Thompson) ¡  AAAS EHR §  Yolanda George ¡  NSF HRD §  Muriel Poston, Sylvia James, Jessie DeAro
  55. 55. Peer-Reviewed ¡  Gibbs KD Jr., Griffin K.A. “What Do I Want to Be With My Ph.D.? The Roles of Personal Values and Structural Dynamics in Shaping the Career Interests of Recent Biomedical Science Ph.D. Graduates.” CBE Life Sciences Education. 2013 Winter; 12(1): 711-23 ¡  Griffin KA, Gibbs KD Jr., et al, “Respect me for my science’: A Bourdieuan analysis of women scientists’ interactions with faculty and socialization into science.” In Press at Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering ¡  Gibbs KD Jr et al, “Biomedical Ph.D. Career Interest Patterns by Race/Ethnicity & Gender.” PLOS ONE (Dec 2014) ¡  Gibbs KD Jr, Griffin KA. “Career Development Among American Biomedical Postdocs,” In Press at CBE Life Sciences Education (December 2015) Popular Press ¡  Benderly B. “What is the Purpose of a Scientific Career?” Science Careers (March 2015) ¡  Gibbs KD Jr, “Diversity in STEM: What It Is and Why It Matters” and “Beyond the Pipeline: Reframing Science’s Diversity Challenge.” Scientific American (Voices Blog, 2014) Contact: kgibbsjr@gmail.com; kenneth.gibbs@nih.gov @KennyGibbsPhD; @STEMPhDCareers
  56. 56. Opportunities for promoting inclusion and persistence in STEM through networked communities Giovanna Guerrero-Medina, Ph.D. Executive Director, Ciencia Puerto Rico Director, Yale Ciencia Initiative giovanna.guerrero-medina@yale.edu @Sefini #SACNAS2015 Washington, DC, October 30th 2015
  57. 57. Outline •  Themes – Highlights from research findings •  Needs – Problems we have not yet succesfully addressed •  Solutions - The value of networked communities
  58. 58. Research: The beginning, not the end •  Research skills,self-efficacy and performance are the beginning but not the end in the making of a scientist. •  Whether trainees perceive themselves as scientists and part of the science community is important
  59. 59. Intersectionality •  Social identity can be parsed in multiple ways •  Differences in career preferences, values, and experiences between social identities and among them •  No one size fits all solutions
  60. 60. Pipeline vs. Estuary •  Multiple contexts affect multiple outcomes •  Many career opportunities but: -  Early lack of focus/awareness -  Later, confusion about options
  61. 61. •  Tension between personal values and perceived culture & expectations of academic research •  Social impact is often passively or actively discouraged Perceived & Experienced Environment
  62. 62. •  Unique experiences for women and URM •  Often, feelings of isolation Perceived & Experienced Environment Double Jeopardy? Gender Bias Against Women of Color in Science
  63. 63. •  URM institutional programs are often succesful at developing self-efficacy and scientific identity -  Curriculum -  Research experiences -  Mentoring -  Scientific conferences & presentations Institutional Interventions •  More difficult to: -  Sustain effect on scientific integration across training stages -  Control or mitigate environment and URM experiences -  Counter isolation -  Provide guidance & support for all career outcomes
  64. 64. URM Role Models, Advisors & Peers If Visible, Relatable & Accessible: •  Mitigate isolation •  Help others visualize themselves in their place •  Promote knowledge of diverse pathways and careers •  Can address the uniqueness of URM experiences in STEM •  Practical & moral Support •  Expand the network of support and information that is critical for career advancement
  65. 65. How can we improve access to URM role models if they are underrepresented in STEM?
  66. 66. The value of networked communities
  67. 67. Ciencia Puerto Rico •  >7,000 students, STEM professionals and educators with interest in science & Puerto Rico •  To support science outreach, education & career collaborations •  >185 academic institutions, 49 states and >50 countries •  >100 scientific disciplines •  Bilingual educational, training, and career development resources Principal & largest Puerto Rican science network Guerrero-Medina, et. al. (2013).  PLoS Biology (28)
  68. 68. More than a Network Guerrero-Medina, et. al. (2013).  PLoS Biology (28) We leverage the network to: 1.  Increase visibility and connection to role models and professional contacts 2.  Inform, mentor and advise scientists at all stages 3.  Develop culturally-relevant educational & training resources Underrepresentation ≠ Invisibility/Lack of Agency
  69. 69. - Science Literacy - Science A.tudes & Scien3st Percep3ons Science Communica3on Ac3vi3es AREAS OF NEED AUDIENCE CIENCIAPR INITIATIVES General Public - Prepara3on for STEM careers - Prepara3on for STEM Grad Training Undergraduate YaleCiencia NIH IPERT - Naviga3ng doctoral training pathways and career transi3ons Graduate & Professionals The Voice of Experience – STEM Careers - Science Learning - Interest in STEM careers K-12 STEM Ed. Resources Connecting scientists, students & the public to support diversity in science Student Symposia & Events Outreach Girls in STEM
  70. 70. Information & Networking • Platform connects to peers, potential mentors, advisors, or colleagues
  71. 71. Information & Networking • Platform connects to peers, potential mentors, advisors, or colleagues • Biennial academic & professional development workshop highlighting members’ experiences
  72. 72. Information & Networking • Platform connects to peers, potential mentors, advisors, or colleagues • Biennial academic & professional development workshop highlighting members’ experiences • Blog on women in science
  73. 73. Information & Networking • Platform connects to peers, potential mentors, advisors, or colleagues • Biennial academic & professional development workshop highlighting members’ experiences • Blog on women in science • Videochats with peers & scientists for a variety of careers and milestones
  74. 74. Outreach for Agency & Professional Development Offering training and giving opportunity for community service and outreach #SciComm #SemillasTriunfo
  75. 75. • >230 science articles for general public, >240 podcasts with radio play, and 1 book of essays for general public, all crowd- sourced by scientists • Stories emphasize role models & cultural relevance Science Communication • 1.4 million readers!
  76. 76. Innovative Program to Enhance Research Training Connecting PhD students with CienciaPR network for: •  Role model & peer discussions •  Develop skills in career exploration & direction through IDP •  Professional development trainings -  Science communication -  Science teaching -  Proactive mentoring & networking •  Science outreach to exert scientific identity & provide social impact •  Research on factors that promote career self-efficacy & professional expectations 1R25GM114000 40 students commence 1-yr training January 2016 FOR MORE INFORMATION AND TO APPLY: www.cienciapr.org/yca
  77. 77. Addressing the Challenges •  Isolation à Network •  Socio-cognitive stress à Role models, Peer support, Mentoring •  Career clarity & expansion of “traditional career perceptions” à IDP, role models •  Disengagement à Outreach
  78. 78. Ciencia Puerto Rico Team Giovanna Guerrero Medina CienciaPR/Yale University Mónica I. Feliú Mójer CienciaPR/iBiology Daniel A. Colón Ramos Yale University Wilson González Espada Morehead State University Greetchen Díaz Muñoz PR Science Trust Marcos López Casillas Fund. Cardiovasc. Colombia Yaihara For3s San3ago NYAS Samuel Díaz Muñoz UC-Davis Jacqueline Flores UPR-MSC Francis González Indep. Consultant Paola Gius3 UNC-Chapel Hill Reyna Mar^nez De Luna SUNY-Upstate Uldaeliz Trujillo UPR-Rio Piedras Elvin Estrada Ponce Health Sci. Univ. Enrique Vargas UPR-Mayagüez Edwin Rosado Harvard Almarely Berríos UPR-Cayey Mariella Mestre UPR-RP Jennifer Mar^nez CienciaPR Intern Cris3an Delgado CienciaPR Intern/UPR-RP

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