Lecture 1 Building types and components of building.pptx
What Is Building
A structure with walls and a roof standing
more or less permanently in one place is
commonly known as a building. For example a
house or factory. Buildings serve several
societal needs – primarily as shelter, living
space, privacy & security, to store materials,
workspace, etc. In this lecture in first part we
will discuss different types of buildings, and
than components of building will be
Types Of Buildings:
Types of buildings may be classified in two ways:
1. On the basis of its use,
2. On the basis of Structure.
Classification based on type of use:
Depending upon the character of occupancy or the type of use,
buildings can be classified into different categories as follows:
1. Residential Buildings:
2. Educational Buildings:
3. Institutional Buildings:
4. Assembly Buildings:
5. Business Buildings:
6. Mercantile Buildings:
7. Industrial Buildings:
8. Storage Buildings:
9. Hazardous Buildings:
Any building or a part of building which are constructed by government, semi-government
organizations or any registered trusts used for purposes like medical or other treatment,
physical or mental illness institutes, auditoriums, children hospitals, old age homes, etc. are
included into the institutional buildings.
Any building or a part of a building like theaters, assembly halls, auditorium, museums, exhibition
halls, club houses, dance halls, sports stadiums, transportation service such as bus stops, railway
stations, airports, taxi stands, etc. where groups of people gather for entertainment, travel, religious
purpose, programs or other similar works.
Any building or a part of building which is used for business purpose and used for transaction of
business, work or accounts for purposes like shops, beauty salons, barber shops, banks, launch
counters, food courts, breakfast stalls, professional corporate offices
These shall include buildings used for shop, markets, stores, wholesale or retail.
These types of building are mainly used for manufacturing purposes. Here products or materials of
all kinds and properties are fabricated, assembled, or processed, for example, gas plants,
refineries, mills, dairies, etc.
These buildings are generally used for the storage or sheltering of goods, wares, or merchandise
like warehouses, cold storages, garages, stables, transit sheds, etc.
This building is used to store, handle, or manufacture highly corrosive, toxic, acid or other
liquids or chemicals that produce flame, fumes explosives, etc.
• Load bearing Structure
• Framed structure
• Load Bearing Structures: In this type of structures loads from roof slab or
trusses and floors are transmitted through walls to the firm soil below the
ground .This type of structures are available at elements like beams,
slabs rests directly on walls.
• Framed Structures: Reinforced cement concrete structures are the most
common type of construction today. They consist of a skeletonof beams &
columns. The load is transferred from beams to the columns and column intern
transfer the load directly to the sub soil through footing. Framed structures
are suitable for multi-storey building subjected to variety of extreme loads like
compressive, tensile torsion, shear along with moment.
• The open spaces in the skeleton are to be filled with brick walls or glass
• The superstructure is that part of the building which is
above the ground and which serves the purpose of
building’s intended use.
• It includes:
• Plinth level, Sill level and Lintel level
• Wall , Slab, columns and Beams
• Floors and Roofs
• Steps and stairs
• The substructure is the lower portion of the
building, which is located below ground level
which transmits the load of the superstructure
to the sub soil.it includes
• The basic function of foundation
• Transmit the load from building to the subsoil, in such a way
i. settlement are within permissible limit
ii. the soil does not fail in shear
iii. Reduce the load intensity
iv. Even distribution of load
v. Provide level surface
Types Of Foundation
• Foundations may be broadly classified as
• (a) Shallow Foundation
• (b) Deep foundation
• (a) Shallow Foundation
Mat Foundation or Raft Foundation
Plinth level, Sill level and Lintel
• Plinth level means the level of
the floor of a building
immediately above the
• This level between the base
portion of the window and
portion of the floor above
ground level (upwards) is
called the Sill level. A mortar
bed or concrete bed is laid at the
base of the window.
• The level between the top
portion of the window and the
top slab is called the Lintel
Wall is a structure defining an exact area and providing safety & shelter.
There are various types of walls used in the construction of buildings given
below. The construction of walls depending upon the types of material.
According to material, these are mainly classified as:
1. Brick masonry,
2. Stone masonry,
These are used to transfer the load from the roof to plinth beam. These are
also providing support to the building in some cases.
Columns are vertical members along which
beams and slab /roof is supported. They are
square, rectangular and circular in shape.
A beam is a horizontal structural member in a building to resist the lateral
loads applied to the beam’s axis.
Roof: The upper most part of the building constitutes the roof. The Slab and
roof encloses the space and offers protection from rain, heat, snow, wind,
Floor: A floor is a plane area to support occupants, furniture's, and equipment.
Doors And Windows
• A door provides a connecting link between rooms, allowing easy free movement in
the building. Window are opening provided in walls.
• Doors and windows provide lighting and ventilation. The provide resistance to
weather, sound and heat. They provide security and privacy
Sizes of Doors
• For ResidentialArea
• Internal doors 0.9 x 2.0 m
• External doors 1.2 x 2 m
• Door for bath and w.c. 0.75 x 2.0 m
• Industrial Buildings
• Width 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 m
• Depth or height 2.0 m, 2.5 m
Steps and Stairs
• In one flight maximum 8 steps should be
provided for more than 8 steps it is
• Steps and stairs are meant to provide access
between different levels. Stairs should be properly
located to provide easy access and fast services to
recommended to provide them with lending.
• Generally for residential building width of stair
is 1.0 m and 1.2 m
• No of risers= Total height of floor/ Height of riser
• No of tread= Number of riser-1