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Ancient Greece - Civilisation

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Ancient Greece - Civilisation

  1. 1. • Most important economic activity Agriculture. • Mediterranean trilogy: wheat, vineyards and olive. • Other activities: livestock farming and crafts (pottery, fabrics and metal objects). • Trade, above all in the Mediterranean Sea. • In trade, Athens outstanded, with its important dock in El Pireo. • They exported: oil, wine, pottery and metals. • They imported: wheat, Wood and slaves.
  2. 2. • Two social groups: • Free people Citizens (with political rights, they participated in the government, paid taxes and went to the Army). Non-citizens (without political rights, they paid taxes and men went to the Army). Women Foreigners (metics in Athens; periecos in Sparta). • Slaves (domestic service and the hardest tasks; war prisoners or people who couldn’t pay their debts. They were called helots –ilotas- in Sparta.
  3. 3. SOCIETY IN ANCIENT GREECE FREE PEOPLE CITIZENS Characteristics Political rights They paid taxes They had to serve in the Army Groups Aristocracy Merchants Artisans and peasants NON-CITIZENS Characteristics Without political rights. They paid taxes. Men should serve in the Army Groups Foreigners Metics in Athens Periecos in Sparta Women SLAVES Characteristics Without political rights Hardest tasks War prisoners or people with unpaid debts
  4. 4. • Society organized in patriarchal families. • Function of the wife  to take care of children and domestic slaves. • The wife had a reserved space in the house: the gynoecium (GINECEO). • In the gynoecium the children also lived and received their education.
  5. 5. • The daughters were educated in the house until they got married. • The sons were educated by a pedagogue or they went to school from 6 years of age. • They were taught letters, arithmetic, music and gymnastics. • Starting at 18: • They were prepared for military life and politics.
  6. 6. • Men controlled political, economic and family life. • The andron (andrón in Spanish) was the space of the house reserved for men. There they held meetings and banquets called symposia. Simposio en el andrón
  7. 7. • The Athenian men were engaged in their business. During their free time they carried out public activities: attending baths and gyms, sports and artistic celebrations. • They participated in citizen assemblies, to debate and govern the polis.
  8. 8. ATHENIAN ASSEMBLIES • It was the system of government in Athens and the cities of the Delian League • They were celebrated in the agora.
  9. 9. ASSEMBLY • The speaker expressed his opinion on the issue from the rostrum or stand. • It had an intervention time marked by a water clock (the clepsydra). • All citizens could speak in the Assembly. • Decisions were made by voting by show of hands.
  10. 10. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FdGY7aTpknI
  11. 11. • The culture and sciences had a great development, due to: Economic and political development  They had individuals dedicated to artistic and intellectual activities. Commercial contact with Egypt and Mesopotamia, where they learned Mathematics and Astronomy. Religion without priests who had political power
  12. 12. • The Greeks created a brilliant culture that still survives in our days. • They are considered the parents of Philosophy (philo, love and sofia, to know) and the first scientists. • They tried to give rational explanations to natural phenomena instead of resorting to religion or magic. • They gave great importance to education, especially in Athens.
  13. 13. PHILOSOPHY • Think about the origin and nature of the universe. • They also focused on the human being and society. • The most important philosophers: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
  14. 14. SCIENCE • In Mathematics, Pythagoras, Thales and Euclid excelled. Pitágoras
  15. 15. SCIENCES • In Physics, Archimedes, established the theory of the weight of solids in liquids, and created machines that had a practical application (Archimedes screw).
  16. 16. SCIENCES • In Medicine  contributions to physiology and anatomy, differentiating the causes and symptoms of diseases. • Hippocrates was considered the father of Medicine. • Author of an oath (the Hippocratic) that established the rules by which doctors should be governed in the performance of their work.
  17. 17. • We can highlight Thucydides, Xenophon and Herodotus in History. • Strabo in Geography. • Aristarchus in Astronomy (determined that the center of the Universe is the Sun and not the Earth).
  18. 18. LITERATURE • The Greek culture will be the origin of several literary genres: the epic, the lyric and the theater.
  19. 19. THE EPIC • They are stories that reflect the past of a people and their heroes. At the beginning, they were oral; later, written. • Most important writer: Homer • Iliad, about the Trojan War. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cx0tQojZNIU • Odyssey, about the return of Ulysses (Odysseus) home after the Trojan War. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BBGO0T- JE8A&t=4s
  20. 20. Odiseo cegando a Polifemo, el cíclope
  21. 21. POETRY • It wasn’t so popular. • It dealt with the feelings of poets. • Sappho of Lesbos and Pindar were very important poets.
  22. 22. THEATRE • It was a very popular genre. They standed out two types of works: • TRAGEDIES  Which reflected the intervention of the gods in the destiny of men. Authors: Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides. • COMEDIAS  More freedom of social and political criticism. Highlighted Aristophanes • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BjLrMxO4cys
  23. 23. • Polytheistic religion. • The gods were anthropomorphic (they had human appearance, behavior and defects), but they were immortal. • The Greek religion had no moral requirement, except to perform some sacrifice of animals in honor of the gods and to celebrate some festivals. • The narration of its history receives the name of "mythology".
  24. 24. THE GODS OF OLYMPUS • The gods lived on Mount Olympus. Some of these gods were: Zeus was the most important, god of lightning. Cronos was his father, god of time. Rhea was his mother, goddess of fertility. Poseidon was his brother, god of the sea. Hades was also his brother, god of hell. Hera, wife of Zeus, goddess of the family.
  26. 26. THE GREEK GODS ► On Olympus there were many gods. Zeus and Hera, husband and wife, will be the most important. ► Zeus: king of gods, ruled on Olympus. God of heaven and thunder. (Lightning, eagle, scepter or golden sceptre). ► Hera: queen of gods. Goddess of marriage and family. (Crown, pomegranate, peacock). Zeus y Hera, eran hijos de Crono y Gea, por lo tanto hermanos. Pese a ello, fueron también pareja y tuvieron hijos que dieron lugar a una segunda generación de dioses.
  27. 27. NAME GOD OF SYMBOLS Zeus Heaven Lightning Hera Marriage and family Peacock, pomegranate, Crown Poseidón The sea Trident, horse Artemis Hunting and virginity Deer, bow and arrow Hermes Trade. Messenger of the Gods Winged helmet, sandals Athena Wisdom Owl and olive Ares War Spear, shield, dog Aphrodite Love, beauty. Shell, rose, appel Afrodita Amor, belleza y deseo Concha, rosa, manzana Deméter Fertility, agricultura Wheet, poppy, torch Apolo Sun, music, poetry Sun, lyre, bow Hades Underworld, hell and wealthness Horn, Cerberus
  28. 28.  Father of Gods and men.  He is a sky god who controls lightning (often using it as a weapon) and thunder  Zeus is king of Mount Olympus, the home of Greek gods  Zeus is represented as a bearded man with a lightning or an eagle. The most famous of all was the colossal statue of ivory and gold, by the sculptor Phidias, who was in Olympia. ZEUS
  29. 29.  Hera is the queen of the GODS and is the wife and sister of ZEUS in the olympian pantheon. Goddess of marriage & birth. She was known to be jealous and vengeful towards the many lovers of her husband Zeus. In images and statues, Hera is portrayed solemn, crowned with the polos – a high cylindrical crown and sometimes with a peacock. HERA
  30. 30. Goddess of wisdom. Athena was born from ZEUS after he experienced an enormous headache and she sprang fully grown and in armour from his forehead. Her attributes were: the helmet, the spear and the shield; the owl and the olive tree She was the patron goddess of Athens ATHENA / ATENEA
  31. 31. Aphrodite is the goddess of love and beauty . She was born from the foam in the waters. Aphrodite had many lovers. Her lovers include both gods and men – including the god Ares. She was married to Hephestus. Her son is Eros. APHRODITE
  32. 32.  Artemis is the goddess of the hunt.  She was also known as the goddess of wild animals, wilderness, childbirth and virginity.  She was the daughter of the god Zeus and Leto and twin sister of the god Apollo.  She was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrow. ARTEMIS
  33. 33. HERMES  Hermes was one of the 12 Olympian Gods and was god of trade, thieves, travelers, sports, athletes, and border crossings, guide to the Underworld.  He was the messenger of the gods.  He is represented as a young man with wings on his feet and with a winged helmet. HERMES
  34. 34. Poseidon was god of the sea, earthquakes, storms, and horses and is considered one of the most bad-tempered, moody and greedy olympian gods. He was Zeus’ brother. He is depicted with a trident. He and Athena competed for possession of the city of Athens. POSEIDON
  35. 35. Greek God of the Dead and King of the Underworld Hades and his brothers ZEUS and POSEIDON defeated their father and the TITANS to end their reign, claiming rulership over the cosmos. They agreed to split their rule with Zeus becoming god of the skies, Poseidon god of the sea and Hades god of the underworld. The god of the underworld was married to PERSEPHONE. HADES
  36. 36. EL MITO DE HADES Y PERSEFONE Perséfone (Proserpina) era la hija de Zeus (Júpiter) y de Deméter (Ceres), la diosa de la tierra y la agricultura. Hades (Plutón), el dios de los infiernos, la vio y se enamoró de ella. Un día estaba Perséfone paseando y recogiendo flores cuando la raptó y se la llevó a su reino para hacerla su esposa. Cuando Deméter se enteró de su desaparición, se puso muy triste, comenzó a buscarla, descuidó la tierra y las plantas se secaron. Una ninfa que fue testigo del rapto, le contó lo que había pasado y entonces Deméter fue a pedirle ayuda a Zeus y a decirle que si Hades no se la devolvía no se volvería a ocupar de la tierra. Zeus accedió a ayudarla, pero Hades consiguió que Perséfone comiera un grano de granada, el alimento de los muertos, con ello se veía atada a su reino y no podía abandonarlo para siempre, pero al final llegaron a un acuerdo, Perséfone pasaría 6 meses arriba con su madre y otros 6 meses tendría que regresar al Tártaro con Hades. Así que cuando está arriba su madre está contenta, llega la primavera, la tierra florece y da sus frutos, y cuando le llega la hora de descender, sobreviene el otoño y el invierno, las hojas se caen y la tierra se hiela, que no es otra cosa que la manifestación anual del dolor de Deméter al perder a su hija. Documento:
  37. 37. • Greek God of Fire and Metalworking • He was the son of ZEUS and HERA and married to APHRODITE. • He was a smithing god, making all of the weapons for Olympus and acting as a blacksmith for the gods. • Hephaestus was the only ugly god among perfectly beautiful immortals. HEPHAESTUS
  38. 38. ARES Greek god of War. He is well known as the lover of APHRODITE, who was married to HEPHAESTUS. Eros (more commonly known as Cupid) was also the child of Ares and Aphrodite. In art, Ares is generally depicted wearing a spear and a helmet.
  39. 39. • Greek Goddess of Agriculture, Fertility and the Harvest. • She had one daughter, Persephone. DEMETER
  40. 40. DIONYSUS Greek God of Wine & the Grape Harvest Dionysus depict him as a mature male, bearded and robed holding a fennel staff tipped with a pine-cone. However, in later images the god is show to be a beardless, sensuous, naked or semi-naked androgynous youth. He was also referred to as Bacchus.
  41. 41. APOLLO God of the Sun, the Light, the Music and Prophecy. The god HERMES create the lyre for Apollo and this instrument became a known attribute for him. He and his twin sister Artemis shared an aptitude for archery. The nine Muses were companions of his; they were goddesses known for inspiring art and music.
  42. 42. EROS OR CUPID God of Love. Eros was portrayed as a little boy with wings. Cupid always had a bow and arrow which he used to shoot the power of love wherever he wanted it to go. Cupid had a girlfriend named Psyche
  43. 43. • HEROES  They were born of the loves of the gods with mortals. • Heracles (son of Zeus and Alcmena). It stands out for its strength. • Achilles (son of the goddess Tethys and Peleus). • THE MUSES  Protectors of the sciences and the arts. • THE NYMPHS  spirits of nature. • THE FAUNS  gods of the forests. THE LESSER DIVINITIES
  45. 45. The cult of the gods The greeks communicated with the gods through sacrifices with animals. The temples were the dwelling place of the gods. Each temple kept the image of one in its interior and its possessions. His worship included prayers, offerings, songs, sacrifices, and public holidays.
  47. 47. • The cities were placed under the protection of a god. • The goddess of Athens was Athena, goddess of wisdom. • The Greek poleis organised common cults, which they called panhellenic, all Greek cities participated. Atenea Partenos. Acrópolis de Atenas
  48. 48. THE OLYMPIC GAMES • They were held every four years in the sanctuary of Olympia. • The Greek cities sent their best athletes to compete in races and fights. • Wars were forbidden while they lasted.
  49. 49. • In the old Olympic Games the sport modalities were the Pentathlon, Chariot racing, Wrestling, Running, Boxing and Pankration that was a mixture of boxing and fighting. • The last test of the Games, considered the most important, was called "end of the stadium" and consisted of running a stadium (192.27 meters). • The winners of the Games received as the only prize a crown made with olive branches
  50. 50. FACTS ABOUT THE OLYMPIC GAMES • All athletes competed naked • Wrestlers and pankration (a sort of mixed martial art which combined boxing and wrestling) competitors fought covered in oil • Corporal punishment awaited those guilty of a false start on the track • There were only two rules in the pankration – no biting and no gouging
  51. 51. FACTS ABOUT THE OLYMPIC GAMES • Boxers were urged to avoid attacking the on- display male genitals • There were no points, no time limits and no weight classifications in the boxing • Athletes in the combat sports had to indicate their surrender by raising their index fingers – at times they died before they could do this • Boxers who could not be separated could opt for klimax, a system whereby one fighter was granted a free hit and then vice-versa – a toss of a coin decided who went first
  52. 52. D. 49.
  53. 53. • It is an art that seeks proportion, balance and perfection. • Architecture and sculpture will stand out. • Greek paintings hasn’t been preserved.
  54. 54. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS • Search for beauty: proportion, balance, serenity, correct measures. • In function and according to the human being. They were not colossal or gigantic buildings, like in Egypt. • It is flat or architrave (flat ceilings), they did not use the arch or the vault. • The ceilings are supported by columns.
  55. 55. ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS • Architectural order: norm that imposed conditions for the decoration and construction of temples. • There were three orders: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian.
  56. 56. THE DORIC ORDER • La columna no tenía basa. • Fuste grueso y con aristas. • Capitel sencillo: collarino, equino y ábaco. • En el entablamento: • Arquitrabe liso. • Friso. • Triglifos (tres bandas verticales) • Metopas (zona lisa con bajorrelieves) • Cornisa. • Column without a base • The columns are fluted and are of sturdy, if not stocky, proportions. • Plain, unadorned column capital • In the entablature: • Plain Lise architrave. • Frieze. • trigylphs—vertical plaques with three divisions • metopes—square spaces for either painted or sculpted decoration • Cornis.
  57. 57. THE IONIC ORDER • A base supports the column. • The column was more slender, with basa. • Thinner and ribbed shaft. • Volutes, scroll-like ornaments, characterize the Ionic capital • Entablature: • Architrave  divided in three horizontal bands. • Frieze. • Undivided, smooth or with reliefs. • Cornis.
  58. 58. THE IONIC ORDER • La columna era más esbelta, con basa. • Fuste más fino y acanalado. • Capitel formado por dos volutas. • En el entablamento: • Arquitrabe dividido en tres bandas horizontales. • Friso. • Sin dividir, liso o con relieves. • Cornisa.
  59. 59. Ionic capital, north porch of the Erechtheion, 421-407 BCE, marble, Acropolis, Athens
  60. 60. ORDEN CORINTIO • La columna era más esbelta, con basa. • Fuste más fino y acanalado. • Capitel formado por hojas de acanto (motivo vegetal) • En el entablamento: • Arquitrabe dividido en tres bandas horizontales. • Friso. • Sin dividir, liso o con relieves. • Cornisa.
  61. 61. Corinthian capital
  62. 62. THE CORINTHIAN ORDER • The column was more slender, with basa. • Thinner and ribbed shaft. • Capitel formed by acanthus leaves (vegetal motif) • In the entablature: • Architrave divided in thre horizontal bands. • Frieze. • Undivided, plain or with reliefs. • Cornis.
  63. 63. D.53.
  64. 64. D.63.
  65. 65. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=4&v=nrRJkzXl4a4
  66. 66. LOS TEMPLOS • Eran las construcciones más importantes. Albergaban la estatua de un dios. • Sólo accedían las personas relacionadas con el culto. • Las celebraciones religiosas se hacían al aire libre. • Eran muy proporcionados. • Planta: rectangular. • Se levantaban sobre tres gradas. • Los frontones (triángulo bajo el ángulo del tejado) estaban decorados con esculturas. • Partes: pronaos (o vestíbulo), naos o cella (estancia principal) y opistódomos (almacén). • Si están rodeados por columnas: peristilo.
  67. 67. Templo de Hefesto, en Atenas.
  68. 68. Templo Griego, ¿orden?
  69. 69. Templo del Erecteion en Atenas
  71. 71. El Partenón de Atenas dedicado a la diosa Atenea protectora de la ciudad
  72. 72. Templos Griegos de Orden Jónico
  73. 73. Templo Griego de Orden Corintio.
  74. 74. Estructura de un templo Griego.
  76. 76. THE SANCTUARIES • Larger sacred precincts: they had temples, stadiums, commemorative buildings, buildings to store treasures. • The most important was that of Delphi or the Acropolis of Athens, where the Parthenon was.
  77. 77. THE GREEK THEATRES • They were civil constructions, but with a religious origin. • They were very important. • The slope of the mountains was used for the grandstand. • It had three parts: • Grandstands (gradas). • Orchestra. • Scene.
  78. 78. Teatro de Epidauro.
  79. 79. • It was used to represent the gods and decorate the temples. • Materials: marble and bronze • They represent the human body. Beauty is sought for the perfection of forms and the harmony of proportions. • Canon of proportions: model of beauty, groups of proportion and ratios that the body should have, for example, the head should represent 1/7 of the body. • Three stages: • Archaic • Classical • Hellenistic
  80. 80. THE ARCHAIC SCUPTURE • Influenced by Egyptian and oriental art. • Kuroi (male, kuros in the singular) and Korai (female, koré in the singular). • Frontal, rigid, almond-shaped eyes, little expressive smile. • Leg forward, arms attached to the body.
  81. 81. CLASSICAL SCULPTURE • They take care of the proportions and the canon. • They are not frontal. • They transmit serenity and balance. • Technique of wet cloths to represent the clothes, with many folds and glued to the body. • The most important sculptors were: Polícleto (fixed canon), Fidias, Mirón, Praxíteles and Lisipo.
  82. 82. HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE • More movement • More realistic • Dramatic tension and exaggerated movement. • New themes: children, the elderly and the dying.