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# Subband Coding

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# Subband Coding

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### Subband Coding

1. 1. Subband Coding -09bit059 (Mihika Shah)
2. 2. Introduction • Vector quantization is used when the source output shows high degree of clustering. • Scalar quantization is used when the source output is linear in nature. • When the source has well defined characteristic then we can choose a particular compression scheme. • But in real world, most source exhibit a combination of characteristics. So subband coding helps us to solve this problem.
3. 3. What is Subband Coding? • A Source output is decomposed into its constituents. And each constituent is encoded and decoded separately to improve compression performance. • It separates the source output into bands of different frequency using digital filters. •Different filters are used like low pass filter or high pass filter.
4. 4. Filters • A system that blocks certain frequency components is called a filter. • Filters that only pass components below certain frequency f0 are called low pass filters. • Filters that block all components below certain frequency f0 are called high pass filters. • Filters that pass components that have frequency content above certain frequency f1 and below frequency f2 are called band pass filters.
5. 5. This is the most frequently used filter banks which consists of a cascade of stages and each stage contains both low pass and high pass filter.
6. 6. Basic Subband Coding Algorithm It consists of three phases: 1. Analysis 2. Quantization and Coding 3. Synthesis
7. 7. Analysis Fig-1. Block diagram of subband coding system
8. 8. (Contd…) • Source output is passed through either non-overlapping or overlapping filters. • The range of frequencies at the output is less than the range of frequencies at the input to the filter. • The process of reducing the number of samples is called decimation or downsampling. • The amount of decimation depends on the ratio of the bandwidth of the filter output to filter input. •If the bandwidth of filter output is 1/M of the bandwidth of filter input then the decimation will be of M.
9. 9. Quantization and Coding • Allocation of bits between the subbands is the main issue. • Bits are allocated according to the measure of information content between subbands. • When the information content of bands is very different, bit allocation procedure has a significant impact.
10. 10. Synthesis • Quantized and coded coefficients are used for the reconstruction of the original signal. • From each subband, encoded samples are decoded at the receiver. • Decoded values are unsampled by inserting an appropriate number of 0’s between samples. • The unsampled signals are passed through a bank of reconstruction filters when the number of samples per second has been brought back to the original rate. • Summation of the reconstruction filter gives the final reconstructed output.
11. 11. Applications • Speech Coding • Audio Coding • Image Compression
12. 12. (Contd…) • The Moving Picture Experts Group ( MPEG ) has proposed an audio coding scheme which is based on subband coding. • There are three layers in which layer 1 and layer 2 both use a bank of 32 filters. Input is splitted into 32 bands, each with the bandwidth of f/64, where f is the sampling frequency. • 32000 samples per second, 44100 samples per second and 48000 samples per second are the allowable frequencies.
13. 13. Thank you