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Vegetable Gardening Overview


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Vegetable Gardening Overview

  1. 1. Vegetable Gardening Overview<br />
  2. 2. Karen Delahaut, original author<br />Mike Maddox, updates<br />Vegetable Gardening Overview<br />
  3. 3. Portland, OR<br />Community Garden<br />
  4. 4. Portland, OR<br />Vertical Gardening / Community Garden<br />
  5. 5. Kansas City, MO<br />Urban Agriculture<br />
  6. 6. Madison, WI<br />West Madison Agriculture Research Station <br />
  7. 7. Janesville, WI<br />Rock County Farm / Community Garden<br />
  8. 8. Proximity to trees <br />Light<br />Soil<br />Site Selection<br />Access<br />Topography<br />
  9. 9. Proximity to Trees<br />Trees and shrubs may compete for the same resources as your garden: light, water, and nutrients.<br />Walnut trees may prove extra harmful due to juglone production.<br />
  10. 10. Light<br />Necessary for photosynthesis<br />6+ hours for most vegetable crops<br />Photoperiod<br />Flower initiation<br />Bulbing & tuber formation<br />
  11. 11. Light<br />Short day plants<br />Sweet potato forms tubers as days grow shorter<br />
  12. 12. Light<br />Long day plants- flower when light exceeds a certain number of hours.<br />Lettuce, spinach, radish<br />Some onions form bulbs with long days <br />Most N. varieties<br />
  13. 13. Light<br />Day neutral plants- flowers not related to light<br />Cucumber, peas, beans, peppers<br />
  14. 14. Light<br />Too much light<br />Sunscald<br />Defoliation exposing fruit to hot sun<br />
  15. 15. Soil<br />Well drained soils are necessary<br />Be able to work down to 6 or 7 inches<br />Best to till in the fall<br />Saves soil structure<br />Ground is ready to plant in spring<br />Remove large stones, clods, plant debris<br />Particularly important with root crops<br />
  16. 16. Soil<br />Remove grass/ weeds for new gardens<br />Amending soil<br />Add 2 to 4 inches compost or OM <br />Cover crops / green manures<br />Raised beds / containers<br />If soil isn’t conducive for garden<br />
  17. 17. Soil<br />Soil test<br />Best done in fall<br />Repeat every 3 years<br />Sample 6-7 inches deep in 5+ areas of garden<br />Soil pH (6.0 to 6.8)<br />Phosphorus<br />Potassium<br />Organic matter (OM)<br />
  18. 18. Soil<br />Benefits of adding organic matter<br />Improves water retention / soil structure<br />Increases soil fertility<br />Increases Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)<br />Ability to hold nutrients<br />Reduces fertilization requirements<br />Enhances microbial activity<br />Pathogen suppression<br />Accelerates breakdown of pesticides and other synthetic compounds<br />
  19. 19. Soil<br />Forking<br />Manure or debris in soil<br />
  20. 20. Adding Compost<br />Add 2-4 inches of compost<br />
  21. 21. Cover Crops & Green Manures<br />Rye is used as a green-manure and double-dug into the ground .<br />
  22. 22. Raised beds<br />Untreated lumber should be used for construction.<br />Beds should be at least 12 inches deep for adequate rooting.<br />Compost and soil were used as the medium.<br />
  23. 23. Mulch<br />Mulches can be used to conserve moisture, suppress weeds and diseases, and add organic matter to the garden.<br />Straw is used in this picture.<br />
  24. 24. To till or not to till?<br />
  25. 25. Topography<br />Local terrain affects choices on garden positioning.<br />
  26. 26. Access<br />
  27. 27. Season length<br />Season extension<br />Cool & warm season crops<br />Seasonal Considerations<br />
  28. 28. Season Length<br />Last killing frost of spring?<br />Northern Wisconsin:<br />Average May 24 to June 6<br />Mid state:<br />Average May 9 to May 23<br />Southern Wisconsin: <br />Average April 26 to May 9<br />
  29. 29. Season Length<br />First killing frost of autumn?<br />Northern Wisconsin:<br />Average September 13 to September 27<br />Mid state:<br />Average September 27 to October 10<br />Southern Wisconsin: <br />September 27 to October 24<br />
  30. 30. Season Length<br />
  31. 31. Cool & Warm Season Crops<br /><ul><li>Warm-season seeds may rot in cold soils
  32. 32. Cool season seeds may have heat-induced dormancy</li></li></ul><li>Cool & Warm Season Crops<br />Plants with a long growing season can be started indoors and then transplanted outdoors when the weather is conducive for their growth.<br />Pumpkins, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant<br />Transplants of cool season plants can be planted early in the spring and are tolerant to the colder temperatures. <br />Cole crops<br />
  33. 33. Season Extension<br />Black landscape fabric is used to warm the soil in the spring. Tomatoes are planted through the fabric.<br />
  34. 34. Season Extension<br />Walls-o-Water can be used in the early spring to protect warm-season transplants.<br />
  35. 35. Season Extension<br />
  36. 36. Season Extension<br />Summer planting of radish seeds; screen provides shade to cool soil and avoid heat-induced dormancy.<br />
  37. 37. Season Extension<br />Floating row covers can protect crops from frost.<br />
  38. 38. Season Extension<br />Cold frame used to harden off plants in the spring.<br />
  39. 39. Size of mature plant<br />Days to harvest<br />Heirlooms and hybrids<br />Disease resistance<br />Seed saving<br />Variety Selection<br />
  40. 40. Variety Selection<br />Size of mature plant<br />Examples<br />Bush vs Pole bean<br />Bush vs Vine <br />Determinate vs Indeterminate<br />Dwarf?<br />Fruit size?<br />
  41. 41. Days to Harvest<br />Pay particular attention to long season plants<br />Corn<br />Pumpkins<br />
  42. 42. Heirloom<br />Old-fashioned varieties<br />Selected for flavor<br />Not selected for disease resistance, uniformity or storage<br />In-bred seeds, may be appropriate for seed saving<br />
  43. 43. Hybrids<br />Grown for:<br />Pest resistance<br />Uniformity<br />“Vigor”<br />Seeds may not be appropriate for saving<br />Progeny of F1 may not be true-to-type or uniform.<br />AA x aa = Aa (F1)<br />Aa x Aa = Aa, AA, aa (F2)<br />
  44. 44. Hybrids<br />
  45. 45. Disease Resistance<br />Select resistant varieties if practical<br />No one variety is resistant to all diseases of that vegetable<br />Seed catalogs will indicate varieties are resistant<br />
  46. 46. Seed Saving<br />Some diseases are carried on or in the seed<br />Don’t save seed from cross pollinated plants<br />Especially vine crops!<br />Self pollinated crops include<br />Beans, eggplant, peas, pepper, tomato<br />
  47. 47. Timing<br />Direct seeding & transplants<br />Spacing & thinning<br />Succession planting<br />Crop rotation<br />Planting<br />
  48. 48. Timing<br />Succession planting<br />Make the most of our short growing season!<br />Days to harvest important<br />Plant late season crops after early season crops are harvested<br />Multiple plantings of a single crop <br />Multiple cultivars with different days to maturity<br />
  49. 49. Timing<br />Early Season Crops<br />Long Season Crops<br />Late Season Crops<br />Early Beets<br />Early Cabbage<br />Lettuce<br />Onion Sets<br />Peas<br />Radishes<br />Early Spinach<br />Mustard<br />Turnips <br />Beans<br />Cabbage<br />Celery<br />Sweet Corn<br />Cucumbers<br />Eggplant<br />Muskmelons<br />Peppers<br />Potatoes<br />Pumpkin<br />Squash<br />Swiss Chard<br />Tomatoes<br />Watermelon<br />Bush Beans<br />Beets<br />Broccoli<br />Chinese Cabbage<br />Carrots<br />Cauliflower<br />Kale<br />Kohlrabi<br />Lettuce<br />Radishes<br />Spinach<br />Turnips<br />
  50. 50. Timing<br />… summer…<br />… fall<br />Plant in spring…<br />
  51. 51. Timing<br />Plant Week 1<br />Plant Week 6<br />Plant Week 4<br />
  52. 52. Timing<br />Plant all at same time<br />
  53. 53. Transplants vs Direct Seeding<br />Transplant<br />Direct Seed<br />
  54. 54. Transplants vs Direct Seeding<br />Transplant<br />Direct Seed<br />Necessary for long season and some cool season crops<br />Basil, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, celery, chard, chives, collards, eggplant, endive, escarole, kale, kohlrabi, leeks, mustard, okra, onions, parsley, peppers, tomatoes <br />Useful for crops that do not transplant well and crops that will mature within the growing season<br />Beans, beets, carrots, corn, cucumbers, garlic, lettuce, micro greens, muskmelons, okra, parsnips, peas, pumpkins, radishes, rutabaga, salsify, squash, turnips, watermelon <br />
  55. 55. Transplanting<br />Transplant on cloudy days to minimize sun scald.<br />Water well after transplanting.<br />Plant at the same depth as in the pot. (exception: tomatoes)<br />
  56. 56. Direct Seeding<br />Space seeds as recommended on the packet.<br />Dense planting will promote disease.<br />Small-seeded crops will need thinning:CarrotsRadishesBeetsLettuce <br />
  57. 57. Spacing & Thinning<br />
  58. 58. Maintenance<br />Crop rotation<br />Watering<br />Mulching<br />Weeding<br />Pest Control<br />
  59. 59. Crop Rotation<br />
  60. 60. Crop Rotation<br />Potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant are all members of the solanaceous family.<br />Beans and peas are legumes.<br />Cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and squash are all cucurbits.<br />Radishes, rutabagas, and turnips are all cole crops just like cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts.<br />Onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, chives are alliums.<br />Crop rotations of at least 4 years are recommended.<br />
  61. 61. Crop Rotation<br />Insect & disease management <br />Weed management<br />Nutrient demands<br />Increased soil nitrogen<br />Benefits of the preceding crops <br />Improved physical condition of the soil<br />Increased microbial activity<br />Increased release of CO2<br />Excretion of beneficial substances<br />
  62. 62. Crop Rotation<br />Group crops according to which diseases they are susceptible to <br />Alternate root vegetables and vegetables with shallow roots: this will improve the soil structure <br />If you use interplanting (planting different vegetables together in the same bed), use the main crop in your rotation plan <br />Remember tomatoes and potatoes are both members of the nightshade family: don’t plant one to follow the other <br />Plant brassicas and leafy greens to follow legumes: they like the added nitrogen <br />Beware of planting carrots or beetroot in direct succession to a legume <br />
  63. 63. Interplanting<br />Potatoes and cabbage rows<br />
  64. 64. Watering<br />Mulching<br />Harvesting<br />Maintenance<br />Weeding<br />Insects<br />Diseases<br />
  65. 65. Watering<br />Matching water application to plant needs.<br />Based on <br />Soil type<br />Rainfall<br />Crop requirements<br />Growth stage<br />Experience and soil examination are best measures.<br />Rain gauge<br />Don’t base watering on crop appearance.<br />
  66. 66. Watering<br />Vegetables may need 1 to 2 inches per week, depending on the weather. Overhead watering may promote diseases.<br />
  67. 67. Mulching<br />Mulching with an organic material can suppress weeds and conserve moisture in the garden.<br />
  68. 68. Insects<br />Colorado Potato Beetle<br />
  69. 69. Insects<br />
  70. 70. Diseases<br />Early Blight (left)<br />Late Blight(right)<br />
  71. 71. Diseases<br />
  72. 72. Weeds<br />
  73. 73. Harvesting<br />Timing<br />Harvest early in the day<br />Prevent wounds<br />Discard culls<br />Cool the vegetables quickly & thoroughly<br />
  74. 74. Harvesting<br />Submerging vegetables for 15 to 20 minutes in water can remove unwanted field heat.<br />
  75. 75. Preserving<br />UWEX Publications (http://learningstore.uwex.edu)<br />Harvesting Vegetables from the Home Garden<br />Freezing fruits and vegetables<br />Canning vegetables safely<br />More…<br />

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • A good rotation spaces pest susceptible crops at intervals the will hinder the buildup of pests in the field.Rotations can also be used to control weeds. “Cleaning crops” such as potatoes, pumpkins and winter squash eradicate problem weeds through hilling or the extensive crop cover. Herbicides may be used in some crops to control weeds that are problematic to other crops in which the herbicide is not registered. Some crops are more efficient at using less soluble forms of plant nutrients. Less-evolved crops such as cabbage are more efficient at doing this than highly developed crops like lettuce and cucumbers. The variety in rooting depths and the extent of the root system will improve and maintain good soil structure. Sweet corn and squash require deep cultivation and a high level of soil organic matter. Beans and peas are legumes capable of fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere, so they will not need additional fertilizer but still require deep cultivation. Root crops such as radishes, carrots, beets, turnips, and rutabagas also require deep cultivation for proper root development, but the addition of manure and too much organic matter will cause the roots to become disfigured. And cabbage and other cole crops require a firm soil with an alkaline pH to avoid succumbing to clubroot.Also, try to plan the rotation so that successive crops benefit from their predecessor. For example, sweet corn is a heavy feeder so it’s best to plant sweet corn in an area where peas or beans were the previous year because these crops add nitrogen to the soil. Potatoes and vine crops are easy to weed and will “clean” the soil, thereby reducing weed problems in subsequent onion and root crops that are not easily weeded and have a small canopy to shade out weeds.