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Historical foundation of philippine education

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Historical foundation of philippine education

  1. 1. Historical Foundations of Philippine Education Prepared by: Labog, Michael John R. II-21 BSE Social Science
  2. 2. Development of Education in the Philippines from Pre-Spanish to Present times
  3. 3. Timeline Before 1521 Education before the coming of Spaniards 1521-1896 Education during the Spanish Regime 1896-1899 Education during the Philippine Revolution 1898-1935 Education during the American Occupation 1935-1941 Education during the Philippine Commonwealth 1941-1944 Education during the Japanese Occupation 1944-1946 Education after the World War II 1946-present Education under the Philippine Republic
  4. 4. Pre- Hispanic Education • Pre- Hispanic education in the Philippines was not formal •Education was oral, practical, and hands-on •The objective was basically to promote reverence for, and adoration of Bathala, respect for laws, customs, and authorities represented by parents and elders •When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines they encountered islanders who knew how to read and write.
  5. 5. Education during the Spanish Regime •The Friars established parochial schools linked with churches to teach catechism to the natives •Instruction was in the dialect •Education was managed, supervised, and controlled and the friars •Education in the country was not uniform •The system of schooling was not hierarchical nor structured, thus there were no grade levels
  6. 6. Major Problems •Lack of trained teachers •Lack of teachers (150 teacher-missionaries to instruct over half a million inhabitants) • Lack of funds, instructional materials, and in many instances school houses
  7. 7. Because of need, higher level schools were established much later by virtue of royal decrees. •Colegios •Beaterios
  8. 8. Subjects: Based on the Royal Decree of 1863 •Languages(Latin, Spanish grammar and literature, elementary Greek, French and English) •History( Universal, Spanish) •Mathematics(Arithmetic, Algebra, Trigonometry, Geometry) •Philosophy(Rhethoric, Logic, Ethics) •Geography •Pshychology
  9. 9. Philippine Revolution •Illustrados spearheaded the Propaganda Movemnent •Curricular reforms 1. Secularization of education 2. Instruction of Spanish 3. Greater attention to natural science 4. The design of a relevant curriculum 5. Improvement of higher centers of learning 6. Improvement of educational system
  10. 10. • Jose Rizal criticized unequivocally the friars’ method of instruction in his two novels Noli Me Tangere and El filibusterismo 1. Disproportionate focus on religion 2. Discourage the attempt of Filipino students to speak in Spanish 3. Lack of pedagogical skills 4. Irrelevant courses in the curriculum
  11. 11. Curriculum To improve the existing curriculum, Rizal considered the ff. Subjects as required courses in secondary schools •Science •Math •History •Philosophy •Law •Language •P.E •Religion •Music •Social Sciences
  12. 12. Graciano- Lopez Jaena “The outstanding cause of the distressed situation of Filipinos today is the anomalous education received by the youth in schools. They learn to read correctly and write gracefully, but they do not learn anything useful because they are not taught any. They are taught how to pray and never go to work”
  13. 13. American Occupation •The Americans used education as a vehicle for its program benevolent asimilation •American soldiers were the first teachers •Restore damaged school houses, build new ones and conduct classes •Trained teachers replaced soldiers •Filipinos warmly received their new teachers, Thomasites •American teachers infused their students the spirit of democracy and progress as well as fair play
  14. 14. TAKE NOTE! • It is not surprising that the democratic values espoused by the Americans, whether SINCERE or NOT, touched a receptive nerve un the Filipino psyche.
  15. 15. •Americans discarded the religious bias •Educational Act of 1901- Separation of Church and State in education •Encourage filipino in the field of teaching •Outstanding filipino scholars were sent to US to train as teachers
  16. 16. Curriculum Primary Education •GMRC •Civics •Hygiene and Sanitation •Geography Intermediate Curriculum •Grammar and composition •Reading, spelling •Science courses •Physiology •Hygiene and sanitation •Intensive teaching of geography
  17. 17. •Government established NORMAL SCHOOL for future teachers •Courses include Methods of teaching, practice teaching, psychology, mathematics, language, science, history and government, social sciences, P.E •White collar-job bias
  18. 18. Philippine Commonwealth •All schools should develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and vocational efficiency •Promote effective participation of the citizens in the processes of a democratic society •Educational Act of 1940 “meet the increasing demand for public instruction and at the same time comply with the constitutional mandate on public education”
  19. 19. Japanese Regime •6 basic principles of japanese Education 1. Realization of NEW ORDER and promote friendly relations between Japan and the Philippines to the farthest extent 2. Foster a new Filipino culture based 3. Endeavor to elevate the morals of people, giving up over emphasis of materialism 4. Diffusion of the Japanese language in the philippines 5. Promotion of VOCATIONAL course 6. To inspire people with the spirit to love neighbor
  20. 20. Curriculum •School calendar became longer •No summer vacation for students •Class size increased to 60 •Deleted anti-asian opinions, banned the singing of american songs, deleted american symbols, poems and pictures •Nihongo as a means of introducing and cultivvating love for Japanese culture •Social Studies
  21. 21. Take Note! Spanish- Reign for 300 years American- 50 years Japanese- about four years •It is thus not surprising that despite the measure they had instituted, the Japanese failed to succeed in transforming the values and attitudes of the people in line with their vision of the NEW ORDER. •A contributory factor was widely reported brutalities that ushered in the Japanese occupation that the filipinos did not experience with the same degree during the American period
  22. 22. After World War II In 1947, by the virtue of Executive Order No. 94, the Department of Instruction was changed to "Department of Education." During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.
  23. 23. Education after 1940 • The objective of the Philippine Education was to established “integrated, nationalistic, and democracy- inspired educational system” included the ff. 1. Inculcate moral and spiritual values inspired by an abiding faith in God 2. To develop an enlighten, patriotic, useful and upright citizenry in a democratic society 3. Conservation of the national resources 4. Perpetuation of our desirable values 5. Promote the science, arts and letters
  24. 24. •Great experiments in the community school and the use of vernacular in the first two grades of the primary schools as the medium of instruction were some of them. •An experiment worth mentioning that led to a change in the Philippine Educational Philosophy was that of school and community collaboration pioneered by Jose V. Aguilar. Schools are increasingly using instructional materials that are Philippine-oriented. Memorandum No. 30, 1966 sets the order of priority in the purchase of books for use in the schools were as follows: Books which are contributions to Phil. Literature Books on character education and other library materials Library equipment and permanent features
  25. 25. Martial Law period • The Department of Education became the Department of Education and Culture in 1972, the Ministry of Education and Culture in 1978, and with the Education Act of 1982, the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sports. • A bilingual education scheme was established in 1974, requiring Filipino and English to be used in schools. • Science and math subjects as well as English language and literature classes were taught in English while the rest were taught in Filipino.
  26. 26. From 1986 to the present • The bilingual policy in education was reiterated in the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines. • (EDCOM), Congress passed Republic Act 7722 and Republic Act 7796 in 1994, creating theCommission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The institute governing basic education was thus renamed in 2001 as the Department of Education (DepEd).
  27. 27. • The quality of public school education is generally considered to have declined since the post-war years, mainly due to insufficient funds. The Department of Education aims to address the major problems affecting public education by 2010. • Private schools are able to offer better facilities and education, but are also much more expensive. There is a wide variety of private schools, including all-boys’ and all-girls’ schools, religious schools, non-sectarian schools, Chinese schools, special schools, and international schools. Due to economic difficulties, there has been a recent increase in the popularity of home schooling and open universities in the Philippines.
  28. 28. Reference •http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.ph p?title=Education_in_the_Philippines •http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educati on_in_the_Philippines •THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT (PHILIPPINE CONTEXT) by PROF. RONNIE ESPERGAL PASIGUI
  29. 29. Thank You for Listening! 

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