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Introduce myself Housekeeping Break Restrooms Cell phones Questions – ask away Explain Packets Class Intro’s Refer to previous Initiation Class, upcoming classes Who went to Initiation, Who has taken the OPMC
class is based on the PMI, focus on how to use the process, how to adapt for the project and what templates, tools and techniques are available. Short heavily packed classes were requested Plan for break Refer to green binders contents Planning T &F Quick Reference Planning Process Integrated Project Plan Change Mgmt Plan WEB Access Evaluation Terminology covered in class, but “Project” and “Phase”
What problems do you typically have trying to plan a piece of work? Might come up! The problem to be resolved is not well understood. (Scope) Takes to long, then is not used. Resistance to plan before more information is obtained. Pressure to just do the work, or get the job done. Can’t estimate because there is no history, detailed information. Can’t plan until the contractor tell us how they are going to do it.. Don’t see the need to plan until construction starts. Trying to plan in detail to far out.
Collaboration Successful projects create successful people JAM. Just another Mediocre Project.
Cover official definition. Cover other definitions. work plan, not the work. not feasibility, setting requirements, prototyping/piloting, choosing technologies. These are work (execution) - should be defined as a task. Focusing on work definition, and not the work shortens the time needed to plan. It is a definition - of all the work and resourcing needed - to manage the project and deliver. an outline - clarifies and enables buy-in - regarding what, who, when, and how. raises awareness of upper management, defines critical elements, gets written agreement of commitment, and just generally improves project communication.
project or phase is planned. phase planning - same. start when initial charter complete - Not after doing a bunch of research or... Intent - amount commensurate - scope and usefulness of the info. To be developed. Complexities indicate more/fewer plans. process - two fold. developing the core work plans – work activities, resources, sequencing, timing, and CONTROLS plans to control - changes, communication, issues, quality. Same time - because control decisions effect work plan results or agreement determined during planning process - put reiteratively put into an integrated document. An Integrated Project Plan is a document or collection of documents that should be expected to change over time, as more information becomes available about the project. Collectively, represents agreement of what is required to create the solution and manage all aspects of the work. Performing the process - proven to reduce risk of rework in later phases of a project.
create plan -focused on C.U. and agreed scope, objectives, and problems - that must solved or resolved. CU & agreement - work and resources - needed to create solution & manage all aspects of P/P. commitment from sponsor, project manager, project team and other affected groups as to how the work activities, roles and responsibilities, and administrative aspects of the project are to be assigned and performed. To reiteratively update the project plan as changes occur on the project and as new information becomes available.
Common lessons learned from skipping or poorly executing the planning phase are: Do you recognize any of these? project strays from its original goals. Late discovery that there is inadequate resources (funds, staff, facilities, tools) to deliver the expected product or service. Resources are over committed on the project or on other projects. Lengthy, repetitive, and large meetings to discuss what needs to be done and how to coordinate. Difficulty obtaining and coordinating resources when they are needed. Business, technical team, and consumer frustration caused by poorly defined, communicated, and coordinated work activities. Issues are not well understood and decisions are repetitively re-opened or re-addressed.
Product Description. Description of product or service, contains problem to be resolved, objectives. Project Charter. it contains the agreed upon level of planning required for the project. It should indicate the level of formality required for each of the plans based upon the initial complexity assessment. Historical Information. lessons learned, previous projects information, similar project information, how long something, I.e. procurement cycle has taken in the past. Organization’s Policies. Organization’s policies which typically must be considered include, but are not limited to: Quality Assurance Review by a 3 rd party on projects over $500,000. Financial Controls – time reporting, accounting codes, contract and procurement provisions. Constraints. See graph Assumptions. See graph
Talk about importance of adapting the plan, if your scaling up or scaling down - start w/ the integrated plan template and….. Do the same with the other templates. We will talk about ways to adapt as we cover the process steps. Adaptation is Expected.
Project Planning Methodology WBS Development Techniques Estimating Techniques
It’s a work process – not document creation diagram page, followed by text - same numbering. Why diagram 18, and quick reference starts at 4. relate process to integrated project plan. See left column. Performing the process is the primary effort, not creating a document. Creating the document or deliverable is secondary. The processes steps describe what you got to go out and do, meet with , get common understanding and agreement. Once broad understanding is obtained, formulating an accurate, concise, and readable deliverable from the information is appropriate. Using a deliverable template provides an organizationally consistent method to document project information. Handout T/F Questions.
Where and when to start - 2nd time Project Scope/work scope IPP - Page 1. Develop work scope - is performing the work activities required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. A written scope statement - basis for future project decisions. It represents the agreement of the customer and project team of what is and is not to be part of the project. Projects - one or two sentence describing the intent of the project. What do you need to agreements and understanding on: slide sub bullets. Best way to work out agreements are? During the development of the scope statement decisions must be made as to how the project will manage scope changes. Next Slide
Scope changes are changes that impact the agreed upon primary objectives and/or major deliverables. Not all changes on a project are formally managed. While developing scope, decisions on how tol manage scope change need made. Results - the change management plan. Change mgmt plan - formal/informal. Directly put in Integrated Plan, pg 5 or, boiler plate language to be adjusted. Example - changes will be addressed by the customer and project manager to determine impact to the planned work. The plan typically includes - See slide. During discussions - ask and then record what the expected stability of the project scope (i.e., how likely is it to change, how frequently, and by how much).
Defining the project’s work activities - subdividing the major deliverables (as identified) into smaller, more manageable components. The decomposition of the major deliverable into work activities and then tasks is referred to as the work breakdown structure. It is not a definition of the product - more in later class. There are many methods to develop the work breakdown structure. Please see “WBS Development Techniques” in the Tools and Techniques section at the end of this chapter. Determining the critical work dependencies will then sequences these work activities in order to support later development of a realistic and achievable schedule. Initial assignment of the critical dependencies can be done in the Integrated Project Plan Template, WBS section. More complex projects will need to use a scheduling tool to create a project network diagram .
Explain examples. Adaptations Large project may use both the diagram and table of content format. Table of content format in IPP, page11
Go over examples. Adaptations Many projects attempt to define and sequence the activities at the same time they are building the project schedule. Attempting to build a schedule before the activities have been defined and sequenced has proven time and again to lengthen the time it takes to develop an accurate schedule.
At this point an initial estimate of the likely duration of each of the defined activities is obtained, ideally, from a person or couple of people who are most familiar with the nature of work activity. The duration estimate does not take into account the number of people expected to perform the activity or task. Often it is difficult to find someone who is willing to or has the expertise to do the duration estimate. Under this scenario, a couple people involved with the planning need to make a duration estimate using their best judgement. Pg 11, determine measure - weeks, days, months. Generally rule of thumb is 1-3 weeks. For other estimating techniques please see “Estimating Techniques” in the tool and techniques section at the end of this chapter. Additional refinement of the estimate is done during schedule development.
Quality Planning involves identifying which quality standards and/or metrics are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. Quality Planning is done on most project sometimes formally, and informally. Page 8. Quality standards should address both product quality and process quality. Examples of both. adapting Quality assurance - identifies the activities or tasks that must be performed in the project to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. Examples, adapting Quality Control - involves monitoring the products and process, to see if the project is meeting the quality standards - and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory results. project cost exceeding $500.000 a 3 rd party is expected to perform the Quality Management Activities. Work with the 3rd Party, project management team, Department of Administrative Services QA Analyst to create the Quality Management Plan, determine the appropriate quality assurance activities and activity estimates, and conduct the quality control.
Communication planning -determining the information and communication needs of the stakeholders: see slide. Details of communication plan vary widely on projects. A formal Comm. Plan covers not only who needs what….but also: A collection and filing structure (see library) which details what methods will be used to gather, store, update, and disseminate information. A distribution structure that details to whom information (status reports, data, schedule, documentation, news) will flow, and what methods/media will be used to distribute them. The method for closing the project and filing or archiving the project or phase information. The method for how the communication plan will be updated over the course of the project. Page 5 document controls, Comm plan, status reporting. Or formal plan
Schedule development means determining start and finish dates for the project activities defined and allocation of the resources to these activities. process is iterated, as the other planning process steps provide the inputs (especially activity definition, duration estimating, resources requirements, and cost estimating) prior to final determination of the project schedule. Developing the schedule -formally or informally in a table or spreadsheet when the numbers of tasks - approximately 20, relationships are not complex, and analysis of critical path is fairly simple to manually figure out. moderate to complex - scheduling tool - recommended. The tool typically establishes start/end based on dependencies, resourcing, and calendars. Currently Microsoft Projects, as the scheduling tool -basic project template is available on the PMO web site. Primary Inputs to schedule development is the WBS.
Which project needs can be best met outside the project organization. The questions to be answered are whether to procure, ……. A proc plan communicates how all the procurements/contracts will be managed from solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration and closeout. The plan may be formal or informal - examples. PG 7 Procurement documents to be prepared, during planning. SOW should be developed in sufficient detail to allow a prospective vendor to determine if they are capable of providing the item. Where would the details come from? You should not wait for consulting services to develop the plan. SOWs -two categories, 1) contracting for a specifically described product or serviceor sub product or service, and 2)is for presenting a problem that is to be solved(SOReqs). Request for Proposal (RFP)/Evaluation Criteria - rate or score the proposals. Generally, evaluation criteria include: Understanding of the need – as demonstrated by the response. Overall cost – solution = lowest total cost for imp and ability to maintain or operate ? Technical Capability –proven ability to acquire tech skills and knowledge needed? Management approach – do they have mgmt processes to ensure a successful project? Financial capacity – do they have the financial resources needed? Final note , these steps are all part of procurement planning; the actual solicitation process is part of the execution phase.
Risk planning involves determining and defining: Which risks are likely to affect the project and impact, Not risks that are likely but will have little impact, not risks that will have a big impact but are not likely. Planning how risks will be either mitigated or a contingency plan PG 4,5 Common sources of risk include: Changes in requirements Design errors, omissions, and misunderstandings Poorly defined or understood roles and responsibilities Poor estimates or unsupported estimates Insufficiently skilled staff Impossible time frames Mitigation or contigency for each of the above.
Integrating the project’s plans, uses the outputs of the previous steps re-iteratively to create a consistent, coherent document that can be used to guide both project execution and project control. This step maybe iterated several times, for example the initial draft may include generic resources and undated durations while the final plan reflects specific resources and explicit dates. The Integrated project plan is used to: Guide project execution, Document project planning assumptions and decision regarding work alternatives chosen, Facilitate communication among stakeholders Provide the baseline information for progress or performance measurement and project control The Integrated Project Plan is a document or collection of documents that should be expected to change over time, as more information becomes available to the project. The baselines are controls that will generally change only intermittently and then generally only in response to an approved scope change.
List the required exit criteria Project Plan - what does the project plan represent? agreement and commitment. Updated Project Charter - Why would the charter be updated? Supporting Detail - what would be likely supporting details.
Review: Have we spent any time on how to determine requirements, choose the best technology for the project, or the need for a prototype/pilot before creating a plan. Because Planning is - a definition of the work, not the doing the work. Planning is intended to start when? Directly after being chartered. No lags. Are we going to adapted or tailor based on complexity? Let’s quickly go through the T/F answers.
Training Goals <ul><li>Understand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What planning is/is not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where and when to start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To adapt or tailor planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortening the planning time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What the project plan represents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process and supporting materials </li></ul></ul>
What it is and is not <ul><li>It is the work plan, not the work </li></ul><ul><li>It is a definition of needed work and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Devising and maintaining a workable scheme to accomplish the business need that the project was undertaken to address </li></ul>.
Where Planning Fits Level of Activity Start Finish Time Initiate Execute Close Monitoring and Control Plan
Planning Process Overview Planning Core Work Plans Facilitating Control Plans Integrated Project Plan
Planning Objectives <ul><li>Agreements on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles & responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to change & update the plan </li></ul></ul>
Importance / Lessons <ul><li>Straying from original goals </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate resourcing </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive meetings - on what needs done </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration - poorly defined, communicated, and coordinated work activities </li></ul><ul><li>Issues not understood or related </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions repetitively re-opened or re-addressed </li></ul>
Input to Planning <ul><li>Business Case </li></ul><ul><li>Project Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Information </li></ul><ul><li>Organization’s Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul>
Process Flexibility <ul><li>On most projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning steps are the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The time spent and outcomes are flexible </li></ul></ul>Complex Project Simple Project High Formality Loose Formality
Formality is based on Complexities TC = 3 BC = 5 Result - Potential High Complexity (TC) (BC)
Planning Diagram, Integrated Project Plan template
4. Develop Project Scope <ul><li>All the work, and only the work required </li></ul><ul><li>Scope Statement - agreement of what is and is not. Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primary objectives (products/deliverables) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>major deliverable milestones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>completion criteria </li></ul></ul>Work
4. Change Management Management of changes to the primary objectives and major deliverables milestones. <ul><li>. Change acceptance/expectations </li></ul><ul><li>. How changes will be evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>. How change will be managed </li></ul>The plan should include agreements of:
5. Define and Sequence Activities <ul><li>Develop a Work Breakdown Structure(WBS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>define work packages to manage, create and deliver the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine Dependencies (Sequencing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determine the order of work activities or dependencies </li></ul></ul>
Examples WBS’s Hierarchy Diagram Format Table of Contents Format List Format
6. Estimate Duration, Determine Resource Needs <ul><li>Obtain initial estimate of likely duration for activity </li></ul>does not take into account the number of people expected to perform the task. <ul><li>For each activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determine skills and resources </li></ul></ul>
7. Determine How Quality will be Managed How will quality assurance and control be conducted? <ul><li>Identify Quality Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control </li></ul>How? What? Check Sometimes performed by a 3rd Party
8. Determine Communication Needs <ul><li>The plan should determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who needs what information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when will they need it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how will it be given to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by whom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And determine how to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>store, update, and disseminate information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>close, file and archive information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>update the comm. plan </li></ul></ul>
9. Develop Schedule Determining start and finish dates for tasks and assigning resources May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov
Terminology - This is a schedule or Gantt chart, not a WBS, not the Project Plan
12. Determine What to Procure & When <ul><li>Procurement planning determines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>whether, what, and how much, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how and when, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to manage solicitations, selection, contract administration, and closeout </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procurement documents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOW - Statement of Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RFP - Request for Proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation Criteria </li></ul></ul>Actual solicitation is part of execution
14. Identify Risk & Create Risk Response Plan <ul><li>Risk planning involves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying risks w/high effect and impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>planning for risk mitigation or contingency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common sources of risk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design errors and omissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles and responsibilities misunderstood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor estimates or unsupported estimates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficiently skilled staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible timeframes </li></ul></ul>
15. Integrate the Plans Previous steps are reiterated to create a coherent plan. <ul><li>for example: </li></ul><ul><li>initial draft - reflects generic skills and duration </li></ul><ul><li>final plan - reflects specific resources and dates </li></ul>
Output From Planning <ul><li>Updated Project Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Project Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Project Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Detail </li></ul>