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F & B Service Notes for 2nd Year Hotel Management Students: Chap 01 Alcohol

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ALCOHOL

INTRODUCTION________________________________

Alcohol is a mobile, volatile fluid obtained by fermentation of a s...
may have as little as 0.5% to 95% alcohol by volume. However, social and economic
factors, so also the taxation laws deter...
beverages have an alcoholic strength of generally 4% to 14% by volume. For example:
Wines, Mead, Pulque, Cider, Perry, Bee...
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F & B Service Notes for 2nd Year Hotel Management Students: Chap 01 Alcohol

  1. 1. ALCOHOL INTRODUCTION________________________________ Alcohol is a mobile, volatile fluid obtained by fermentation of a sugar containing liquid. Its strength (concentration) can be further increased by distillation. Alcohol, in general, is a family of organic chemical compounds. Thus, there are various kinds of alcohols in this alcohol family. It includes Methanol (Methyl alcohol), Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol), Propanol (Propyl alcohol), Butanol (Butyl Alcohol) and so on. All these alcohols are obtained on replacing one Hydrogen (-H) atom by one Hydro-oxide (-OH) atom in its parent chemical compound. For example: one Hydrogen atom in Methane (CH4) is replaced by one Hydroxide atom to form Methanol (CH 3OH), one Hydrogen atom in Ethane (C2H6) is replaced by one Hydroxide atom to form Ethanol (C 2H5OH) and so on. Methyl alcohol (methanol) and Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) are the main alcohols in this family. Out of these two organic chemical compounds, Ethanol (C 2H5OH) is potable and if sensibly consumed, is a beneficial alcohol. It has a faint but pleasant ethereal smell and it is the alcohol that shall be dealt with. On the other hand, Methanol is a powerfully dangerous poison if drunk. Its importance is that it is widely used in industrial processes. NOMENCLATURE_______________________________ The name Alcohol is derived from the Arabic word al-kohl. Kohl is a black, very fine staining powder that is used cosmetically for staining the eyelids (and is particularly used by ladies). Later, the name was applied to highly refined chemical powders and essences and then to spirits produced by distillation and rectification and now to any alcohol (alcoholic beverage) in general. ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE_________________________ An alcoholic beverage is any potable (meaning drinkable) liquid containing ethanol or ethyl alcohol. In USA, Federal Government during the Prohibition time defined that it 1
  2. 2. may have as little as 0.5% to 95% alcohol by volume. However, social and economic factors, so also the taxation laws determine what are alcoholic beverages. For example: Certain bitters and medicinal compounds contain as much as 40% alcohol; even then they are not considered as alcoholic beverages and are not taxed. HOW IS POTABLE ALCOHOL (ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE) OBTAINED?_________________________ All alcohols or alcoholic beverages are obtained by a process called fermentation. It is concentrated or increased in strength by a process called Distillation. Both these processes are discussed below: FERMENTATION French biologist Louis Pasteur (1822-95) explained scientifically the principle of fermentation, which is basic to the making of all alcoholic beverages. When yeast is added to any sugar containing liquid, it reacts with sugar of the liquid to form alcohol and carbon dioxide. This fundamental process is called fermentation. If this liquid is not protected from air, it is later converted to vinegar. Thus, fermentation is the breaking down of organic substances (sugars particularly maltose) by enzymes secreted by yeast cells into mainly ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. This is an exothermic reaction i.e. heat is liberated during this reaction. Fermentable Sugars + Yeast Enzymes → Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide Gas↑ + Heat Scientifically describing, the enzymes secreted by yeast cells react with one molecule of sugar (maltose) to produce two molecules of Ethanol and two molecules of Carbon Dioxide Gas. Heat is generated during this reaction. C6H12O6 + Yeast Enzmyes → 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2↑+ Heat Energy Carbon dioxide gas is usually but not always allowed to escape. Here, the alcohol (ethanol)-a liquid remains behind in the original liquid, which is then called a fermented alcoholic beverage. These fermented alcoholic beverages are preferably rested, aged, matured and blended before being bottled for sale. Fermented alcoholic 2
  3. 3. beverages have an alcoholic strength of generally 4% to 14% by volume. For example: Wines, Mead, Pulque, Cider, Perry, Beers etc. A point, which is very important, is that alcohol is obtained from ingredients containing sugar. For example: grape juice, apple juice, pear juice etc. But, it can also be obtained from ingredients such as grain, cereals and potatoes, which have no sugar but have the potential to form sugar i.e. these cereals have a lot of starch present in them. Once the starch is converted into fermentable sugars, mainly maltose, yeast is introduced and fermentation begins. Another point that requires mention is that certain fermented alcoholic beverages like Beer, Sake etc are brewed before they are fermented. i.e. the mixture of grist (mashed cereals) and hot water is brewed to extract flavour, taste and aroma before being fermented. NAMES AND BASE INGREDIENTS OF SOME FERMENTED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES Table, sparkling, fortified and other wines - Grapes Cider - Apples Perry - Pears Mead - Honey Pulque - Blue Agave or Maguey NAMES AND BASE INGREDIENTS OF SOME BREWED AND FERMENTED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES Lagers, Ales and other beers - Grains Sake - Rice DISTILLATION The process of separating one or more liquids by heating a mixture of liquids is called distillation. It involves the sub-processes of evaporation and condensation. The principle of distillation is that ethyl alcohol vaporizes at a lower temperature (78.5 ° C) than water, which vaporizes at 100 °C. So, when any fermented liquid is heated in an 3
  4. 4. enclosed vessel called a still to a temperature of 78.5 °C, water remains in the still and alcohol vaporizes which is channeled off and later condensed to obtain a concentrated alcoholic liquid again. This concentrated alcoholic liquid obtained after distillation is called a spirit-a kind of distilled alcoholic beverage. This distilled alcoholic beverage (spirit) depending upon the method of distillation (whether pot still or patent still) may be rested, matured, blended, and reduced in strength by adding de-ionized water and probably given colour enhancement before being bottled for sale. For example: Gin, Vodka, Whisky etc. These fermented and distilled alcoholic beverages generally have an alcoholic strength ranging from 37.5% to 57.5% by volume. But, some distilled alcoholic beverages have an alcoholic strength as high as 75% by volume. Important points that are notable in this process are as follows: (i) The still is the apparataus, which allows the seperation of water and alcohol from a fermented liquid to be carried out (thus, a fermented liquid is a must for distillation). Also, the quality of the final product depends a lot on the shape and size of this still. (ii) Water is constantly vaporizing to some extent so every distillation will contain water. (iii) The final product obtained after distillation also consists of Congeners. Congeners are minor amounts of aldehydes, ethers, esters, volatile acids, organic compounds and also fusel oils (higher alcohols like propanol, butanol etc) which give the product its distinctive, individual character of taste, flavour and aroma. They come along with the vaporizing process or by the extraction from the residue. These are further enhanced as the spirit ages in wood. For example: Aldehydes are produced from a combination of alcohols and air, and are particularly important for the character of a spirit. Esters result from a combination of acids and alcohol and form a volatile substance that contributes to the aroma of a spirit. There are two main methods of distillation by which distilled alcoholic beverages (spirits) may be obtained: (i) POT STILL: It originated in the middle ages and is associated with separate, slow and low-temperature distillations. As a result, the end product contains a good proportion of congeners and spirits obtained by this method have to be matured for atleast two years by law. But, usually it is matured longer than that. The entire heavy, highly flavoursome spirits are distilled by this method. For example: brandy, malt whisky, dark rums, tequila and fine Calvados etc. The pot still is shaped like a giant onion and consists of two parts: a still and a worm condenser. The still is made of copper because it is a good conductor of heat and also resists the effects of acids, which are normally capable of dissolving metal. The copper worm condenser is connected to the still by a copper pipe. The worm passes through a jacket of flowing cold water, which speeds up the condensation of the alcohol-rich vapours. The pot still is time consuming and costly to operate. It needs to be cooled, cleaned and refilled after each distillation, but it produces spirits of remarkable individuality, quality and flavour. 4
  5. 5. POT STILL Working: The fermented liquid is placed in the still and slowly heated over a naked flame. When the temperature reaches 78.5°C the alcoholic vapours rise and pass through the worm to a condenser. Here the vapours are condensed back into a liquid containing about 30% alcohol. This is re-distilled. The first part of the distillate to emerge is known as the heads (foreshots) and contains a high proportion of methanol. This is put to one side. The central portion (heart) of the distillation - the best part -- has an alcoholic strength of about 80% and is channeled into the spirit receiver and ultimately into maturing casks. The final part of the distillation, known as tails (feints or after-shots), is weak in alcohol and contains the nauseating fusel oils and other impurities. The heads and tails are sent back to be re- distilled and refined. The new spirit (distilled alcoholic beverage) may be reduced in strength by the addition of deionised water, which does not react with the chemical elements of the spirit. It is then well matured before bottling and sending it for sale. (ii) PATENT STILL: The patent still or Coffey still is named after its inventor Aeneas Coffey-a Dublin excise officer. It works on the principle of distillation by steam and produces a continuous flow of high strength alcohol. It uses rectification to make the end product as pure and congener-free as possible. As a result, no maturing period is required by law and the resultant product may be sold immediately it has been produced. It is cheaper than the pot still to operate as it is lighter on fuel and does not require the labour-intensive tasks of emptying, cleaning and refilling. The patent still is associated with all the light spirits such as vodka, gin, white and light rums, grain whiskies etc. 5
  6. 6. PATENT STILL Working: The patent still consists of two columns about 18 m high. The analyzer separate the constituent liquid parts while the rectifier condenses the alcoholic vapours, raises the strength of and purifies the spirit. Each column is sub-divided horizontally into chambers by perforated copper plates, which have a drip pipe leading to the chamber underneath. Both columns are preheated by steam and the fermented liquid (also called wash) enters at the top of the rectifier through a pipe and gradually descends. By the time, the wash reaches the bottom of the rectifier through the pipe; it is almost at boiling point. It is then pumped into the analyser where it gradually makes its way 6
  7. 7. downwards through perforated plates and bubble caps. As it descends, it is met by a current of raw steam, which has been injected under pressure into the bottom of the analyser. On contact, the steam boils the wash and produces alcoholic vapours that rise and are channelled by a pipe into the bottom of the rectifier. The spent wash is removed from the bottom of the analyser. Meanwhile inside the rectifier, the alcoholic vapours pass through a series of perforated plates. As they rise they meet the cold wash being carried down the rectifier by the wash coil. Partial condensation takes place - the vapours getting cooler and the wash, on its way to the analyser, getting hotter. When the spirit vapours reach two-thirds of the way up in the rectifier, they hit a cold spiral plate or water frame and precipitate. The first liquid to emerge - the heads or foreshots - is removed and sent back to the analyser because it is pungent and needs further refining. The comparative pure spirit that follows is guided into a spirit receiver. The new spirit is then reduced in alcoholic strength by deionised water and matured for a short time before being treated according to style. NAMES AND BASE INGREDIENTS OF SOME DISTILLED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES (SPIRITS) Cognac, Armagnac & other brandies - Grapes or Wine Whisky - Grains or Beer Vodka, Kornbranntwein - Grains/Potatoes Light, golden & dark Rums - Molasses (Sugarcane) Arrack - Dates, Palm Sap Mezcal, Tequila - Blue Agave or Pulque Gin - Grains Aquavit - Grains, Potatoes NAMES AND BASE INGREDIENTS OF SOME DISTILLED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES FROM FRUITS OTHER THAN GRAPES (EAU DE VIE DES FRUITS) Calvados - Apples Slivovitz, Mirabelle, Quetsch - Plums Kirsch - Cherries Eau de Vie de Poire - Pears Eau de Vie de Fraise - Strawberries Eau de Vie de Framboise - Raspberries 7
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION AND TYPES (STYLES) OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES_______________________ The main purpose of classification of Alcoholic Beverages are two: (i) to provide the base for accessing and collecting taxes by the government and (ii) to protect the consumer by making them understand the differences between the products. The chart showing the classification and different styles of alcoholic beverages is given hereby: It shows that ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES are basically classified into FERMENTED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES and DISTILLED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES depending upon whether they are fermented or distilled. These FERMENTED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES are classified into WINES, MEAD, PULQUE, CIDER, PERRY, BEER, SAKE etc on the basis of base ingredients used. WINES are further categoried into TABLE, SPARKLING, FORTIFIED, AROMATISED, TONIC, VIN DOUX NATURELA, ORGANIC etc. on the basis of their nature/characteristics. All these WINE TYPES can also be classified (i) on the basis of their colour into RED, PINK (ROSE) AND WHITE, (ii) on the basis of their body into HEAVY BODIED, MEDIUM BODIED OR LIGHT BODIED (especially red wines) (iii) on the basis of their degree of sweetness into DRY, MEDIUM DRY, MEDIUM SWEET, SWEET etc (especially white wines). (iv) on the basis of alcohol content into LOW ALCOHOL WINES (max 1.2% by volume), DE-ALCOHOLISED WINES (max 0.5% by volume) and ALCOHOL FREE OR NO ALCOHOL WINES (max 0.05% by volume). BEER is classified on the basis of type of fermentation (bottom or top) into mainly LAGERS and ALES. However, there are other types like PORTER, PILSNER, STOUT, GUINNESS, BOCK, STEAM etc. The DISTILLED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES are classified into SPIRITS, LIQUEURS, BITTERS etc on the basis of their nature and characteristics. SPIRITS are further categorised into WHISKY, GIN, RUM, VODKA, TEQUILA, BRANDY, CALVADOS, EAU DE VIE DES FRUITS AND OTHERS depending upon the base ingredient used. Further, famous WHISKIES are of four main types depending upon the country of origin, base ingredient, method of manufacture etc: SCOTCH, IRISH, AMERICAN AND CANADIAN. GIN styles include FRUIT GINS, PLYMOUTH GIN, LONDON DRY GIN, HOLLANDS GIN, MALT WINE etc. RUM styles are LIGHT RUM, GOLDEN RUM AND DARK RUM. TEQUILA styles include WHITE and GOLDEN (ANEJO). BRANDY types include COGNAC, ARMAGNAC AND OTHERS. EAU DE VIE DES FRUITS include EAU DE VIE DE POIRE, FRAISE, FRAMBOISE etc. LIQUEURS are further classified into GENERIC LIQUEURS and BRANDED LIQUEURS. 8
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  11. 11. ALCOHOLIC STRENGTH_________________________ The concentration of alcohol in an alcoholic beverage is called its alcoholic strength. Alcoholic strength of any alcoholic beverage is required to be measured so that the governments can tax them properly and consumers might come to know about it, forcing them to drink sensibly. Various methods are followed all over the world to determine the alcoholic strength of an alcoholic beverage. Traditional or Primitive methods were followed before the scientific methods were evolved. Both these kinds of various methods are listed here: PRIMITIVE METHODS: It includes two methods: (a) Gunpowder: To test alcoholic strength initially distillers mixed equal quantities of spirit and gunpowder and applied a flame to it. If the mixture failed to ignite, the spirit was too weak; if it exploded or burned too brightly, it was too strong, but if it burned evenly with a mild blue flame, it was 'proved' suitable and safe to drink (potable). Hence, the word “proof”. (b) Clarke’s Float: In the seventeenth century, Clarke invented a weighted float. When this float was dropped into a spirit, the depth to which it sank revealed the density of the liquor and the alcoholic strength could be calculated from this. It was then able to calibrate a particular strength as proof and any with a greater or lesser concentration of alcohol was 'overproof’ or 'underproof’ respectively. MODERN SCIENTIFIC METHODS: It includes four methods: (a) Sykes Hydrometer: In 1816, Sykes introduced Sykes Hydrometer. Sykes determined that 100° was proof and that pure alcohol was 175° (75° overproof). On this scale, the figure for pure alcohol is I 3/4 times the figure accorded to proof spirit. In other words, 100° proof equals 57.1% alcohol and 42.9% water. The system also called British system became traditional throughout the United Kingdom where spirits were sold at a potable strength of 70° proof (30° underproof). So to convert the British proof into percent by volume of alcohol, simply multiply the proof by four and divide by seven. 70 X 4 = 40% 7 (b) Gay-Lussac System: Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) invented this system, which was adopted throughout mainland Europe. In Gay-Lussac or GL system 0° is the absence of 11
  12. 12. alcohol and 100° pure alcohol. Here, the alcoholic strength is measured at 15°C. Thus, degree equals percentage. © American System: The Americans introduced their own system that was reasonably logical. They decided that proof spirit was an exact balance of alcohol and water and that pure alcohol is 200° Proof. Each degree of proof equals one-half percent of alcohol. So, a spirit marketed at 90° proof would contain 45% of alcohol by volume. (d) OIML Scale: The Organisation Internationale de Metrologie Legale (OIML) expresses alcoholic strength as a percentage by volume of alcohol (0% - 100%). It is very similar to the Gay-Lussac system except that OIML measures strength at 20°C. Thus, Gay-Lussac system gives a slightly higher reading. The difference is almost negligible except when deciding excise duty on very large quantities of drink. This system is followed now a days in the continent of Europe. APPROXIMATE ALCOHOLIC STRENGTHS__________ TYPE ALCOHOL BY VOLUME Alcohol free - maximum 0.05% De-alcoholised - maximum 0.5% Low alcohol - maximum 1.2% Cider - 4 – 6% but ‘specials’ upto 8% Beer - Light: 3 – 6%, Strong: 8 – 10% Table Wines - 8 – 15%, usually 10 – 13% Sparkling Wines - 10 – 13% Fortified Wines - 16 – 22% Aromatised Wines - 14 – 20% Vin doux Naturel - 15 – 18% Spirits - usually 37.5 – 45%, some upto 57.5% Liqueurs - 17 – 55% BENEFITS OF ALCOHOL_________________________ Some of the benefits of alcohol are as follows: (i) Alcohol is not a direct cause of any disease nor will it cure any disease. But, it is used medicinally for treatment of certain physical conditions. It is world’s second oldest disinfectant. (ii) Alcohol is good when drunk in moderation. It is a source of nutrition and energy as it creates heat. 12
  13. 13. (iii) As a food it is an appetizer, an accompaniment, an enhancer of flavours and taste, aids digestion and sometimes used as correctifs as well. (iv) It accentuates sensory perception, sharpens memory and gives some protection to the heart and blood vessels by raising the level of good cholesterol. (v) It depresses centres of anxiety, relieving tension and stress. Sometimes, it exhilarates the spirit. ABUSES OF ALCOHOL__________________________ Alcohol must be treated very seriously and with respect. It is only a problem to those who abuse it. Long time heavy drinking may lead to: (i) serious illness including liver cirrhosis, hastening of age and deterioration of nervous system. (ii) situations where it becomes an impediment in person’s speed and quality of performance, (iii) the person becoming a danger to themselves and others; especially when driving or operating machines. (iv) personality changes in extreme cases. They become extremely unpleasant and unreliable. (v) a person becoming unfit for work and a cause for embarrassment and burden to their families and friends. SAFE & SENSIBLE DRINKING_____________________ Ingested alcohol is readily and rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. The liver burns up almost all this alcohol. Whatever is remaining behind is discharged via urine or perspiration. The liver burns up only one unit of alcohol per hour and as it being a living organ cannot cope up with too much alcohol. To avoid any damage to health, the alcoholic intake should be limited to 21 units a week for men and 14 units a week for women. Care should be taken that this consumption should be spread throughout the week. Usually, 1 unit = 0.5 pint (28 cl) of ordinary beer or lager 1 glass (12.5cl) of wine 1 measure (2.5cl) of spirit 1 glass (5cl) of sherry 1 measure (5cl) of vermoth or other aperitif 13
  14. 14. The limit for drivers is generally 80 mg of alcohol in 100 ml of blood. The number of units required to reach this level varies between individuals but it can be as little as 3 units. After consumption, alcohol remains in the bloodstream for up to 18 hours. _____________________________________________________________________ THINK IT OVER_________________________________ 1. Explain the following terms: (a) Pulque (b) Mead (c) Distillation (d) Alcohol [Nov- 05 / Nov-04] 2. Explain any four methods of calculating the strength of alcoholic beverages. [Nov- 05 / April-05 / April-04] 3. Differentiate between Pot Still Distillation and Patent Still Distillation. [Nov-05 / April-05] 4. List the raw material required for the manufacturing of the following: (a) Gin (b) Vodka (c) Canadian Whisky (d) Tequila (e) Perry (f) Arrak [Nov-05] 5. Drawing a chart, classify alcoholic beverages. [April-05 / Nov-04] 6. Explain in one sentence: (a) Cider (b) Pastis [April-05] 7. Draw and describe Pot Still Distillation. [April-05] 8. With the help of a diagram, explain the working of Patent Still Distillation. [Nov-04 / April-04] 9. Define “Proof”. Also explain: (a) British Proof (b) U.S. Proof [Nov-04] 10. Drawing the classification chart of alcoholic beverages. Also classify the following there-in: Underberg, Riesling, Caracao, Kirsch, London Dry Gin, Weissbier, Drambuie, Malaga, Spumante, Trappiste, Calvados, Rye, Sekt, Perry, Gypsy, Kir, Barolo, Anjou [April-04] 11. Write a short-note on “Fermentation”. [April-04] 12. 80° USA Proof is equivalent to _______________ ° GL Proof. [Nov-04] 13. 100° BP is equivalent to ________________ ° GL Proof. [Nov-04] ***************** ************** ********** ****** 14
  15. 15. The limit for drivers is generally 80 mg of alcohol in 100 ml of blood. The number of units required to reach this level varies between individuals but it can be as little as 3 units. After consumption, alcohol remains in the bloodstream for up to 18 hours. _____________________________________________________________________ THINK IT OVER_________________________________ 1. Explain the following terms: (a) Pulque (b) Mead (c) Distillation (d) Alcohol [Nov- 05 / Nov-04] 2. Explain any four methods of calculating the strength of alcoholic beverages. [Nov- 05 / April-05 / April-04] 3. Differentiate between Pot Still Distillation and Patent Still Distillation. [Nov-05 / April-05] 4. List the raw material required for the manufacturing of the following: (a) Gin (b) Vodka (c) Canadian Whisky (d) Tequila (e) Perry (f) Arrak [Nov-05] 5. Drawing a chart, classify alcoholic beverages. [April-05 / Nov-04] 6. Explain in one sentence: (a) Cider (b) Pastis [April-05] 7. Draw and describe Pot Still Distillation. [April-05] 8. With the help of a diagram, explain the working of Patent Still Distillation. [Nov-04 / April-04] 9. Define “Proof”. Also explain: (a) British Proof (b) U.S. Proof [Nov-04] 10. Drawing the classification chart of alcoholic beverages. Also classify the following there-in: Underberg, Riesling, Caracao, Kirsch, London Dry Gin, Weissbier, Drambuie, Malaga, Spumante, Trappiste, Calvados, Rye, Sekt, Perry, Gypsy, Kir, Barolo, Anjou [April-04] 11. Write a short-note on “Fermentation”. [April-04] 12. 80° USA Proof is equivalent to _______________ ° GL Proof. [Nov-04] 13. 100° BP is equivalent to ________________ ° GL Proof. [Nov-04] ***************** ************** ********** ****** 14

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