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Introduction to computer hardware

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An introduction to computer hardware for elementary students

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Introduction to computer hardware

  2. 2. WHAT IS A COMPUTER? OA computer is an electronic device that helps people perform different tasks. For example, computer allows us to write letters, create pictures, make calculations, play games and send electronic mail (e-mail) via computers.
  3. 3. PARTS OF A COMPUTER  The three main elements of computer are: a. System unit b. Input devices c. Output devices These components work together like a team to complete tasks. The system unit acts like the center or core, processing the data and information it receives from input devices. Output devices, like printers, receive the system unit’s processed information (data).
  4. 4. PARTS OF A COMPUTER 1. System unit  This is the core of a computer which is responsible for processing and storing data and controls all computer functions.  It is in the system that raw data is processed into information. The system unit works with the computer’s peripheral devices.  This is also known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and is inside the computer case. This is the brain of the computer.
  5. 5. PARTS OF A COMPUTER 2. Output device  It is any peripheral device that presents, displays, alters or records output after it has left a computer’s system unit.  Examples: a. Printers -create hard copy data b. Monitors -display data or information onscreen c. Speakers -produce sound with data
  6. 6. PARTS OF A COMPUTER 3. Input devices  It is used to generate input for the computer and allows people to enter information into computer to be processed.  It allows users to provide a computer with commands, software, instructions, and information.  Examples: a. Keyboard – The set of typewrites-like keys that enables you to enter data into a computer
  7. 7. PARTS OF A COMPUTER b. Mouse – It is a device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. c. Scanner – An input device that takes in an optical image and digitizes it into an electronic image represented as binary data. d. Microphone – It allows the computer to receive and record sound.
  8. 8. WHAT DOES A COMPUTER DO? 1. Computers can help you write letters, homework, research and any text you want to type. 2. Computers can be used to draw, paint, and edit pictures. 3. Computers can help you solve hard math problems with the use of a calculator program. 4. Computers can be used to watch a movie and listen to music.
  9. 9. WHAT DOES A COMPUTER DO? 5. Computers are used to communicate with other people with the use of internet. You can send email and chat with your friends. 6. Computers can be used to play fun games.
  10. 10. CONNECTING COMPUTER PARTS  Instructions on how to connect computer parts: 1. Plug in the socket of the CPU. Make sure you are wearing a dry slipper and your hands are dry to avoid being grounded by electricity. 2. Turn the monitor to see its back. There are two cables that needs to be connected. One is for power socket and the other is a VGA connector for the CPU. a. Connect one end of the monitor cable on the back of the monitor. Connect and tighten the thumbscrews on both sides of the connector.
  11. 11. CONNECTING COMPUTER PARTS b. Connect the VGA cable of the monitor to the CPU. c. Plug in the power cable to the power socket. 3. Connect the keyboard and mouse cables.
  12. 12. STARTING AND SHUTTING DOWN THE COMPUTER A. To turn On the computer: 1. Push the On switch or button of the monitor. 2. Push the On switch or button of the CPU. B. To shut down the computer:  For Windows XP: 1. Click the Start button. 2. Click Turn Off Computer icon. 3. Click Shutdown icon.
  13. 13. STARTING AND SHUTTING DOWN THE COMPUTER  For Windows Vista: 1. Click the Start button. 2. Click the arrow icon. 3. Click the Shut Down. C. To Restart the computer:  For Windows XP: 1. Click the Start button. 2. Click Turn Off Computer icon.
  14. 14. STARTING AND SHUTTING DOWN THE COMPUTER 3. Click Restart icon.  For Windows Vista: 1. Click the Start button. 2. Click the arrow icon. 3. Click Restart.
  15. 15. PROPER HANDLING OF THE MOUSE  The mouse is a very important tool in navigating the cursor in your computer. You should take care of it by not banging it hard on your desk. Placing a mouse pad under it can help make your navigating smooth and to avoid it from scratches. Let it remain on the side of your keyboard so that it won’t get lost. Also, be gentle in pressing the buttons so that it won’t get broken easily.
  16. 16. PROPER HANDLING OF THE MOUSE  Most of the time you will click or double click the left mouse button to select objects. You can also click and press the enter key to open a selected item on the desktop.  When you click the right mouse button, a special menu is displayed with various options you can choose from.  Most of the mouse today have scroll rollers at the middle of the mouse buttons. You can use this to scroll up or down on Windows with long contents.
  17. 17. PROPER HANDLING OF THE MOUSE  Proper ways of holding the mouse: 1. Hold the sides of the mouse with your thumb, ring finger and pinky. 2. Place your index finger on the left mouse button and middle finger on the right mouse button. 3. Always rest your wrist on the desk or mouse pad. 4. If you run out of space or room on the mouse pad, you can lift the mouse to stay on the available space.
  18. 18. PROPER HANDLING OF THE MOUSE 1. Slowly slide the mouse around on the mouse pad while looking at the movements on the screen or desktop. 2. The mouse should always be pointing away from you. 3. To click, gently press and release the left mouse button. 4. Be careful not to move the mouse while you are clicking. Keep your hand relaxed on the mouse as you press down and release without lifting your finger completely off the button. 5. Try to control your fingers not to press the button for too long or too hard.
  19. 19. PROPER HANDLING OF DISKETTES AND Cds 1. Diskette (or Floppy Disk)  It is used to help you store files and open it to other computers. This consists of a plastic casing enclosing a thin piece of plastic. The plastic has a coating of magnetic particles on it, onto which the information is written in the magnetic code.  For the computer to read it, the diskette is placed inside the Floppy Disk drive.
  20. 20. PROPER HANDLING OF DISKETTES AND Cds 2. Compact Disks  It is similar to the floppy diskette because it also stores data and you can retrieve data from it.  The CD ROM Drive is a drive that reads information from a compact disk, like music CD or a software CD.  For proper handling of Cds, always place your CDs in a clean CD case or sleeve after using it so that it won’t get lost and have scratches.
  21. 21. THE KEYBOARD  Grouped or categorized keys: A. The Alphabetical Keys 1. Home Row Keys – Keys at the middle row of the alphabetical keys in the keyboard. The colon/semicolon is added for proper placement of the pinky finger to the keyboard.  Left Hand: 4th finger (pinky)-Letter A 3rd finger (ring)-Letter S 2nd finger (middle)-Letter D 1st finger (index)-Letter F Left thumb-space bar
  22. 22. THE KEYBOARD  Right Hand: 4th finger (pinky)-semi-colon (;) 3rd finger (ring)-Letter L 2nd finger (middle)-Letter K 1st finger (index)-Letter J Right thumb-space bar 2. Top Row Keys- Keys at the top row of the alphabetical keys in the keyboard.  Left Hand: 4th finger (pinky)-Letter Q 3rd finger (ring)-Letter W 2nd finger (middle)-Letter E 1st finger (index)-Letter R
  23. 23. THE KEYBOARD  Right Hand: 4th finger (pinky)- Letter U 3rd finger (ring)-Letter I 2nd finger (middle)-Letter O 1st finger (index)-Letter P 3. Bottom Row Keys- Keys at the bottom row of the alphabetical keys in the keyboard. The comma key is added to complete the keys the fingers will fall on to.  Left Hand: 4th finger (pinky)-Letter Z 3rd finger (ring)-Letter X 2nd finger (middle)-Letter C 1st finger (index)-Letter V
  24. 24. THE KEYBOARD  Right Hand: 4th finger (pinky)- Letter B 3rd finger (ring)-Letter N 2nd finger (middle)-Letter M 1st finger (index)-comma (,) B. Special Keys 1.Arrow Keys- Most computer keyboards contain four arrow keys for moving the cursor or insertion point right, left, up, or down. The arrow keys are also called cursor control keys. 2. Shift Key – Key that gives the other keys an alternate meaning.
  25. 25. THE KEYBOARD 3. Caps Lock Key – Toggle key on computer keyboards that, when activated, causes all alphabetical characters to be uppercase, but has no effect on other keys. 4. Function Keys – Special keys on the keyboard that have different meanings depending on which program is running. 5. Control Key – Key on PC keyboards labeled Ctrl. It can use the key in the same way that you can use the Shift key-keeping it pressed down while pressing another character. 6. Alt Key – Short for alternate key, the Alt key is a second Control key.
  26. 26. THE KEYBOARD 7. Numerical Key – The numerical keypad looks like a small calculator. If you press the NumLock Key you can use it like a small calculator in certain programs. 8. Space Bar – Key used to create spaces between character (letters, numbers, or symbols).
  27. 27. PROPER CARE AND SAFETY IN USING THE COMPUTER 1. Listen to your Computer Teacher. Ask permission before you turn on the computer. 2. Be quiet while you are inside the computer room. 3. Always have clean hands and do not bring food and drinks inside the computer room. 4. Keep the computer room clean at all times. 5. Treat the computer properly and gently. Don't hit the keys of the keyboard too hard and don’t bang the mouse. 6. When somebody is using the computer, learn to share and respect others. Wait for your turn.
  28. 28. PROPER CARE AND SAFETY IN USING THE COMPUTER 7. Avoid placing heavy objects on the computer and on its parts. 8. Keep magnets away from the computer room and other computer parts. 9. Help others when they need it. 10. Always use your computer class time wisely. Getting assignments or projects done on time will help you get high grades. 11. Turn the computer off when not in use. After using the computer, if possible, cover it with a piece of cloth. Leave your area neat, clean and organized.
  29. 29. PROPER POSTURE WHILE USING THE COMPUTER  Having proper posture while working on a computer will help you work well and is good for your health.  If you are working on a computer in long hours, you should do some body stretches so that you won’t strain your body.