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Algae
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Algae cultur

  1. 1. Algae Culture
  2. 2.  Algae are simple autotrophic organisms that grow in fresh water as well as marine water . There are more than 500 species of algae like green algae , red algae , brown algae etc.  The algae range is large & diverse that varies from unicellular to multi-cellular forms , micro algae to macro algae , simple forms to most complex marine forms called sea weeds.
  3. 3. Algae culture is a form of aquaculture in which different species of algae are grown. Algae can be grown in……. 1 Fresh water 2 Marin water Algae culture may be done as…… 1 Mono culture (single species) 2 Multi culture (different species)
  4. 4.  Open ponds  Raceways  Photo bioreactors  Plastic membranes While the simplest and cheapest of above is open- pound system .It is prone to contamination and subject to weather.
  5. 5.  A pond of 0.5 -1.0 ha with access to both salt and fresh water is needed so that the salinity can be adjusted and the water can be changed every 2-3 days.  Water change is usually made using tidal flows with gates to control the in flow and out flow of water .  The pH of the pond water is important slightly alkaline (pH 8)  The pond should be drained to the depth of 0.3 meters.  Plant the algal cutting in the mud.  After planting , flood the pond slowly to the depth of about 0.5 to 0.8 m.
  6. 6.  Raceway pond used to cultivate microalgae. The water is kept in constant motion with a powered paddle wheel.
  7. 7.  Algae can also be grown in a photobioreactor (PBR). A PBR is a bioreactor which incorporates a light source. Virtually any translucent container could be called a PBR; however, the term is more commonly used to define a closed system, as opposed to an open tank or pond.  Because PBR systems are closed, the cultivator must provide all nutrients, including CO2.
  8. 8. Different types of suspended culture PBRs include:  Tanks  Polyethylene sleeves or bags  Glass or plastic tubes.
  9. 9.  When cultivating algae on algae farms, there are some basic requirements for producing a good stock, regardless of the species. Light, water, and minerals are all important ingredients in producing healthy algae. So is carbon dioxide. This combination produces the energy algae needs to grow.  Algae can sometimes be grown without sunlight if sugar is used to directly feed it. In these cases, carbon dioxide is also not required to grow the algae. Most algae farmers prefer the light method.
  10. 10.  Most types of algae that are commercially grown are microalgae. These are sometimes referred to as phytoplankto, microphytes, and planktonic algae. Some of the larger algae species, also known as macroalgae, include seaweed and also have commercial uses.  However, their larger size and the more precise growing conditions for macroalgae make them more challenging to cultivate in a controlled environment.
  11. 11.  A seaweed farmer in Nusa Lembongan gath ers edible seaweed that has grown on a rope.
  12. 12.  Arthrospira (Spirulina)  Chlorella  Dunaliella  Haematococcus
  13. 13.  Arthrospira platensis is a planktonic filamentous cyanobacterium composed of individual cells (about 8 mm diam.), which grows in  subtropical, alkaline lakes with a temperature optimum of about 35 C. In productive cultures, Arthrospira is cultivated in shallow,  mixed ponds or semi-closed, tubular photobioreactors. The growth medium contains inorganic salts with a high concentration of  bicarbonate, keeping the pH value between 9 and 10. This cyanobacterium is the most cultivated photosynthetic prokaryote, since  its biomass is widely used as a health food, feed supplement, and as a source of fine chemicals
  14. 14.  Chlorella (green algae; Chlorophyta) is a cosmopolitan genus with small globular cells (about 2-10 mm diam.) living in both aquatic  and terrestrial habitats. It includes strains with a high temperature tolerance, since some strains can grow between 15 and 40 C
  15. 15.  The green halophilic microalga Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) and similar hypersaline strains have biflagellated, pear-shaped cells.  Dunaliella is the main natural source of b- carotene in high amounts, it being up to 16% of dry matter. Their cells lack a rigid cell  wall, having instead a thin elastic plasma membrane. Dunaliella salina
  16. 16.  Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyta) is a freshwater, unicellular green microalga with a rather complex life cycle. Among various  natural sources, Haematococcus is an exclusive producer of astaxanthin (pink carotenoid)
  17. 17.  When it comes to harvesting algae, several different methods can be used. The most common are flocculation, centrifugation, and microscreening. Flocculation is an expensive method of harvesting algae that only large algae farms can usually afford.  It uses the powdered shells of crustaceans to interrupt the carbon dioxide supply of the algae, which causes algae to float to the surface of the water where it can be skimmed.  Centrifugation spins the water containing the algae in a centrifuge to separate the algae from the water and is a medium-cost method of harvesting due to the cost of the centrifuge. Finally, microscreening simply uses a fine mesh screen to sift the algae directly out of the water.
  18. 18.  Consumer goods  Health & nutrition  Fuel  Industrial application  Agriculture  Power generation
  19. 19. Not withstanding diverse applications & commercial uses of algae, the algae culture also offer following social benefits:  Pollution control a) Air pollution b) Water pollution  Poverty alleviation
  20. 20.  Consumer goods: Tooth paste , ice creams, chocolates, cool drinks, jams ,jelly and many other processed foods.  Health & nutrition: a) Medicines for cancer, heart disease, tumors, aging, skin diseases etc. b) Nutritional supplements  Fuels: Bio diesel can produce from algae.
  21. 21.  Most people are ignorant about size & scale of opportunities in algae culture industry .  The financiers & bankers are not aware of this industry .  Production quality & quantity in open pond method is subject to environmental conditions .  There is no processing units in access to marginal producers.

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