The Nature of Teaching
Objectives of Effective Teaching
Characteristics of Teaching
Basic Requirements of Teaching
Becoming a Specialist Teacher
Characteristics of Independent Learner
3. Teaching is a noble profession.
The act or business of instructing-also, that which is
Teaching is the knowledge taught to students,
Teaching is the one injecting knowledge, lessons,
The Teaching for Understanding framework is a guide
that can help keep the focus of educational
practice on developing student understanding.
Teaching a particular subject, a particular lesson or
lessons to the students is called teaching.
4. In its broadest sense, teaching is a process
that facilitates learning.
Teaching is the specialized application of
knowledge, skills and attributes designed to
provide unique service to meet the
educational needs of the individual and of
The choice of learning activities whereby
the goals of education are realized in the
school is the responsibility of the teaching
5. In addition to providing students with
learning opportunities to meet curriculum
outcomes, teaching emphasizes the
development of values and guides students
in their social relationships.
Teachers employ practices that develop
positive self-concept in students.
Although the work of teachers typically
takes place in a classroom setting, the
direct interaction between teacher and
student is the single most important element
6. The aims and desired learning outcomes of
effective teaching may thus effect positive
changes in the following:
› Discipline/profession-specific knowledge.
› General knowledge: fundamental concepts
that an educated person/university
graduate should have, regardless of area of
› Awareness/familiarity across knowledge
domains (i.e. ‘rounded’ education).
› Ability to identify what information is needed and
where to find it.
› Evaluation of information and discrimination of what
is valid and useful from what is not.
› Application/adaptation of knowledge to problem
solving and making of informed judgments.
› Self-directedness in learning and the ability to sustain
› Capacity for independent research and knowledge.
› Ability to communicate ideas clearly and structure
› Questioning habit of mind with readiness to seek
evidence/support for ideas/concepts
presented, and to investigate/challenge
established and controversial views including
those which are generally taken as ‘knowledge’.
› Awareness of the complexity and dynamic
nature of human knowledge and the need for
evaluation and re-evaluation of knowledge.
› Enjoyment of learning.
› Learning as a lifelong habit.
9. Organization and Clarity
› explains clearly
› is well prepared
› makes difficult topics easy to understand
› uses examples, details, analogies, metaphors,
and variety in modes of explanation to make
material not only understandable but
› makes the objectives of the course and each
› establishes a context for material
10. Analytic/Synthetic Approach
› has a thorough command of the field
› contrasts the implications of various theories
› gives the student a sense of the field, its past,
present, and future directions, the origins of
ideas and concepts
› presents facts and concepts from related
› discusses viewpoints other than his/her own
11. Dynamism and Enthusiasm
› is an energetic, dynamic person
› seems to enjoy teaching
› conveys a love of the field
› has an aura of self-confidence
12. Instructor-Group Interaction
› can stimulate, direct, and pace interaction with
› encourages independent thought and accepts
› uses wit and humor effectively
› is a good public speaker
› knows whether or not the class is following the
material and is sensitive to students’ motivation
› is concerned about the quality of his/her
13. Instructor-Individual Student Interaction
› is perceived as fair, especially in his/her
methods of evaluation
› is seen by students as approachable and a
valuable source of advice even on matters
not directly related to the course
14. Getting good basic qualifications is the first step towards
becoming a teacher. You must have the equivalent of at
least GCSE grade C in English and Mathematics. If you
want to teach in primary or in secondary up to the age of
14 you also need the equivalent of at least GCSE grade C
Anyone wanting to teach in England and Wales must then
get a degree and complete initial teacher training (ITT).
There are many different routes, depending on the age
group and, at secondary level, the subject that you want
to teach. All courses cover the principles of teaching
along with practical experience in the classroom.
You can complete ITT alongside a degree, straight after a
degree, as a part-time course alongside work or as a full-
time course. The option that is right for you will depend on
15. As well as a degree, you need qualified teacher
status (QTS) to become a teacher. In England, QTS
includes passing Skills Tests in numeracy, literacy and
information and communications technology (ICT).
The Skills Test website contains examples of the kinds
of adjustments that can be made for disabled
people, including alternative assessment methods
and extra time.
Professional Standards for Qualified Teacher Status
and requirements for Initial Teacher Training sets out
what trainees need to know, understand and be
able to do to be awarded QTS.
Once you have been awarded QTS you must
complete an induction year working as a teacher.
16. If you want to specialize in teaching pupils
with special educational needs (SEN), you
must first gain QTS in a secondary subject or
in primary education. You then usually need
to gain a few years of teaching experience
in a mainstream setting. Once you have
met both of these requirements you can
begin taking programs from a Local
Authority (LA) who will run programs on
specific special needs areas.
17. You will gain some knowledge about the
special educational needs of students
through in-service education and training
(INSET) while doing your ITT program.
The National SEN Specialist Standards
specifies the core standards needed when
working with students with a variety of SEN.
The BATOD website has a specialist
factsheet on training to become a teacher
of the deaf.
18. Teaching assistants work alongside teachers
in the classroom, helping pupils with their
learning on an individual or group basis.
Some specialize in areas such as literacy,
numeracy, special education needs, music,
English as an additional language, and the
creative arts. Some teaching assistants
decide they want to further develop their
career and train to become fully qualified
teachers or higher level teaching assistants.
19. Curiosity - Independent learners want to find out more
about the world. They seek out ways to explore. They learn
from various angles and formats, not just traditional
instruction. They are proactive and find ways to access
additional lesson supplements on their own.
Self-motivation - Forget bribery. Intrinsic motivation far
surpasses any prize or reward system. Independent
learners are motivated by setting internal goals to
achieve. They are driven by their own personal
Self-examination - Where have you been and where are
you going? Independent learners know how to evaluate
themselves. They can see their strengths and weaknesses.
They strive for measurable progress and often chart their
accomplishments and failures.
20. Accountability - Responsibility means knowing what you
have to do and doing it without anyone telling you to. The
sooner a student becomes responsible for consequences,
the less dependent he will be outside sources for discipline
Critical thinking - Independent learners think critically of a
situation. They examine all possibilities and often come up
with multiple solutions. They don't just memorize. Rather
they ask "why?" and formulate answers based on real-
world observation and intelligent deduction.
Comprehension with little or no instruction - Independent
learners have an uncanny ability to read, visualize, or
kinesthetically instruct themselves. No matter the topic or
subject studied, an independent learner will find ways to
understand material through application (generally trial-
21. Persistence - Independent learners don't
give up. They strive to understand a
concept as much as possible on their
own before asking for help. They also
apply self-discipline in not finding the
easy answer to a problem. They teach
themselves and generally only ask
question after failure to find a solution on