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Computer Security Risks
Computer Security Risks 
• A computer security risk is any event or 
• action that could cause a loss of or damage to 
• computer hardware, software, data, information, 
• or processing capability
Cybercrime 
Any illegal act involving a computer 
generally is referred to as a computer crime. 
The term cybercrime refers to online or 
Internet-based illegal acts. Software used by 
cybercriminals sometimes is called crimeware. 
Today, cybercrime is one of the FBI’s top three 
priorities.
Hacker 
• Someone who accesses a 
• computer or network illegally is called hacker. 
• Some hackers 
• claim the intent of their security breaches is 
• to improve security.
Cracker 
• A cracker also is someone who accesses 
• a computer or network illegally but has 
• the intent of destroying data, stealing 
• information, or other malicious action. 
• Both hackers and crackers have advanced 
• computer and network skills.
Script kiddie 
• A script kiddie has the same intent as a 
• cracker but does not have the technical skills
Cyberextortionist 
(CRIMINAL LAW obtaining something by illegal threats) 
A cyberextortionist is someone who uses 
e-mail as a vehicle for extortion. These 
perpetrators send an organization a 
threatening e-mail message indicating they 
will expose confidential information, exploit 
a security flaw, or launch an attack that will 
compromise the organization’s network — if 
they are not paid a sum of money.
Cyberterrorist 
• A cyberterrorist is someone who uses the 
• Internet or network to destroy or damage computers for political 
reasons. The 
• cyberterrorist might target the nation’s air 
• traffic control system, electricity-generating companies, or a 
telecommunications infrastructure. 
• The term, cyberwarfare, describes an attack whose goal ranges from 
disabling a government’s computer network to crippling 
• a country. Cyberterrorism and cyberwarfare usually require a team of 
highly skilled
Internet and Network Attacks 
• Information transmitted over networks has a 
• higher degree of security risk than information 
• kept on an organization’s premises. In an organization, 
• network administrators usually take 
• measures to protect a network from security 
• risks. On the Internet, where no central administrator 
• is present, the security risk is greater.
Security service 
• To determine if your computer is vulnerable 
• to an Internet or network attack, you 
• could use an online security service. An online 
• security service is a Web site that evaluates 
• your computer to check for Internet and e-mail 
• vulnera bilities
How virus can spread through Email Message
Safeguards against Computer Viruses 
and Other Malware 
• Methods that guarantee a computer or 
• network is safe from computer viruses and other 
• malware simply do not exist. Users can take several 
• precautions, however, to protect their home 
• and work computers and mobile devices from 
• these malicious infections
Precautions 
• Do not start a computer with removable media inserted in the drives or plugged in the ports. 
• For example, optical disc drives should be empty, and a USB port should not contain a USB 
flash 
• drive. During the startup process, a computer 
• may attempt to execute the boot sector on media 
• in certain drives and ports. Even if the attempt is 
• unsuccessful, a virus on the boot sector of removable 
• media can infect the computer’s hard disk. 
• If you must start the computer with media in a 
• drive or port, be certain the media are uninfected 
• or from a trusted source
Precautions 
• Never open an e-mail attachment unless you 
• are expecting the attachment and it is from a 
• trusted source. If the e-mail message is from an 
• unknown source or untrusted source, delete the 
• e-mail message immediately — without opening 
• or executing any attachments.
Precautions 
• Some viruses are hidden in macros, which 
• are instructions saved in software such as a word 
• processing or spreadsheet program. In programs 
• that allow users to write macros, you should set 
• the macro security level so that the application 
• software warns users that a document they are 
• attempting to open contains a macro
Precautions 
• Users should install an antivirus program and 
• update it frequently. 
• An antivirus program protects a computer against 
• viruses by identifying and removing any computer 
• viruses found in memory, on storage media, 
• or on incoming files.
Precautions 
• One technique that antivirus programs use to 
• identify a virus is to look for virus signatures. A 
• virus signature, also called a virus definition, is 
• a known specific pattern of virus code. Computer 
• users should update their antivirus program’s 
• signature files regularly

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Computer security risks

  • 2. Computer Security Risks • A computer security risk is any event or • action that could cause a loss of or damage to • computer hardware, software, data, information, • or processing capability
  • 3. Cybercrime Any illegal act involving a computer generally is referred to as a computer crime. The term cybercrime refers to online or Internet-based illegal acts. Software used by cybercriminals sometimes is called crimeware. Today, cybercrime is one of the FBI’s top three priorities.
  • 4. Hacker • Someone who accesses a • computer or network illegally is called hacker. • Some hackers • claim the intent of their security breaches is • to improve security.
  • 5. Cracker • A cracker also is someone who accesses • a computer or network illegally but has • the intent of destroying data, stealing • information, or other malicious action. • Both hackers and crackers have advanced • computer and network skills.
  • 6. Script kiddie • A script kiddie has the same intent as a • cracker but does not have the technical skills
  • 7. Cyberextortionist (CRIMINAL LAW obtaining something by illegal threats) A cyberextortionist is someone who uses e-mail as a vehicle for extortion. These perpetrators send an organization a threatening e-mail message indicating they will expose confidential information, exploit a security flaw, or launch an attack that will compromise the organization’s network — if they are not paid a sum of money.
  • 8. Cyberterrorist • A cyberterrorist is someone who uses the • Internet or network to destroy or damage computers for political reasons. The • cyberterrorist might target the nation’s air • traffic control system, electricity-generating companies, or a telecommunications infrastructure. • The term, cyberwarfare, describes an attack whose goal ranges from disabling a government’s computer network to crippling • a country. Cyberterrorism and cyberwarfare usually require a team of highly skilled
  • 9. Internet and Network Attacks • Information transmitted over networks has a • higher degree of security risk than information • kept on an organization’s premises. In an organization, • network administrators usually take • measures to protect a network from security • risks. On the Internet, where no central administrator • is present, the security risk is greater.
  • 10. Security service • To determine if your computer is vulnerable • to an Internet or network attack, you • could use an online security service. An online • security service is a Web site that evaluates • your computer to check for Internet and e-mail • vulnera bilities
  • 11. How virus can spread through Email Message
  • 12. Safeguards against Computer Viruses and Other Malware • Methods that guarantee a computer or • network is safe from computer viruses and other • malware simply do not exist. Users can take several • precautions, however, to protect their home • and work computers and mobile devices from • these malicious infections
  • 13. Precautions • Do not start a computer with removable media inserted in the drives or plugged in the ports. • For example, optical disc drives should be empty, and a USB port should not contain a USB flash • drive. During the startup process, a computer • may attempt to execute the boot sector on media • in certain drives and ports. Even if the attempt is • unsuccessful, a virus on the boot sector of removable • media can infect the computer’s hard disk. • If you must start the computer with media in a • drive or port, be certain the media are uninfected • or from a trusted source
  • 14. Precautions • Never open an e-mail attachment unless you • are expecting the attachment and it is from a • trusted source. If the e-mail message is from an • unknown source or untrusted source, delete the • e-mail message immediately — without opening • or executing any attachments.
  • 15. Precautions • Some viruses are hidden in macros, which • are instructions saved in software such as a word • processing or spreadsheet program. In programs • that allow users to write macros, you should set • the macro security level so that the application • software warns users that a document they are • attempting to open contains a macro
  • 16. Precautions • Users should install an antivirus program and • update it frequently. • An antivirus program protects a computer against • viruses by identifying and removing any computer • viruses found in memory, on storage media, • or on incoming files.
  • 17. Precautions • One technique that antivirus programs use to • identify a virus is to look for virus signatures. A • virus signature, also called a virus definition, is • a known specific pattern of virus code. Computer • users should update their antivirus program’s • signature files regularly