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Ways of self-positioning through the reception of news among Estonian Russian-speakers

  1. Ways of self-positioning through the reception of news among Estonian Russian-speakers Marianne Leppik University of Tartu
  2. Hypothesis: migrants are transnational § Transmigrant´s daily lives depend on multiple and constant interconnections across international borders and their public identities are configured in relationship to more than one nation-state (Glick-Schiller et al 1994) § Living in two realities at the same time § Actors exposed to a set of social expectations, norms and values and patterns of human interaction that are shaped by more than one social, economic, and political system (Levitt 2011) § Guarnizo (2000, 2003) distinguishes core and expanded transnational practices § New (imaginable) diaspora? Hybridization?
  3. Subject of the study § Empircalcase: Russian speaking people with migrant background in Estonia who form one third part of Estonia´s population - internally heterogenous group § Varied political will and skills to integrate them § structural separation of two communities as a legacy from the Soviet system § High linguistic, as well cultural and psychological barriers § Estonian Russian-speakers participate in the various mediascapes: Russian TV, local Estonian and Russian language portals, press, radio, social networks, global TV ja news portals § Ad-hoc information gathering
  4. § Average time spent by watching TV in October 2016 was 3,41 h § Main channels: PBK, RTR Planeta, NTV Mir (TNS Emor) § More diverse media use: 49% followregularlyInternational media (compared 25% within native Estonians)(EIA 2017) § 72% use social networks (MMM 2014) §Media use is widening in space and thickening in time: media content is shaped by social networks and communication partners and members of thematic communities
  5. Purpose § Analyse the interactions between ways of interpretation of political and economic journalistic production and peoples’ self-positioning in times of acceleration of political crisis: § How the topical news are received and interpreted? § How the ways of local embeddedness contribute into the interpretative practices and vice versa, how the involvement into the mediated conflict may shape the patterns of social, political and cultural involvement and identity?
  6. Data § Focus groups with Russian-speakers in Estonia (I, II and III generation immigrants) § Interviews, blog article, analytical stories § 3-4 longer texts (balanced) § 1 short (selection ot of 8) § Method: text/discourse analysis
  7. Different use of „we“ § We in broader sense: § It is important to me (Ukrainian crisis), because it is close to us, it may affect us…we all are slavic people (W, 26) § I totally agree…above all, we all are brothers (M, 18) § We here, in Estonia (as non-Estonians?) § We have this quiet state here and then something like this happen (M, 31, talking about school shooting) § In our country there are many good teachers and specialists (M, 18) § We are still aliens here…why are you calling us freaks (M, 31)
  8. Media content interpretation is affected by Russian normalities § Talking about Crimea: § Moreover, they wanted to join the Russia (M, 31) § Like Boris Yeltsin gave away…gambled away (M,28) § That´s a shame (M, 31) § Russian reception frame: § Yes, our friend Sergei Petrov knows how and who organized the protests (M, 31) § He is one of the richest men in Russia. Where did he get all his money? It is clear, that he stole it! (M, 54)
  9. Democratic point of view: operating within EU/international legal system § Why such a drastic reaction that Arabs cannot live in Europe any more, I mean, you let them in. And we have to shut down the mosques. It does not seem democratic to me….Why some churches are closed and some not? It does not correspond to the EU standards (M, 18) § What I really liked about this article and what I didn´t know before, was related to Russian international obligations in relation to Ukraine. So if Russia says in international level that he won´t touch Ukrainian borders, then he shouldn´t (M, 18) § Yesterday I read that Ukraine might ask for peacekeepers from EU and United Nations. I appreciate this initiative. If it helps to stop the crisis and all parties agree, and it doesn´t break a Minsk agreement, then it is a good initiative (M, 38)
  10. Experience with Western civic and media culture shapes the interpretation § But in Russia, there is such a culture if you don´t think so or similarly, then you aren´t patriot. If you don´t agree, it´s a bad sign (M, 25) § Well Russian media has a government´s support. They cannot be adequate or independent. You cannot expect independence when the government pays the salary…(M, 18) § It seems this article is written to Russian reader to concvince him that Putin is (almost) god, who does everything correctly (M, 18)
  11. Postitioning non-conventional: Lavrov at Munich Security Conference § Not laughing at the high level meetings as convention § I do not think that such an important meeting policy and so would laugh. Serious people, they could somehow respond differently, not a laugh (W, 26) § Speaking truth as convention § My personal opinion is that probably there are Russian troops in Ukraine ... I, too smile when I hear how Lavrov tries earnestly and with an honest view say that the Russian troops are not there (M, 37)
  12. Change of positions § I have Estonian passport, but I feel closer to other nations who live here...and this Slavic element is affecting development of culture, science and so on. Lets take for example our Ida-Virumaa. (M, 31) § It is cut like this to show Lavrov in bad´s not very good joke from those who made it...politics are also people, they can laugh...what I meant to say, is that Lavrov cannot lie, he´s really bad in this, but he seriously tries (M,38)
  13. Conclusions § Transnational reality § Conscious position § Change of positions is quick and refers to hybridity § Identity is transforming, is multicultural and negotiable on everyday basis § Interpretationoriginate from Western and Russian normalities: broad concepts § Cosmopolitalism?
  14. Thank you for the attention!