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Historical Antecedents of Science and Technology

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Science and technology studies, or science, technology and society studies (STS) is the study of how society, politics, and culture affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in turn, affect society, politics and culture.

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  • Munsayac, Alinel Leollie M. (BSTM1-2N) The Historical Antecedents of Science and Technology is a phase wherein it is discussed such relation of science and technology. Where science is the knowledge or study about something while technology involving science within it. There is a lot of roles, use, and affection between science and technology and it also involves society. Science, Technology and Society is simply the study where the innovation took place like politics and cultural forms. In the old times Science pretty much occured already, in pre spanish era there is already a lot of things innovated by science which later on has a lot of effect in our modern world or technology and so on through generations. Without science and technology there will be no ease of access to our present times and with the help of the society we could gradually innovate it everytime continously. Science and Technology has also a significant effect on my chosen course which is Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management. It just shows how important science and technology in our daily lives.
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  • Cariaso, Armina Anne C. (BSMA 1-1) In view of what I had found out about "Historical Antecedents of Science and Technology", Science, Technology, and Society are associated with one another. Science is knowledge about or studies about the natural world works based on facts learned through experiments and observations. Technologies are applications or products of science that are designed as valuable instruments to make our every day lives easier and furthermore it can help us to solve problems. The role of technology is also for the advancement of the country. Society utilizes technologies. Different generations, means there are changes so that society also influences science. With the help of society, science will be more innovated because it has no end discoveries, observations and experimentation. Based on the historical backdrop of technology here in the Philippines, I have discovered that our technologies are gradually improving. With the help of different nations, Filipinos gained additional knowledge regarding science and technology. They discovered some new information and it builds up our technology. I have discovered that Science, Technology, and Society has an extraordinary effect or significant role regarding my course which is Management Accounting. With the assistance of science and technologies, having transactions, solving problems, and etc. will be simpler because there are numerous software and devices that will be a big help to perform our works very well than to perform manually.
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  • Cobilla, Rose Anne E. (BSMA 1-1) (SECOND PART) A Presentation of Why There is a Change in the Number of Years Taken to Finish High School: Pre Science: (no understanding of the problem yet) The number of years it took to finish High School was 4 years and not 6 years due to K-12 and the problem of unemployment due to not having the right education requirements for companies were not acknowledged. Normal Science: (is like puzzle solving, the solution is expected and is carried out by the solver) The government discovered that the problem was caused by the fact that families do not have enough money to send their students to college to at least raise their chances of landing a job offer in the real world and solved it by adding 2 more years to high school whose purpose was to give training to the students so that companies would hire them, the said years added to high school aim to make the students ready for employment, which makes college not necessary anymore if the purpose for going to it was just for the sake of raising the student’s chances of landing a job offer in the real world, and in effect reduces expenses for the families who can’t afford tertiary education. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1030115 http://k12philippines.com/will-parents-gain-from-the-philippines-shift-to-the-k-12-system/ Model Drift: (appearance of even the smallest problems and phenomenon the existing model cannot handle) Last year, “only 24 percent% of Philippine employers are willing to hire fresh graduates of the K to 12 program” according to https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/money/companies/650473/only-24-of-employers-are-willing-to-hire-k-12-graduates-jobstreet/story/ and that those who were not interested in giving the graduates jobs would rather hire college graduates; the implementation of K-12 promised and expected student’s to be given jobs because of the 2 years of specialization. According to https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2019/05/20/1919434/k-12-program-not-being-scrapped-deped-clarifies, the K-12 program would be reviewed and changed as said by the Commission on Higher Education and that it will not be discontinued. Model Crisis: (failure of the existing way problems are solved which results to new ways to solve it and and/or new ideas/concepts about the problem) The challenges are being reviewed and changes would be implemented in the future due to the problems that had arisen. Paradigm Change: (A new perspective is used) Since the review of the K-12 is still ongoing, new perspective and new solutions for the problems that arouse regarding education in the Philippines are not yet introduced. I admit that the A Presentation of Why There is a Change in the Number of Years Taken to Finish High School I have written is not perfect and it is far from being complete however, I still wrote and posted it here to show my interest in the cycle Kuhn had discovered, and the little understanding I have of it. I used K-12 as an example because according to the slides, Paradigm Shifts are caused by a social unity and not just by a rational pattern; a problem in society in regards to education arouse and a somehow modern way of solving it is introduced. The paradigm can really show the connection between science, technology and society because science changes because of society, and technology is made through science for the betterment of society. This is where my comment ends and I am open for criticizing.
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  • Cobilla, Rose Anne E. (BSMA 1-1) (FIRST PART) Through reading the Historical Antecedents of Science and Technology written by Mrs. Liwayway Memije-Cruz, science, technology and society has been present for a long period of time; in fact, it has made major changes to the generations that had past. Change is inevitable and it can be proven by the concept of paradigm shifts which was discovered by American Physicist and Philosopher, Thomas Khun. What are paradigm shifts? According to Meriam Webster it is “an important change that happens when the usual way of thinking about or doing something is replaced by a new and different way” An example is the number of years a student who lives in the Philippines should take in high school. In the presentation, it is said that paradigm shifts, though are just given attention in some times, are concentrated on greatly in education, this must be the cause of the said example. Two more years were added to the four years it took before to graduate from it, to present the reasons why, the Khun Cycle would be used: Pre Science>Normal Science>Model Drift>Model Crisis>Model Revolution>Paradigm Change. Pre Science: no understanding of the problem yet Normal Science: is like puzzle solving, the solution is expected and is carried out by the solver according to https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/thomas-kuhn/ Model Drift: appearance of even the smallest problems and phenomenon the existing model cannot handle https://www.thwink.org/sustain/glossary/ModelDrift.htm Model Crisis: failure of the existing way problems are solved which results to new ways to solve it and and/or new ideas/concepts about the problem https://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Pajares/Kuhn.html Model Revolution: reconstruction of the field’s view on the problem https://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Pajares/Kuhn.html Paradigm Change: A new perspective is used https://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Pajares/Kuhn.html
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Historical Antecedents of Science and Technology

  1. 1. By Prof. Liwayway Memije-Cruz HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. SCIENCE concerted human effort to understand, or to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding.  done through observation of natural phenomena, and/or through experimentation that tries to simulate natural processes under controlled conditions.
  3. 3. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY  Science: knowledge about or study of the natural world based on facts learned through experiments and observation.  Technology: science or knowledge put into practical use to solve problems or invent useful tools.
  4. 4. HOW IS SCIENCE USED IN TECHNOLOGY?  Science is the pursuit of knowledge about the natural world through systematic observation and experiments. Through science, we develop new technologies.  Technology is the application of scientifically gained knowledge for practical purpose.  Scientists use technology in all their experiments.
  5. 5. THE ROLE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  6. 6. THE ROLE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 1. alter the way people live, connect, communicate and transact, with profound effects on economic development. 2. key drivers to development, because technological and scientific revolutions underpin economic advances, improvements in health systems, education and infrastructure. 3. The technological revolutions of the 21st century are emerging from entirely new sectors, based on micro-processors, tele-communications, bio-technology and nano-technology. Products are transforming business practices across the economy, as well as the lives of all who have access to their effects. The most remarkable breakthroughs will come from the interaction of insights and applications arising when these technologies converge.
  7. 7. 4. have the power to better the lives of poor people in developing countries 5. differentiators between countries that are able to tackle poverty effectively by growing and developing their economies, and those that are not. 6. engine of growth 7. interventions for cognitive enhancement, proton cancer therapy and genetic engineering
  8. 8. SOCIETY  The sum total of our interactions as humans, including the interactions that we engage in to figure things out and to make things  a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
  9. 9. WHAT DOES SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY MEAN?  Science and technology studies, or science, technology and society studies (STS) is the study of how society, politics, and culture affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in turn, affect society, politics and culture.
  10. 10. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY STUDIES  STS is a relatively recent discipline, originating in the 60s and 70s, following Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962).  STS was the result of a “sociological turn” in science studies.  STS makes the assumption that science and technology are essentially intertwined and that they are each profoundly social and profoundly political
  11. 11. HOW SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AFFECT SOCIETY.
  12. 12.  Science and tecnology have had a major impact on society, and their impact is growing.  By making life easier, science has given man the chance to pursue societal concerns such as ethics, aesthetics, education, and justice; to create cultures; and to improve human conditions.  Science influences society through its knowledge and world view. Scientific knowledge and the procedures used by scientists influence the way many individuals in society think about themselves, others, and the environment. The effect of science on society is neither entirely beneficial nor entirely detrimental.
  13. 13. HOW SCIENCE CAN HAVE AN EFFECT ON SOCIETY?
  14. 14. HOW SCIENCE CAN HAVE AN EFFECT ON SOCIETY?  Science influences society through its knowledge and world view. Scientific knowledge and the procedures used by scientists influence the way many individuals in society think about themselves, others, and the environment.  The effect of science on society is neither entirely beneficial nor entirely detrimental.
  15. 15. WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCIENCE AND SOCIETY?  The impact of science and technology on society is evident. But society also influences science.  There are social influences on the direction and emphasis of scientific and technological development, through pressure groups on specific issues, and through generally accepted social views, values and priorities
  16. 16. HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE PHILIPPINES
  17. 17.  Science and technology in the Philippines had experienced periods of intense growth as well as long periods of stagnation.  The main managing agency responsible for science and technology is the Department of Science and Technology.  Numerous national scientists have contributed in different fields of science including Fe del Mundo in the field of Pediatrics, Eduardo Quisumbing in the field of Plant taxonomy, Gavino Trono in the field of tropical marine Phycology, Maria Orosa in the field of Food technology and many more
  18. 18. PRE-SPANISH ERA  Even before the colonization by the Spaniards in the Philippine islands, the natives of the archipelago already had practices linked to science and technology.  Filipinos were already aware of the medicinal and therapeutic properties of plants and the methods of extracting medicine from herbs.  They already had an alphabet, number system, a weighing and measuring system and a calendar. Filipinos were already engaged in farming, shipbuilding, mining and weaving.  The Banaue Rice Terraces are among the sophisticated products of engineering by pre- Spanish era Filipinos.
  19. 19. SPANISH COLONIAL ERA  The colonization of the Philippines contributed to growth of science and technology in the archipelago.  The Spanish introduced formal education and founded scientific institution.  During the early years of Spanish rule in the Philippines. Parish schools were established where religion, reading, writing, arithmetic and music was taught.  Sanitation and more advanced methods of agriculture was taught to the natives.  Later the Spanish established colleges and universities in the archipelago including the oldest existing university in Asia, the University of Santo Tomas.
  20. 20.  The Galleon Trade have accounted in the Philippine colonial economy.  Trade was given more focus by the Spaniard colonial authorities due to the prospects of big profits.  Agriculture and industrial development on the other hand were relatively neglected.  The opening of the Suez Canal saw the influx of European visitors to the Spanish colony and some  Filipinos were able to study in Europe who were probably influenced by the rapid development of scientific ideals brought by the Age of Enlightenment.
  21. 21. AMERICAN PERIOD  The progress of science and technology in the Philippines continued under American rule of the islands.  On July 1, 1901 The Philippine Commission established the Bureau of Government Laboratories which was placed under the Department of Interior. The Bureau replaced the Laboratorio Municipal, which was established under the Spanish colonial era. The Bureau dealt with the study of tropical diseases and laboratory projects.  On October 26, 1905, the Bureau of Government Laboratories was replaced by the Bureau of Science and on December 8, 1933, the National Research Council of the Philippines was established.  The Bureau of Science became the primary
  22. 22. POST COMMONWEALTH-ERA  During the 1970s, which was under the time of Ferdinand Marcos' presidency, the importance given to science grew.  Under the 1973 Philippine Constitution, Article XV, Section 1, the government's role in supporting scientific research and invention was acknowledged.  In 1974, a science development program was included in the government's Four-Year Development Plan which covers the years 1974- 1978.  Funding for science was also increased.[4] The National Science Development Board was replaced by the National Science and Technology Authority under Executive Order No. 784. A Scientific Career in the civil service was introiduced in 1983.
  23. 23. AMERICAN PERIOD  Science during the American period was inclined towards agriculture, food processing, forestry, medicine and pharmacy. Not much focus was given on the development of industrial technology due to free trade policy with the United States which nurtured an economy geared towards agriculture and trade.[4]  In 1946 the Bureau of Science was replaced by the Institute of Science. In a report by the US Economic Survey to the Philippines in 1950, there is a lack of basic information which were necessities to the country's industries, lack of support of experimental work and minimal budget for scientific research and low salaries of scientists employed by the government. In 1958, during the regime of President Carlos P. Garcia, the Philippine Congress passed the Science Act of 1958 which established the National Science Development
  24. 24. POST COMMONWEALTH-ERA  In 1986, during Corazon Aquino's presidency, the National Science and Technology Authority was replaced by the Department of Science and Technology, giving science and technology a representation in the cabinet.  Under the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan for the years 1987-1992, science and technology's role in economic recovery and sustained economic growth was highlighted.  During Corazon Aquino's State of the Nation Address in 1990, she said that science and technology development shall be one of the top three priorities of the government towards an economic recovery.
  25. 25. POST COMMONWEALTH-ERA  In August 8, 1988, Corazon Aquino created the Presidential Task Force for Science and Technology which came up with the first Science and Technology Master Plan or STMP. The goal of STMP was for the Philippines to achieve newly industrialized country status by the year 2000.  The Congress did not put much priority in handling bills related to science and technology. The Senate Committee on Science and Technology was one of the committees that handles the least amount of bills for deliberation.
  26. 26. POST COMMONWEALTH-ERA  Former Science and Technology secretary, Ceferin Follosco, reported that the budget allocation for science and technology was increased to 1.054 billion pesos in 1989 from the previous year's 464 million pesos.  However, due to the Asian financial crisis, budget allocation for the years 1990 and 1991 were trimmed down to 920 and 854 million pesos respectively. Budget allocation were increased to 1.7 billion pesos in 1992
  27. 27. PARADIGM SHIFTS IN HISTORY
  28. 28.  a typical example or pattern of something.  a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
  29. 29. WHAT IS A PARADIGM SHIFT?  a fundamental change in approach or underlying assumptions.  a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn  a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline. Kuhn presented his notion of a paradigm shift in his influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962).
  30. 30. WHY ARE PARADIGM SHIFTS IMPORTANT?  Paradigm shift is another expression for more significant changes within belief systems.  Within philosophy of science this concept is sometimes considered important and is sometimes given great attention within education.
  31. 31. KUHN'S PARADIGM
  32. 32. THOMAS SAMUEL KUHN Thomas Samuel Kuhn (/kuːn/; July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles,
  33. 33. THE STRUCTURE OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS  a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn.  its publication was a landmark event in the history, philosophy, and sociology of scientific knowledge.
  34. 34. THE KUHN CYCLE  a simple cycle of progress described by Thomas Kuhn in 1962 in his seminal work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.  In Structure Kuhn challenged the world's current conception of science, which was that it was a steady progression of the accumulation of new ideas.
  35. 35. KUHN’S PARADIGM  Kuhn showed this viewpoint was wrong.  Science advanced the most by occasional revolutionary explosions of new knowledge, each revolution triggered by introduction of new ways of thought so large they must be called new paradigms.  Kuhn argues that paradigms change in scientific revolutions. Scientists go through a crisis and transition to a new paradigm, a new way of seeing the world. It is not possible to compare paradigms and it is not possible to say whether one is more right than the other.  Kuhn argues that science is not moved by a rational process but more by a social unity. In contrast with Popper then Kuhn presents a descriptive theory in which Kuhn try to observe the factual scientific fields in order to understand how they function in practice.
  36. 36. THE STEPS OF THE KUHN CYCLE
  37. 37. PRE-SCIENCE.  also called the pre- paradigm stage,  the pre-step to the main Kuhn Cycle. In Prescience there is not yet a model of understanding (the field's paradigm) mature enough to solve the field's main problems.  The field has no workable paradigm to successfully guide its work.
  38. 38. NORMAL SCIENCE  identified and elaborated on by Thomas Samuel Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, is the regular work of scientists theorizing, observing, and experimenting within a settled paradigm or explanatory framework.  where the field has a scientifically based model of understanding (a paradigm) that works.
  39. 39. MODEL DRIFT  The model of understanding starts to drift, due to accumulation of anomalies, and phenomenon, the model cannot explain.
  40. 40. MODEL CRISIS  the most important step of them all in the Kuhn Cycle.  The Model Drift becomes so excessive the model is broken. It can no longer serve as a reliable guide to problem solving. Attempts to patch the model up to make it work fail. The field is in anguish.
  41. 41. . MODEL REVOLUTION  begins when serious candidates for a new model emerge. It's a revolution because the new model is so radically different from the old one.  a field's model of understanding is undergoing revolutionary change. The old model failed, which caused the Model Crisis step. The Model Revolution step begins when one or more competing new models emerge from the crisis.
  42. 42. PARADIGM CHANGE  also called a paradigm shift,  Earlier steps have created the new model of understanding (the new paradigm).  In the Paradigm Change step the new paradigm is taught to newcomers to the field, as well as to those already in it. When the new paradigm becomes the generally accepted guide to one's work, the step is complete. The field is now back to the Normal Science step and a Kuhn Cycle is
  43. 43. VIDEOS/ YOU TUBE  Stephen Colbert’s interview with Neil Tyson  World’s Greatest inventions  Philippine Great Inventions  Scientific Reductionism  What is a Paradigm?
  44. 44. PARADIGM SHIFTS IN HISTORY
  45. 45. HISTORICAL EXAMPLES OF PARADIGMS
  46. 46. SOCIETY / ETHICS  Slavery is acceptable to now slavery being unacceptable  Role of Children in Society - Child labor was, now is not acceptable  ·Male Superiority - Beating wives was, now is not acceptable  Reading and the Control over information - Invention of the printing press (& other major inventions) allowed for the elites control over reading / writing to end.  The Reformation- broke monopoly of Catholic Church and Christian's "relationship" with God.
  47. 47. NATURAL SCIENCES  Darwin’s theory of evolution  Plate Tectonics— create a physical model of the Earth's structure  Albert Einstein’s space-time is not fixed or objective— subject to observer’s state of motion relative to other object.
  48. 48. HUMAN SCIENCES  Psychology: Sigmund Freud—we are not fully in control of our behavior—a subconscious part operate  Economics— government intervention in economy is now accepted.
  49. 49. THE ARTS  The Realist paradigm: the purpose of art is to copy reality.  Shakespeare's impact on drama / theater  Jazz & rock revolutionizing music
  50. 50. BIBLIOGRAPHY o http://changingminds.org/explanations/research/articles/kuhn _paradigm.htm o https://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Pajares/Kuhn.html o https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Structure_of_Scientific_Re volutions#/media/File:Structure-of-scientific-rev o http://www.thwink.org/sustain/glossary/KuhnCycle.htm o http://noteshelf.org/thomas-kuhn-paradigm-theory/ o http://www.thwink.org/sustain/glossary/Pre-science.htm o http://www.thwink.org/sustain/glossary/KuhnCycle.htm o http://www.thwink.org/sustain/glossary/ModelCrisis.htm o http://www.thwink.org/sustain/glossary/ModelRevolution.htm

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