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Topic: PRAGMATICS
Presented by
Mehwish Nazar
Roll No.12
Introduction
The term “pragmatics” was first coined in
the 1930s by the philosopher C.W.
Morris; developed as a subfield o...
Definitions
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics
which studies the ways in which context
contributes to meaning.
Pragma...
Definitions
The Oxford Companion to
Philosophy (Fotion 1995). Pragmatics is
the study of language which focuses
attention ...
Continue…
Bach 2004. Semantic information is
information encoded in what is uttered —
these are stable linguistic features...
Outside of pragmatics, no understanding;
sometimes, a pragmatic account is the
only one that makes sense, as in the
follow...
'I wouldn't have thought there was room
for the two of them.'
'No silly, I mean I was coming out of the
toilet. They were ...
Continue…
How do we know what the first speaker meant?
Linguists usually say that the first sentence is
ambiguous, and the...
Continue…
Whereas semantic information is encoded
in what is uttered, pragmatic information
is generated by, or at least m...
Four fundamental cornerstones of
pragmatic inquiry.
The points are
(1) Communication involves complex
intentions.
(2) Thes...
Continue…
(4) There is a fundamental distinction
between explicit and implicit conveyance
of information.
Pragmatics involve three major communication
skills:
Using language for different purposes,
such as
greeting (e.g., hello,...
Continue…
requesting (e.g., I would like a cookie,
please)
Changing language according to the
needs of a listener or situa...
Continue…
Following rules for conversations and
storytelling, such as
taking turns in conversation
introducing topics of c...
Continue…
how close to stand to someone when
speaking
how to use facial expressions and
eye contact
Difference between Semantics and
Pragmatics
Semantics attempts to relate meanings to
logic and truth, and deals with meani...
Continue…
Pragmatics is the study of meaning of
words, phrases and full sentences, but
unlike semantics which deals with t...
Continue…
Semantics is concerned with the
word and sentence meaning,
pragmatics entails utterance
meaning. An utterance ca...
Types of Contexts
pragmatics is the study of the
contribution of context to meaning.
Context of an utterance consists of-
...
Continue…
physical context
epistemic context
linguistic context
social context
Continue…
Physical context: The physical context is the
location of a given word, the situation in which
it is used, as we...
Continue…
Linguistic context: the linguistic context refers
to what has been said already in the utterance.
For example, i...
Speech Act
A sentence is uttered by a speaker, and
when the speaker utters it he/she
performs an act. This is called a spe...
Continue…
Meaning in this sense involves the
speaker’s intention to convey a certain
meaning which may not be evident in t...
Continue…
A hearer may interpret it not
just as a statement but as a
Request to take the soup
away. That is, the meaning
w...
Continue…
The consideration of meaning as a part of
the utterance or speech act was initiated
by the philosopher J.L. Aust...
Austin’s ideas
Keeping in view the distinction between
what is said and what is intended Austin
makes a distinction betwee...
Examples
‘Please shut the door’
Sentence form: Imperative
Sense: Shutting the door (someone)
Force: Request
Certain felici...
Continue…
In the given example, sense and force are
similar to each other. However, in some cases
there may be a differenc...
Conventional and individual or
situation-specific utterances
“There’s a cold breeze coming through the door” a
statement i...
Continue…
Whereas “There is a cold breeze coming
through the door” more indirect manner
of making the request, more depend...
Grice’s Cooperative Principle
All communication takes place in a situation where
people are co-operative.
When people comm...
Continue…
Maxim of Relation: Be relevant.
Maxim of Manner: Avoid obscurity and ambiguity; be
brief and orderly.
Whenever a...
Thank You
References
http://www.unc.edu/~gerfen/Ling30Sp20
02/pragmatics.htm
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pragmatic
s/
http://w...
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Pragmatics presentation

  1. 1. Topic: PRAGMATICS Presented by Mehwish Nazar Roll No.12
  2. 2. Introduction The term “pragmatics” was first coined in the 1930s by the philosopher C.W. Morris; developed as a subfield of linguistics in the 1970s. Pragmatics is needed if we want a fuller, deeper, and generally more reasonable account of human language behavior
  3. 3. Definitions Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics which studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. Pragmatics studies the factors that govern our choice of language in social interaction and the effects of our choice on others. (David Crystal)
  4. 4. Definitions The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Fotion 1995). Pragmatics is the study of language which focuses attention on the users and the context of language use rather than on reference, truth, or grammar.
  5. 5. Continue… Bach 2004. Semantic information is information encoded in what is uttered — these are stable linguistic features of the sentence. Pragmatic information is (extralinguistic) information that arises from an actual act of utterance, and is relevant to the hearer's determination of what the speaker is communicating.
  6. 6. Outside of pragmatics, no understanding; sometimes, a pragmatic account is the only one that makes sense, as in the following example, borrowed from David Lodge's Paradise News:'I just met the old Irishman and his son, coming out of the toilet.'
  7. 7. 'I wouldn't have thought there was room for the two of them.' 'No silly, I mean I was coming out of the toilet. They were waiting.’ (1992:65)
  8. 8. Continue… How do we know what the first speaker meant? Linguists usually say that the first sentence is ambiguous, and they excel at producing such sentences as: Flying planes can be dangerous The missionaries are ready to eat what is meant by 'ambiguous': a word, phrase, or sentence that can mean either one or the other of two (or even several) things.
  9. 9. Continue… Whereas semantic information is encoded in what is uttered, pragmatic information is generated by, or at least made relevant by, the act of uttering it.
  10. 10. Four fundamental cornerstones of pragmatic inquiry. The points are (1) Communication involves complex intentions. (2) These communicative intentions have to be inferred. (3) Communication is governed by principles/maxims.
  11. 11. Continue… (4) There is a fundamental distinction between explicit and implicit conveyance of information.
  12. 12. Pragmatics involve three major communication skills: Using language for different purposes, such as greeting (e.g., hello, goodbye) informing (e.g., I'm going to get a cookie) demanding (e.g., Give me a cookie) promising (e.g., I'm going to get you a cookie)
  13. 13. Continue… requesting (e.g., I would like a cookie, please) Changing language according to the needs of a listener or situation, such as talking differently to a baby than to an adult giving background information to an unfamiliar listener speaking differently in a classroom than on a playground.
  14. 14. Continue… Following rules for conversations and storytelling, such as taking turns in conversation introducing topics of conversation staying on topic rephrasing when misunderstood how to use verbal and nonverbal signals
  15. 15. Continue… how close to stand to someone when speaking how to use facial expressions and eye contact
  16. 16. Difference between Semantics and Pragmatics Semantics attempts to relate meanings to logic and truth, and deals with meaning as a matter primarily of sense-relations within the language. Pragmatics attempts to relate meanings to context of utterance; it views language as action which is performed by speakers.
  17. 17. Continue… Pragmatics is the study of meaning of words, phrases and full sentences, but unlike semantics which deals with the objective meanings of words that can be found in dictionaries, pragmatics is more concerned with the meanings that words in fact convey when they are used, or with intended speaker meaning as it is sometimes referred to.
  18. 18. Continue… Semantics is concerned with the word and sentence meaning, pragmatics entails utterance meaning. An utterance can be defined as a word or sentence which is uttered by a speaker. Pragmatics attempts to analyze how it happens that often more is communicated than said.
  19. 19. Types of Contexts pragmatics is the study of the contribution of context to meaning. Context of an utterance consists of- speaker, the sentence which is uttered, the act performed in the uttering of sentence, and the hearer. In pragmatics four types of context can be differentiated:
  20. 20. Continue… physical context epistemic context linguistic context social context
  21. 21. Continue… Physical context: The physical context is the location of a given word, the situation in which it is used, as well as timing, all of which aid proper understating of the words Epistemic context: the epistemic context refers to what speakers know about the world. For example, what background knowledge is shared by the speakers is part of your epistemic knowledge.
  22. 22. Continue… Linguistic context: the linguistic context refers to what has been said already in the utterance. For example, if I begin a discussion by referring to Jane Smith and in the next sentence refer to "her" as being a top notch athlete, the linguistic context lets me know that the antecedent of "her" (the person "her" refers to) is Jane Smith. Social context: the social context refers to the social relationship among speakers and hearers.
  23. 23. Speech Act A sentence is uttered by a speaker, and when the speaker utters it he/she performs an act. This is called a speech act. Pragmatics is also concerned with the functions of utterances such as promising, requesting, informing which are referred to as speech acts.
  24. 24. Continue… Meaning in this sense involves the speaker’s intention to convey a certain meaning which may not be evident in the message itself. For example in sentence “There is a fly in my soup” speaker’s intention may be to complain. So the meaning of the utterance contain the meaning of the complaint.
  25. 25. Continue… A hearer may interpret it not just as a statement but as a Request to take the soup away. That is, the meaning will include certain intended effect on the hearer.
  26. 26. Continue… The consideration of meaning as a part of the utterance or speech act was initiated by the philosopher J.L. Austin and developed by J. Searle and H.P. Grice.
  27. 27. Austin’s ideas Keeping in view the distinction between what is said and what is intended Austin makes a distinction between Sense and Force. Sense is the propositional content or logical meaning of a sentence. Austin calls it the “Locutionary” meaning. Force is the act performed in uttering a sentence. It is the performative meaning, defined by Austin as “Illocutionary” Force.
  28. 28. Examples ‘Please shut the door’ Sentence form: Imperative Sense: Shutting the door (someone) Force: Request Certain felicity conditions are required for the above mentioned utterance to have the “force of request”
  29. 29. Continue… In the given example, sense and force are similar to each other. However, in some cases there may be a difference, Consider the following example: “Can you shut the door?” Sentence form: Interrogative Sense: Question about the ability of the hearer to shut the door which is evident from the use of word “Can” Force: Request It is clear that sense is not the total meaning of utterance.
  30. 30. Conventional and individual or situation-specific utterances “There’s a cold breeze coming through the door” a statement in sense and form but speaker may intend it to be a request. Such discrepancy between sense and force gives rise to distinction between conventional and individual and situation-specific utterances. “Can you shut the door?” is the kind of utterance which has been conventionalized to a great extent i.e it can occur in many situations. So the hearer is less likely to misinterpret as a real question about his ability to shut the door.
  31. 31. Continue… Whereas “There is a cold breeze coming through the door” more indirect manner of making the request, more dependent on the relation between speaker and hearer. So these are the utterances which can occur only in specific situations e.g informal, friendly etc.
  32. 32. Grice’s Cooperative Principle All communication takes place in a situation where people are co-operative. When people communicate they assume that other person will be co-operative and they themselves wish to co-operate. Under this principle following maxims are followed: Maxim of Quantity: Give the right amount of information, neither less nor more than what is required. Maxim of Quality: Be true, do not say what you know is false or for which you do not have adequate evidence.
  33. 33. Continue… Maxim of Relation: Be relevant. Maxim of Manner: Avoid obscurity and ambiguity; be brief and orderly. Whenever any or all of these maxims are violated “ implicature ” is generated. For example in the interaction: A: Where is my box of chocolates? B: The children were in your room this morning. Here maxim of relation is flouted which implies that B does not know the answer and also implies a suggestion on B’s part that the children may have taken the chocolates.
  34. 34. Thank You
  35. 35. References http://www.unc.edu/~gerfen/Ling30Sp20 02/pragmatics.htm http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pragmatic s/ http://www.cognitivelinguistics.org/Revie ws/allott http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pragmatic s/ Pushpinder Syal, D.V. Jindal. An Itroduction to Linguistics.

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