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Principles of Teaching

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Principles of Teaching

  1. 1. •The Teacher As the Master Teacher Attributes :  patient Effective Efficient To assume: Confident a. Responsibility to Firm society True b. Cultivation of Dedicated mind, the heart and the soul of the youth c. To love the beauty ,goodness and truth
  2. 2. The Teacher “If you plan is for one year…..plant rice; if your plan is for ten years…. Plant a tree; but if your plan is for eternity….. Then EDUCATE children.
  3. 3. • Pleasing personal appearance • Sense of humor,cheerfulness, enthusiasm PERSONAL QUALITIES • Good physical health and personal hygiene • Emotional stability, sound mental health and self control • Superior intelligence PERSONAL QUALITIES • Flexibility, creativity, resourcefulness • Integrity, trustworthiness, honesty, sincerity • Promptness, efficiency PERSONAL QUALITIES • Refinement in words, tact and courtesy, civility • Pleasant modulated voice PERSONAL • Sympathy, kindness helpfulness, patience, and diligence QUALITIES • Fairness, impartiality, tolerance, patience PERSONAL • Sociability, friendliness , cooperativeness QUALITIES • Positive outlook,encouraging attitude
  4. 4. Professional Qualities • 1. MASTERY OF THE SUBJECT MATTER Subject • First essential requisite matter Subject • Thorough grasp of the subject matter • Keep abreast and keep up with Subject matter new and updated trends
  5. 5. Professional qualities • 2. UNDERSTANDING THE LEARNER • Knowledge on the nature of children. understand • Know the different levels of understand intellectual and emotional maturity. • Genuine concern and sincere love understand for the children.
  6. 6. Professional qualities • 3. UNDERSTANDING THE PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF TEACHING Principles and • Know what to teach(Subject matter). methods Principles and • Know how to teach( Method). methods • Psychology of learning and how to sustain Principles and interest and individual differences. methods
  7. 7. Professional qualities • 4.GENERAL UNDERSTANDING OF OTHER BRANCHES/FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE • Know how to relate the General subject to other subjects. understanding • Broad understanding of General all field of interests. understanding
  8. 8. Professional qualities • 5. TAKING PRIDE OF TEACHING AS A PROFESSION • Positive outlook in life Teaching as a profession and good attitude. • Understand your task Teaching as a profession and responsibility.
  9. 9. The Learner The learner is an embodied spirit. He is a union of a sentient body and a rational soul. His body experiences sensations and feels pleasure and pain. His soul is the principle of spiritual acts, the source of intellectual abstraction, self reflection, and free rational volition. Body and soul exist in mutual dependence. Let us feed the body as well as his spirit. “ Man does not live by bread alone”.
  10. 10. The Learner Equipped with cognitive as well as appetitive faculties. a. cognitive- five senses- able to see, smell, hear, touch and taste. b. Imagination- able to form representations of material objects which are not present to their senses. c. Memory- able to retain, recall and recognize past mental acts. d. Intellect-can form concept or ideas, and makes judgment
  11. 11. The Learner Appetitive – are his feelings, emotions and rational will. The pain and joy of an object or an activity . It is indicated through the character of an individual. Five elements: 1. Ability- it determines their capacity to understand and assimilate information for their own use and application. Categorized into: a. Physical-fast, average and slow achievers. b. Mental- superior, above average and below average.
  12. 12. The Learner 2. Aptitude- refers to the student’s innate talent or gift. A natural capacity to learn certain skills. 3. Interest- refers to attraction or strong appeal for something. Lessons that give them the chance to express their deep feelings for objects or actions will be more meaningful and easily absorbed. 4. Family and Cultural Background- student s who come from different socioeconomic background manifest a wide range of behaviour due to differences in upbringing practices.
  13. 13. The Learner 5. Attitudes – students have a unique way of thinking and reacting. Positive attitudes are: a. Curiosity- students are all times eager to learn. b. Responsibility- they pursue assigned task to completion despite personal constraints. Accountable to their actions and decisions. c. Creativity- being imaginative they can think of new ways of arriving at solutions to their problems. They can innovate procedures and techniques.
  14. 14. The Learner d. Persistence- students sustain interest in a learning activity not mindful of the extra time and effort being spent. Basic example to this is: Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory
  15. 15. Intelligence as Disposition Disposition intelligence Sensitive to: Verbal linguistic Sounds, meanings, structures and styles of language Logical- Mathematical Patterns, numbers and numerical data, causes and effects, objective and quantitative reasoning Spatial Intelligence Colors, shapes, visual, puzzles, symmetry, lines, images Bodily -Kenisthetic Touch, movement, physical self, athleticism Musical Intelligence Tone, beat, tempo, melody, pitch, sound
  16. 16. The Learning Environment • It consists of the physical, as well as the psychological environment, that surrounds the learner and that influences his/her learning. • It is the classroom and all the instructional features and the non-threatening classroom climate needed in planning and implementing all teaching and learning activities.
  17. 17. The Learning Environment 1. Arrangement of Furniture The furniture, like the table for demonstrations located in front of the room and the chairs facing it are neatly arranged with sufficient spaces in- between for ease in moving around. Display shelves for safekeeping of projects, collections, and outstanding outwork are located at the sides. Attached to the wall is a bulletin board and in front is the white board or blackboard used for discussion and illustrations related to the lessons. 2. Physical Condition of the Classroom 1) it must be clean and orderly 2) one or two frames , create a pleasant and inviting aura. 3) Natural light and flowing fresh air add to their comfort and ease as they tackle the learning tasks. 4) Free from noise coming from the surroundings, students’ concentration and interest are easily sustained. 5) The doors and windows could be opened and closed with less difficulty and noise with light fixtures that could easily be found.
  18. 18. The Learning Environment 3. Classroom proceedings The clear and enthusiastic voice of the teacher that elicits equally eager and keen responses from the students help create a conducive and beneficial ambiance for learning. Supplies and materials must be prepared earlier . A system of distribution and retrieval must be observed. Positive mood set by both parties, the teacher and the learner, could keep the activities lively and flawless. 4. Interactions Diverse situation may exist in the classroom at any given time. Teachers must be sensitive to positive and negative interactions and must immediately undertake an instant revision or adjustment in the methodology when necessary.
  19. 19. The Learning Environment A FACILITATIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT PINE AND HORNE (1990) It is an environment: a. which encourages people to be active. b. which promotes and facilitates the individual’s discovery of the personal meaning of idea. c. which emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning, in which difference is good and desirable. d. which consistently recognizes people’s right to make mistakes. e. which tolerates ambiguity. f. in which evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasis on self- evaluation. g. which encourages openness of self rather than concealment of self. h. in which people are encouraged to trust themselves as well as in external sources. i. in which people feel they are respected. j. in which people feel they are accepted. k. which permits confrontation. a place therefore where people feel they are respected and accepted for who they are and for what they say and do is a conducive atmosphere of learning.
  20. 20. The Learning Environment A place therefore, where people feel they are respected and accepted for who they are and for what they say and do is a conducive atmosphere of Learning.
  21. 21. EFFECTIVE BULLETIN BOARDS • Don’t be afraid to express yourself when it comes to your bulletin boards. Spice up your room by trying a different approach to look.  Take pictures of the students and school activities and post them.  Use wrapping paper, cloth, or lace for the background.  Use it as a “message center” for your students.  Post assignments.
  22. 22. EFFECTIVE BULLETIN BOARDS  Use 3-D items such as cornstalks or toy spaceships to accent a theme.  Color,color,color  Make your own cut-outs using copies from a book or the computer. You can trace them onto the bulletin board with the help of an overhead projector.  Use twisted brown butcher paper to make a vine- like border.  Be creative and have fun!
  23. 23. TEACHING PRINCIPLES • They are guides to make teaching and learning effective, wholesome and meaningful. • Webster, says a principle is a comprehensive law or doctrine which an accepted or professed rule of action or conduct is derived. • Latin word princeps- which means the beginning or the end of all facts, circumstances or state of affairs.
  24. 24. TEACHING PRINCIPLES It has Five Areas to consider: 1. Respect for individual 2. Democracy, as a way of life 3. Providing suitable condition for the development and maintenance of a sound personality 4. Improving group living in the classroom 5. Improving the classroom environment
  25. 25. TEACHING PRINCIPLES Respect for the individual It explains the respect for self –confidence and intellectual, and emotional integrity of the individual. Expressions such as: a. Learning by doing b. Understanding before memorizing. Have become a principle as well as theory of today.
  26. 26. TEACHING PRINCIPLES Democracy as a way of life. One of the major goals of education in the Philippines is to foster, promote and develop democracy as a way of life. It implies: a. Respect for potentialities of individual b. Obligation of each individual to contribute to the welfare of the group of which he is a member. c. Participation in experience which will foster social, economic, intellectual, and physical growth d. Right of every individual to make a choice commensurate with his intellectual capacity and maturity.
  27. 27. TEACHING PRINCIPLES Providing suitable conditions It means that school life is of great importance in determining the present and the future mental health and strength of personality of the learner. It includes therefore, the objectives of education and the learning materials and various methods being utilized.
  28. 28. TEACHING PRINCIPLES Improving group living It means that, a teacher should understand what group dynamics is all about and what techniques must be used intelligently for group leadership. Lastly , in Improving the Classroom Environment. Teacher should see to it that the physical environment of his classroom will provide a maximum degree of best condition conducive to learning.
  29. 29. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by the learner. The process of learning is primarily controlled by the learner and not by the teacher.
  30. 30. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING It is a discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas. Students more readily internalize and implement concepts and ideas which are relevant to their needs and problems.
  31. 31. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING Learning (Behavioral Change) is a consequence of experience. If experience is the best teacher, then teacher should make use of experiential learning
  32. 32. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process. “Two heads are better than one” and cooperation fosters learning.
  33. 33. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING Learning is an evolutionary process. Behavioral change requires time and patience. Things that are worthwhile in life take time.
  34. 34. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING One of the richest resources for learning is the learner himself. As a teacher, you must draw these learners’ ideas, feelings and experiences, you midwife the birth of ideas.
  35. 35. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING The process of learning is emotional as well as intellectual. People are feeling beings as well as thinking beings and when their feelings and thoughts are in harmony learning is maximized.
  36. 36. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING The process of problem solving and learning are highly unique and individual. As people become more aware of how they learn and solve problems and become exposed to alternative models used by other people.
  37. 37. Instructional planning Commonly known as Lesson planning - A guarantee of 100% learning and a guide for teachers in presenting the lessons systematically. - A written instructional plan is an antidote to aimlessness.
  38. 38. - Types a. Yearly instructional plan for Basic Education 1. Philippine Elementary Learning Competencies (PELCs) 2. Philippine Secondary Learning Competencies (PSLCs) 3. For tertiary level, it is called as course syllabus other term for this is the course plan or course of study.
  39. 39. - - Lesson plan could be done weekly or daily. Elements of lesson plan a. Objective b. Topic or subject matter c. Materials d. Procedure or lesson development e. Evaluation f. Assignment
  40. 40. - Objectives It maybe a statement or question in nature. Like ,”To explain the causes of the thinning down of the ozone layer. Maybe converted into, What are the causes of the thinning down of the ozone layer?
  41. 41. 1. COGNITIVE -mind 2. AFFECTIVE –feeling and appreciation 3. PSYCHOMOTOR- action or to do things.
  42. 42. objectives can be coined in the acronym SMART S- specific M- measurable A- attainable R- result – oriented or reliable T- time bound and terminal
  43. 43. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Cognitive domain Affective domain Psychomotor Start with infinitives To define, to distinguish, to acquire To separate, to positively respond To distinguish by touching To identify, to recall, to recognize To commend, to follow To endure, to improve To interpret, to differentiate To approve, to practice To play the piano To read, to make, to determine To appreciate, to feel To dance skillfully, to explore To conclude, to extend To avoid, to resolve To write , to balance To draw, to explain To balance, to help To strengthen, to reach
  44. 44. Levels of cognitive domain 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation
  45. 45. Levels of affective domain by: Kratwohl Taxonomy 1. Receiving 2. Responding 3. Valuing 4. Organization 5. Characterization
  46. 46. Levels of Psychomotor Domain 1. Observing 2. Imitating 3. Practicing 4. Adapting but Simpson (1972)added another three from Blooms Domain and these are : 5. Precision 6. Speed 7. Distance and Technique
  47. 47. basic parts of lesson plan a. Objectives b. Subject matter c. Materials d. Procedure or lesson development e. Evaluation f. assignment
  48. 48. b.topic or subject matter Main course of the lesson The center of the discussion c. Materials instructional materials and media and to make the abstract concrete.
  49. 49. c. procedure -It starts with motivation e.g. prayer -Then checking of attendance and I.D. plus the uniform -Review the past lesson -Apply a method
  50. 50. in a procedure, Five major elements a.motivation b. Teaching procedure( use of pivotal questions c. Formative check( evaluation or assessment d. Student participation e. closure
  51. 51. Homework or Assignment They are the synapse strengtheners They enforce the retention of concepts. It will serve as the preparation for the next lesson.
  52. 52. Role of the Teacher In Doing Activities as Part of the Lesson. 1. Develop a list of study questions that focus on the objectives of the lesson. 2. Develop the anticipated answers to the question, it is important that the teacher have a firm idea of what are correct or incorrect answers. 3. Establish time frame for completing the activity. Students need to feel a sense of urgency, so don’t give them more time than you think they will need. 4. Supervise during this activity, NOT A TIME TO GRADE PAPERS, MAKE PHONE CALLS, PLAN FOR THE NEXT LESSON, OR LOCATE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS IN THIS LESSON. 5. Assist students in locating information, but do not find it for them 6. Keep students on task and eliminate distractions. 7. Plan for reporting of answers.
  53. 53. SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES 1. LEARNING IS AN ACTIVE PROCESS. It means that we have to actively engage the learners in learning activities if we want them to learn what we intend to teach. As the saying goes: What I hear, I forget What I see, I remember. What I do, I understand
  54. 54. SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES 2. THE MORE SENSES THAT ARE INVOLVED IN LEARNING, THE MORE AND THE BETTER THE LEARNING. Humans are intensely visual animals. Senses of Learning 750% 5.5 4 3 3 sight hearing touch taste smell
  55. 55. SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES 3. A NON –THREATENING ATMOSPHERE ENHANCES LEARNING It deals with physical and psychological climate of the classroom Physical – the board, ventilation, proper lighting condition, order and tidiness and painting of the room. Psychological- is an offshoot of our personality as a teacher.
  56. 56. SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES 4. EMOTIONS HAS THE POWER TO INCREASE RETENTION AND LEARNING We tend to remember and learn more those that strike our hearts! Let us add an emotional touch to learning. 5. LEARNING IS MEANINGFUL WHEN IT IS CONNECTED TO STUDENTS’ EVERYDAY LIFE.
  57. 57. SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES 6. GOOD TEACHING GOES BEYOND RECALL OF INFORMATION. It is to develop creative and critical thinking. It should reach the levels of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation to hone our students’ thinking skills.
  58. 58. 7. AN INTEGRATED TEACHING APPROACH IS FAR MORE EFFECTIVE THAN TEACHING ISOLATED BITS OF INFORMATION. INTELLIGENCE EXAMPLES OF CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Verbal Linguistic Discussion, debates, journal writing, conferences, essays, stories, poems, storytellin g, listening activities, reading Logical- Mathematical Calculations, experiments, comparisons, number games, using evidence, formulating and testing hypothesis deductive and inductive reasoning Spatial Concept maps, graphs, charts, art projects, metaphorical thinking, visualization , videos, slides, visual presentations Bodily- Kenisthetic Role- playing, dance, athletic activities, manipulative, hands-on demonstrations concept miming Musical Playing, music, singing, rapping, whistling, clapping, analysing sounds and music Interpersonal Community- involvement projects, discussions, cooperative learning, team games, peer tutoring, conferences, social activities, sharing Intrapersonal Student choice, journal writing, self evaluation, personal instruction, independent study, discussing feelings, reflecting Naturalist Ecological fieldtrips , environmental study, caring for plants and animals, outdoor work, pattern recognition
  59. 59. RESEARCH AND BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES concrete symbolic abstract Research- based
  60. 60. BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES 1. Authentic Problem Solving – Example-comparing the mini polls at school result to national elections result. In tabulating the result, discuss the reasons for the differences. 2. Project- based multi-media example – class will work on the memories of World War II and produce a song from that era and display a collage of photographs and other memorabilia. 3. Role plays as Meaning Makers- Example- A sari-sari store to give elementary pupils experience in making a budget, stay within the budget and counting change for bills. 4. Visuals are powerful aids in retention as well as understanding. To help students organize their thinking, teachers use graphics.
  61. 61. BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Examples of Graphics 1. Graphic Organizers for Classification
  63. 63. BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES 3. Time Sequence Pattern Organizer • Date/time event • Venue • Date/time event • Venue • Date/ time event • Venue
  64. 64. BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES 4. Episode Pattern Organizer duration place time cause episode effect persons person person person
  65. 65. BRAIN- BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Concept Pattern Organizer example characteristic concept characteristic characteristic Example Example Example Example Example
  66. 66. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 1. Assertive Discipline (Canter 1976) – teaches students to accept the consequences of their actions - More on positive and praises than punishments. - Be responsible of the actions you are acted upon.
  67. 67. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 2. Theory X and Theory Y (McGregor 1967). Theory X is Newtonian and Y is post- Newtonian - X suggests that people will do the minimum possible amount of work necessary to accomplish a task. - Y- suggests that all people want to succeed, but there are obstacles in their path which inhibit their progress.. If these obstacles are removed, then they can succeed as well as anyone else.
  68. 68. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 3. Control Theory (William Glasser,1984)- called as Reality Therapy-is a series of steps to help children understand their choices they are making. - he suggests that there are four basic needs a. Love b. Control c. Freedom d. Fun These are necessary for healthy psychological balance
  69. 69. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 4. Behaviorism ( Skinner)- molding all children to conform by use of standard punishments and rewards. - The initial condition are individuals and the equations are those behavioristic techniques set out to modify the individuals.
  70. 70. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 5. Transactional Analysis( Harris,1967) studies the interactions of behavior between teachers and students. He even suggests three stages of development called ego-states, Child, Parent, and Adult. In order for teachers to be successful in this theory, they need to remain in the Adult ego and be able to recognize the ego- state of students around them. Teachers can recognize the games that students may play in a child ego- state And teach students to behave in an Adult ego- state.
  71. 71. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 6. Ginott Model- concentrates on the communication between teacher and student. It concentrates on avoiding criticism and trying to understand the student’s feelings. 7. Kay Model- students are intrinsically motivated to behave properly if they are taught how to do it. Role of the teacher is to teach students how to monitor themselves.
  72. 72. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 8. Jones Model- assumption of this model is a child needs to be controlled and that teachers can achieve this control through body language, administration, and parental support. According to Edwards,1993, Stopping Instruction, Staring, Sitting close to the student are all powerful intimidation techniques which should stop students from misbehaving.
  73. 73. DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND METHODS Steps to follow: a. Provide the rationale. b. Demonstrate the skill. c. Provide guided practice. d. Check for understanding and provide feedback. e. Provide extended practice and transfer.
  74. 74. DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND METHODS How to do it? 1. Explain the rationale and objectives of the lesson. Inform them of how long the lesson will take. 2. Provide motivation and draw commitments from them. 3. Conduct the demonstration 4. Assign practice for short periods of time. Continue practice to the point of over learning for complete mastery. 5. Provide feedback, videotaping of performance, tests or written comments. 6. Focus on performance evaluation rather than on pencil-and- paper test. The student should exhibit the skill mastered.
  75. 75. DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND METHODS Example: a. Deductive method- is a teacher- dominated. It begins with the abstract rule, generalization, principle and ends with specific examples and concrete details.
  76. 76. Advantages and disadvantages: A. Coverage of a wider scope by stating at once the rule or the principle at the beginning of the class, we cover more subject matter over a period of time. - No bother on the part of a teacher to lead the learners to the formulation of the generalization or rule. D. It in not supportive of the principle that learning is an active process. Less involvement on the part of the learner. - Lesson appears uninteresting at first. Due to abstract presentation at start then it will look irrelevant and uninteresting.
  77. 77. b. Inductive method Is less teacher directed than the deductive method. It begins with specific details, concrete data and examples and ends with an abstract generalization , rule or principle.
  78. 78. Reflect on ……….. 1. Socratic, on which the image is a wise, somewhat crusty teacher who purposely gets into arguments with students over the subject matter through artful questioning.
  79. 79. Reflect on ……….. 2. )Town –Meeting on which the teachers whom adapt this style use a great deal of discussion and play a moderate role that enables students to work out answers to problem by themselves.
  80. 80. Reflect on ……….. 3.Compulsive type on which the teacher is fussy(choosy), teaches things over and over, and is concerned with functional order and structure.
  81. 81. Reflect on ……….. 4. Boomer on which the teacher shouts in a strong voice, “You’re going to learn, there is no nonsense in the classroom.
  82. 82. Reflect on ……….. 5. ) Maverick on which everybody loves the teacher, except perhaps the principal. She raises difficult questions and presents ideas that disturb.
  83. 83. Reflect on ……….. 6. ) Quiet one on which the teacher is calm, sincere but definite. The teacher commands both respect and attention.
  84. 84. Reflect on ……….. 7. ) Entertainer on which the teacher is free enough to joke and laugh with the students.
  85. 85. Reflect on ……….. 8. Explanatory on which the teacher is in command of the subject matter and explains particular subjects of the lesson.
  86. 86. Reflect on ……….. 9. Interactive on which through dialogue and questioning, the teacher facilitates the development of student ideas.
  87. 87. Reflect on ……….. 10. Pragmatic on which the teacher guides the students’ activities and facilitates self- instruction and independent learning.
  88. 88. Kinds of Test and Evaluation 1.Matching type- matching column A to the other column. 2. Fill in the Blanks- formulating questions by writing a statement with a blank portion on it. 3. Multiple choice- it is with a complete statement and giving three or more choices below the statement.
  89. 89. Kinds of Test and Evaluation 4. Completion form- completing the sentence by adding phrase or words quite related to fill in the blanks. 5. enumeration- it is to ask for multiple answers by putting the numbers depending on the item being asked.
  90. 90. Kinds of Test and Evaluation 6. True or False- it is by giving a statement and then analyze it if it is true or not based on the lesson previously discussed. 7.Objective essay- it is to answer the question verbatim. It means that the answers will be based on the words and phrases coming from the lesson and not your own ideas and opinions.
  91. 91. Kinds of Test and Evaluation 8. Subjective essay- it could be answered either by your own opinion or based on the statement and explanation from the book. 9. Puzzle type- the most artistic and unique kind of test on which you will consider the horizontal and vertical items.
  92. 92. Evaluation could be written or in verbal way depending on the strategy applied by the teacher. Alternative assessment can be one of the evaluations. Ex: Field trips, Thesis defense, exhibits, field demonstration and inside competitions.