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PDU 214 Methods of Observation & Interviewing: Observation - Methods & Record Keeping

What are the methods of doing observation to collect research data?

(Lecture slides mostly in English)

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PDU 214 Methods of Observation & Interviewing: Observation - Methods & Record Keeping

  1. 1. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA SEMESTER GENAP 2015/2016 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA Kuliah III - 01 Februari 2016 OBSERVATION:
 Methods & Record Keeping
  2. 2. One Day Objectives Mahasiswa mampu memahami tahap perancangan panduan observasi;1 Mahasiswa mampu menyusun panduan observasi untuk pengumpulan data sesuai dengan tujuan. 2
  3. 3. Principles of Methods & Record Keeping
  4. 4. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati Different types of information require
 the use of different recording forms. Regardless of the purpose of the observation
 and the type of record that is to be used,
 several general procedures collectively make up
 a method of observing. 4 (Cartwright & Cartwright, 1984: 30) “ ”
  5. 5. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati The Process 5 OBSERVATION PREPARATION COLLECT
 INFORMATION SUMMARIZE &
 INTERPRETATION
  6. 6. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati The first step in the process of observation is to determine the purpose.
 If the observer is a researcher, the questions under investigation 
 form the purpose. Because of the different characteristics
 of various records, we will find that certain types
 of records match well with some decisions that is to be made
 using the observational data or the purpose for the observation,
 and not with others. Preparation 6 OBSERVATION: THE PROCESS (Cartwright & Cartwright, 1984: 30, 35) 1. THE PURPOSE
  7. 7. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati If the purpose is well defined, it will dictate the following guidelines
 for the procedure: • Who will make the observation; • Who or what will be observed; • Where the observation will take place (there should be
 a variety of situations included); • When the observation will occur (there should be diversified
 time periods); • How the observation will be recorded. Preparation 7 OBSERVATION: THE PROCESS (Cartwright & Cartwright, 1984: 31) 1. THE PURPOSE
  8. 8. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati Some basic considerations: Preparation 8 OBSERVATION: THE PROCESS (Cartwright & Cartwright, 1984: 35-38) 2. PREPARING RECORDS A certain amount of time and effort
 is required to develop and use
 such records A precise description of the behaviour
 or event be a part of the development
 of record forms for use in the observation process Conduct field tests with the record forms and make pertinent revisions before extensive use is made of them Ample opportunity to observe the behaviours or events of interest contained in a well-designed form The information collected using a record form will yield meaningful, useful information on which questions
 can be answered Make a decision based on
 the evidence exists
  9. 9. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati Preparation 9 OBSERVATION: THE PROCESS (Cartwright & Cartwright, 1984: 36) 2. PREPARING RECORDS A precise description of the behaviour
 or event be a part of the development
 of record forms for use in the observation process The information collected using a record form will yield meaningful, useful information on which questions
 can be answered Make a decision based on
 the evidence exists Operational Definitions
  10. 10. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati Preparation 10 OBSERVATION: THE PROCESS 2. PREPARING RECORDS PURPOSE VARIABLE DEFINITION DIMENSION BEHAVIOUR Purpose of the
 observation, which can
 be used to answer
 the research questions Psychological
 variable(s) Conceptual definition Operational definition Dimension (A) Dimension (B) Behaviour (A.1.) Behaviour (A.2.) Behaviour (B.1.) Behaviour (B.2.)
  11. 11. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati The theory plays
 an important role on preparing
 the observation records. Preparation 10 OBSERVATION: THE PROCESS 2. PREPARING RECORDS PURPOSE VARIABLE DEFINITION DIMENSION BEHAVIOUR Purpose of the
 observation, which can
 be used to answer
 the research questions Psychological
 variable(s) Conceptual definition Operational definition Dimension (A) Dimension (B) Behaviour (A.1.) Behaviour (A.2.) Behaviour (B.1.) Behaviour (B.2.)
  12. 12. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati Preparation 11 OBSERVATION: THE PROCESS 3. TYPES OF RECORDS (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (A) ANECDOTAL RECORDS (B) PARTICIPATION CHARTS (C) CHECKLISTS (D) RATING SCALES (E) BEHAVIOUR TALLYING (F) CHARTING PROCEDURES
  13. 13. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati General rules: Collect Data 12 OBSERVATION: THE PROCESS (Cartwright & Cartwright, 1984: 40) Being unobtrusive and avoiding the contrived situation will enhance the integrity and objectivity of the observation, and, probably, the reliability of the data recorded. The longer time period, the more reliable the information obtained is likely to be; A long time period provides an opportunity for systematically gathering information covering a variety of situations and behaviours. Be Unobtrusive Get Lots of Data
  14. 14. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati Any records, even excellent ones, are of no value
 unless the information is interpreted. Information is not gathered as an end in itself;
 the information is a means to an end and that end
 is the making of appropriate decisions to meet
 the purposes of the observation. Information on which interpretations will be based should be
 gathered over an adequate period of time and in a variety
 of situations to ensure that a reliable sampling of behaviour
 is available before drawing any conclusions. Summarize & Interpretation 13 OBSERVATION: THE PROCESS (Cartwright & Cartwright, 1984: 41-43)
  15. 15. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati The Problems 14 OBSERVATION 7654321
  16. 16. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati The Problems 14 OBSERVATION 7654321 Inaccuracy Inefficiency Observer’s Biases Subjectivity Other Errors (Generosity, Severity, Central Tendency, & Logical) Observer’s Recent Condition Observer’s Individual Characte- ristics Making records precisely and immediately Using a variety of aids (index cards, notebooks, etc) Making some value judgments Involving several independent observers Taking precautions, using other methods Controling the observer’s condition to be neutral Controling the observer’s condition to be neutral PROBLEMSSOLUTIONS (Cartwright & Cartwright, 1984: 39-52)
  17. 17. PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2016 Ardhiati Want to Know More? Cartwright, C.A. & Cartwright, G.P. (1984). Developing observation skills (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. All illustrations designed by freepik. 19
  • ShelahMaeCoo

    Jul. 25, 2020
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    May. 10, 2019
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    Mar. 26, 2016
  • DrAbduQawiAlMohamadi

    Mar. 23, 2016

What are the methods of doing observation to collect research data? (Lecture slides mostly in English)

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