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  1. 1. CERVICAL AND PROSTATE CANCER 9 MARCH 2014 What is cancer? What if I have a cancer am I going to die or it can be cure?
  2. 2. CONTENTS  What is cancer Cervical cancer  What is cervical cancer?  Causes  Victims  Symptoms  Percentage of women with it Prostate cancer  Risk factors  Symptoms  Prevention  Treatment  Causes
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION This following discussion is based on two types of cancers of which is cervical and prostate cancer. Officially cervical cancer is the problem mostly in women while prostate cancer is the problem in men.
  5. 5. WHAT IS CANCER? Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cell in a part of the body, or a harmful growth of tumour resulting from an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells. Cancer is a disease that begins in the cells, and it can affects many people.
  6. 6. WHAT CAUSES CANCER? It can be caused in many ways. The main causes of cancer are increasing of age, environmental causes such as chemicals and radiation viruses and inherited genes. Cancer is caused by the loss of cell cycle controls in cancer cells, it occurs when cell division goes out of control and a growth or tumour causes the growth to be malignant or benign. The benign growth is contained within a capsule and can be surgically removed.
  7. 7. Actually causes of cancer Diet and lifestyle can increase the risk of getting cancer for example, people with a diet that lacks fibre but is high in protein and fat have a greater chance of getting cancer of the colon. Viruses can cause cancer of the cervix in women and some types of liver cancer. Inherited genes that have multated (changed their structured) give instruction to cells in certain parts of the body to keep dividing, resulting in cancer, for example breast cancer.
  8. 8. Terminology  Tumour- mass that develops when cells divide very rapidly I an uncontrolled way, as many be associated with cancer. Malignant- when a tumour is harmful. Carcinogenic – a substance that causes cancer. Hysterectomy- is an operation to remove the uterus cervix and sometimes the ovaries as well.
  9. 9. WHAT IS CERVICAL CANCER? A woman should have an annual check-up with a doctor or clinic nurse to check for cervical cancer. The doctor removes a small amount of tissue that lines the cervix and puts it onto on a slide that is sent to the pathology laboratory. This procedure is called a pap smear or cervical smear. The cells are carefully examined under the microscope to check for any signs of abnormal growth. Cervical cancer can spread up into the uterus, the use of the pill may sometimes increases the risk of cervical cance (Liao S October 1996). It the test for cervical cancer is positive, the woman has a hysterectomy.
  10. 10. Causes of cervical cancer A. Viruses B. Old age 40-50 C. Family history D. Environment factors E. Early sexual contact and having multiple sexual partners
  11. 11. Treatment for cervical cancer Removed the deepest cells by biopsy were normal no further treatment may be needed and removal of cells or tissue to diagnose cancer and to out how far it has invaded (Larsson A, 2001).
  12. 12. PERCENTAGE (%)  Percentage of women with the cervical cancer in KWAZULU NATAL, GAUTENG P, MPUMALANG, AND LIMPOPO. PRECENTAGE (%) GP-10% MP-20 KZN-30% LIMPOPO
  13. 13. NUMBER OF THE WOMEN Number of women with cervical cancer in the total of 5000 women. A. KZN- 30%/100 x 5000 B. MP- 20%/100 X 5000 = 1500 women = 1000 women C. GP- 10%/100 x 5000 D. LIMPOPO- 40%/ 100 X 5000 = 500 women = 2000 women
  14. 14. symptoms  Abnormal vaginal bleeding Vaginal discharge Warts/ genital warts
  15. 15. Risk factors It during the time of diagnosis.
  16. 16. Prostate cancer It is different to say what causes prostate cancer but there are some risk factors that can be taken into account.
  17. 17. Risk factors At an age of 50 years and older, a high-fat diet and family history. Animal fats, genetic factors (positive family history) increase in age and environment factors such as diet, large consumption of red meat. Prostate cancer is more common in men who are more than 65 years of age. It is recommended that after the age of 50 years, men should have an annual prostate-specific antigen blood test (PSA) and a digital rectal examination (DRE). The earlier prostate cancer is detected the greater the changes.
  18. 18. symptoms It early stage there no symptoms. Frequent urination. Not being able to urinate, weak or interrupted urine flow, blood in the urine, difficulty in having an erection, blood in the semen and frequent pain or stiffness in the back, hips or upper thighs. According to (Maaike C.G, 2003), ejaculation, urgency and nocturia (getting up often a pass urine at night) .
  19. 19. Treatment or prevention The prostate gland can be removed this operation is invasive and the recovery period is long. A new treatment called Brachytherapy is proving to be very successful. Surgery (cracial prostategomy), watchuful waiting, radiation external beamradiation, brachytherapy and hormonal treatment.
  20. 20. Reduce risk of getting it!! Men can reduce the risk of getting prostate cancer by reducing their fat intake, eating at least five serving of fruit/ or vegetables per day, exercising, and maintain their ideal body weight.
  21. 21. Tests for staging cancer Cancer site Type of biopsy performed Other tests performed Prostate Needle biopsy Blood tests for acid phosphates and prostate-specific antigen (PSA ULTRASOUND SCAN)
  23. 23. S.A. men with prostate cancer  South African men with prostate cancer in 1993-2001 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Cape town Durban Richards Mossel bay Saldaoha East london
  24. 24. Conclusion The views on concluding the discussion is that those cancer are harmful and can kill people so if you found out that you are suffering from cancer you must take the treatment as soon as possible (Koutsky LA, 2002).
  25. 25. THANK YOU!!!!!!!!
  26. 26. REFFERENCE LIST Cornelis J.A. Hogewoning, Maaike C.G. Bleeker, et al (2003). "Condom use Promotes the Regression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Clearance of HPV: Randomized Clinical Trial". International Journal of Cancer 107 (5): 811–816. Manhart LE, Koutsky LA (2002). "Do condoms prevent genital HPV infection, external genital warts, or cervical neoplasia? A meta- analysis". Sex Transm Dis 29 (11): 725–35. Nilsson BO, Carlsson L, Larsson A, Ronquist G (2001). "Autoantibodies to prostasomes as new markers for prostate cancer". Ups. J. Med. Sci. 106 (1): 43–9. Umekita Y, Hiipakka RA, Kokontis JM, Liao S (October 1996).