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  1. 1. Feminism
  2. 2. Definition Historical Development Assumptions Methodologies
  3. 3. “FEMINISM”??
  4. 4. Historical Development. According to feminist criticism, the root of prejudice against women have long been embedded in western culture. Such gender discrimination may have begun, with the biblical narrative that places blame for the fall of humanity on Eve not Adam.
  5. 5. Aristotle ¨The male is by nature superior, and the female inferior; and the one rules and the other is ruled¨ Religious leader and philosophers such as : Thomas Aquinas and St. Agustine That women are really ¨imperfect men¨ these imperfect and spiritually weak creatures, they maintained, possess a sensual nature that lures men away from spiritual truths, thereby preventing males from attaining their spiritual potential.
  6. 6. Women are of a characteristic of a past and lower state of civilization , such beings, he noted, are inferior to men, who are physically, intellectually, and artistically superior. Darwing Mary Wollstonecraft Authored A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
  7. 7. Is the male who defines what it means to be female and who controls the political, economic, social, and literary structures. Women must reject this social construct and establish their own identity. Virginia theory:
  8. 8. “Foundational work of 20th century feminism” •Declares that French society (and Western societies in general) are Patriarchal, controlled by males. Humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself . Like Woolf, believed that the male defines what it means to be human .
  9. 9. Elaine Showalter Define the process of constructing a ¨female framework for analysis of woman`s literature in order to develop new models of interpretation based on the study of females experiences, rather than to adapt to male models and theories¨
  10. 10. Female authors wrote under male pseudonyms, She used the term Gynocritics for analysis of women's literature to develop new models and theories. Stereotypes of women abounded in the canon: Women were sex maniacs, goddesses of beauty, mindless entities, or old spinters .¨ woman who has never been married.¨.
  11. 11. Describe four models that address the nature of women's writing and help answer some of the chief concerns of feminist criticism Biological model: Emphasizes how the famale body marks itself upon a text by providing a host of literary images and a personal, intimate tone. Linguistic model: Concern itself with the need for a female discourse. Psychoanalytic model: Based on an analysis of the females psyche and how such an analysis affects the writing process, emphasizes the flux and fluidity of female writing as opposed to male rigidity and structure. Cultural model: Investigate how the society in which female authors work and function shapes women`s goals responses and points of view.
  12. 12. Geographical Strains of feminism: Three somewhat distinct, geographical strains of feminism have emerged: -American -British -French. According to Elaine Showalter, American feminism: is essentially textual, stressing repression.
  13. 13. British Feminism: is essentially Marxist, stressing oppression. French Feminism: Sigmund Freud and his patriarchal theories said that penis is power, Freud viewed women as incomplete males. All women, he thought, were various of a male power, as symbolized by the penis. Wanting this power, all women possess pennis envy, desiring to gain the male phallus and thereby obtain power.
  14. 14. But Jacques Lacan rescues psychoanalysis of Freud`s like a mysognistic theories. Misogyny: ¨refer to a hatred or distrust of women.¨, argue that language ultimately shapes and structures our conscious and unconscious minds and thus shapes our self identity, not the phallus. ¨Phallus: a symbol or representation of the penis.¨
  15. 15. Lancan believes that the human psyche consists of three parts: Imaginary, Symbolic Imaginary, From birth to sex months or so, we primarily function in the Imaginary order, a preverbal state that contains our wishes, our fantasies, and our physical images, in this state we are basically sexless, for we are not yet capable of differentiated ourselves from our mothers.
  16. 16. The Symbolic Order. Unfortunately for the female in this order the male is socialized to the dominant position of discourse, Whereas the female is socialized to a subordinated language. On entering this order, the father becomes the dominant image. .
  17. 17. ASSUMPTIONS: In this masculine world, feminist declare that is man who defines what it means to be human, not woman. Because a woman is not a man, she has become other, ¨The not-male- These patriarchal society, say the feminist have simply passed down their erroneous belief from generation to generation, culminating with the predominant western assumption that women are less than, not equal to, men To free themselves from definitional oppression, say feminist critics, women must analyze and challenge the established literary canon that has helped shape the images of female inferiority and subordination ingrained in our culture.
  18. 18. Images of the female body as presented in a text: such an anatomical study, for example, would highlight how various part of the female body such as the uterus and breasts often become significant images in works authored by women. Female language: Such a concern centers on the differences between male and female language.
  19. 19. Culture: Value of women`s role in give society and who society shapes a woman`s understanding of herself, her society and her world.
  20. 20. Canon: The collective works of an author or tradition Chora: Refer to the continuous flow of fluidity or rhythm characterizes the imaginary order of psychic development. Freudian slip: accidental slips of the tongue. TERMINOLOGIES: Gynocriticism: a term that has become synonymous with the study of women as writers. Gynocritics: Define the process of constructing a ¨female framework for analysis of woman`s literature in order to develop new models of interpretation based on the study of females experiences, rather than to adapt to male models and theories¨ Misogyny: refer to a hatred or distrust of women. Patriarchal: Describe a society or culture dominated by males; a social organization in which males hold a disproportionate amount of power. Penis envy: According to Sigmund Freud, all woman have an unfulfilled desire for penis and thus possess a sense of lack throughout their life. Phallus: a symbol or representation of the penis.