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36745

  1. 1. ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬)AHP( ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬+ MAKING MULTICRITERIA DICISION BY USING (AHP)METHOD AN APPLIED STUDY IN AL-BASRAH TECHINICAL INSTITUTE ‫ﻫﺎﺸﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺸﻡ‬* ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠ‬‫ﺹ‬: ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬.‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬.‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻼ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻅل‬. ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻝﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻴﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻁﺒﻘ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺴﺘﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬)٠,٥١٩(‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬. Abstract: There are two different approaches to making decisions, first is qualitative approach , which the decision maker depend on his intuitive and experience to make decision . Second is a quantitative approach and the decision maker depend on mathematical models to make decision , both of them is important to the decision maker to make decision in different situation . The aim of research is using mathematical models to help decision maker, for this reason the research depend on second approach according to the criteria which adopt by top management . the research arrives to the select the first alternative which is opening technical college of management because its get a high ratio (0. 519 ) comparable with the second one. ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻴﻭﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺎﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ،‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬.‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝ‬‫ﻤﺒﺭﻤﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺭﻤﺠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻝﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬.‫ﻭﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻀ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ + ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬٢٩/٩/٢٠٠٧‫ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬٢٢/٥/٢٠٠٨ * ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺱ‬/‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬/‫ﺍﻝﺒﺼﺭﺓ‬.
  2. 2. ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬‫ﻻﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺭﺸﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﺎﺌﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬. ‫ﺍﻻﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬:‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ‬ ١-‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬: ‫ﻝﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺅﻭﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺯﺍﻝﺕ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬،‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺨﺼﻭﺼ‬‫ﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺕ‬، ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﻝﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬)intuitive(‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻝﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﺇﺘﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺭﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻸﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬)‫ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬(‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻝﺫﺍ‬)AHP( ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬. ٢-‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻑ‬: ‫ﺍﻝﻬﺭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻴﻬﺩﻑ‬)Analytical Hierarchy process( ‫ﺒـ‬ ‫ﻝﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻤﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬)AHP(،‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ‬)‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬(‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﺴﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩﺓ‬. ٣-‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬: ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻨﺩ‬،‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬،‫ﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬)AHP(‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺎﻀﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ‬. ٤-‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬: ‫ﺃ‬-‫ﺯﻤﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬:‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺭﺕ‬٢٠٠٦‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬. ‫ﺏ‬-‫ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬:‫ﺒﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬. ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬:‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﺘﻜﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬:-‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬Concept of decision making ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻴﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬] 1. [‫ﻭﺤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬،‫ﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻤل‬‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬]2. [‫ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻀﻌﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﺨﻴﺹ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﺭﻀﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺄﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬. ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺭﻤﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬،‫ﻭﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻝﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬.
  3. 3. ‫ﻝﺤل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻝﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺭﻤﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺭﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻬﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻡ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬،‫ﻝﻠﻘﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ‬‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﺎﻤﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻭﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺤل‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺄﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻝﺔ‬[ 2 ]. ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ‬:-‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺍﺨل‬decision making approaches ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬،‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬]2[ ‫ﺃ‬-‫ﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬‫ﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬:Individual decision making ‫ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬: ١-‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨل‬:rational approach ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﻜﺩ‬‫ﺘﺴﻠﺴل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻲ‬،‫ﻷﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻤﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﻭﺤﻅ‬ ‫ﺃﻜ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﺜﺭ‬.‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻝﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬[ 3 ]: o‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬:‫ﺘﺅﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻓﺎﺕ‬. o‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬:‫ﺨﻼ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﻼﻨﺤﺭﺍﻓﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺠﻴﺏ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬. o‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬:‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺼﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬. o‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺨﻴﺹ‬:‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. o‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬:‫ﺤﺎﺴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﺨﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬،‫ﻓﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻝﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺢ‬. o‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬:‫ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻝﻐﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺍﻝﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬. o‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬:‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬،‫ﻴﺴﺘ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬. o‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬:‫ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﺨﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﻝﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬. ٢-‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻼﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ‬:Bounded rationality perspective ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﻀﻐﻁ‬،‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻜﺜﺭﺓ‬،‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬
  4. 4. ‫ﻤﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻼﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻝﺔ‬‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻌﻘﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺓ‬،‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻝﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺒل‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻝﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﻫﺔ‬. ‫ﺏ‬-‫ﺍﻝﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬‫ﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬:Organizational decisions making ‫ﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺭﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬: ١-‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‬:management science approach ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬.‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﺭ‬،‫ﺍﻝﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺴﻜﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻝﺤل‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬.‫ﻝﻠﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬[ 2 ]. ٢-‫ﻜﺎﺭﻨﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‬:Carnegie model ‫ﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺭﻨﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻥ‬)Simon(،) March(،)Richard(‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ‬)Carnegie – mellon(‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻼﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺜﻬﻡ‬،‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺼﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻀ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬.‫ﺃﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺌﺘﻼﻑ‬،‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻔﻘﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺎﻝﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺌﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺅﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺼﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﺘﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺎﻝﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﻭﺍﺩﺭ‬.‫ﺃ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻀﺎﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺌﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜﻴل‬ ‫ﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬[ 2 ]: -‫ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻭﻝﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ )satisficing(‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻝﻸﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻨﻲ‬. -‫ﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻴﻬﺘﻡ‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﻜﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬)March , Richard(‫ﺍﻹﺸﻜﺎﻝﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬)problemistic search(‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﻅﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺴﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﻝﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ -‫ﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﺵ‬،‫ﻴﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻝﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺌﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻝﻙ‬. ٣-‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬Incremental decision process model ‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺀ‬)Henry Mintzberg(‫ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻤﻼﺀﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬)Carnegie(‫ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻴﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺘﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ‬،‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺤل‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬] :1[]2[.
  5. 5. ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬:Identification phase ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﺃ‬)recognition(‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬‫ﺭ‬.‫ﻤﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺴﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨﻅﺎﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺨﻴﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬، ‫ﻋﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺴﺭﻴﻌ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺜﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺨﻴﺹ‬ ‫ﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻗﺘ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺤﻤل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸ‬‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺨﻴﺼﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻝﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﻜل‬[1]. -‫ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬:Development phase ‫ﺍﻻﻭﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﺃ‬.‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤل‬،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴﻌﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭل‬‫ﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﻌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬،‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﺫﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬[ 2 ]. ‫ﺝ‬-‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬:Selection phase ‫ﺍﻝﺤل‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬،‫ﻤﺴﺄ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤ‬ ‫ﻝﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬.‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬.‫ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬:‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ . ٤-‫ﺍﻝﻘﻤﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬:Garbage can model ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠﻴﻥ‬،‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻜﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠﻴﻥ‬.‫ﻴﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺫﺍ‬‫ﺒﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻨﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻜﺭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬. ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺴﻠﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺤل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ‬،‫ﻭﺤﻠ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻝﻔﻌل‬‫ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻝﺭﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻵﺨﺭ‬.‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺤل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺭﺒﻤﺎ‬.‫ﻫﻨﺎﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻝﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻝﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬.‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‬[ 3 ]: -‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬:‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬،‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻏﻭﺏ‬. -‫ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل‬:‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻝﻐﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺘﺭﺤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤل‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺩﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺤﻠﻭل‬. -‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﻭﻥ‬:‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺫﻫﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺘﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ‬،‫ﺍﺩﺭﺍﻜﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬،‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻴﺯﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬‫ﺍﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻫﺎ‬.
  6. 6. -‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ‬:‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻐل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺹ‬،‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﺘﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺭﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬،‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻝﻙ‬[ 3 ]. ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻝﺜ‬/‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬:Using operation Research to decision making ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺯﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬،‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺸﺎﻜﻠﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻌﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻁ‬.‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺨﺼﻭﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻘﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺴﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬،‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬،‫ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻝﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ‬‫ﺍﻝﻬﺭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻁﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ )Thomas Saaty(‫ﻝﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻤﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬)AHP] (4. [‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﺘﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬.‫ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﻨﺄﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﻝﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬: ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺸﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻏﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬، ‫ﻴﻀﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻝﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬. ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻝﺩﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻭ‬‫ﺍﻝﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﻜﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻻ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺏ‬‫ﺴﻭﺍﻕ‬،‫ﺍﻝ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺏ‬ ....‫ﺍﻝﺦ‬.‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴﻠﻔ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻴﻁﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﻓﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬)AHP(‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻝﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬.‫ﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻬﺭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﺎﻝﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻬﺭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺸﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬،‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻬﺭﻡ‬،‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻴل‬‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻥ‬[ 5 ]. ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬)preferences(‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻬﺭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬.‫ﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻝﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻝﻙ‬)‫ﺒﺩﻴل‬. (‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬،‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻁﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻴﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺯﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻝﻠـ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﻨﺅﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬Saaty‫ﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺼﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬]٦[‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ‬( 1 ). ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)1(‫ﻝﻠـ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬Saaty Numeric valuePreference level ‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬equal preference1 ‫ﻤﻌﺘﺩﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬moderately preference3 ‫ﻗﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬strong preference5 ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬very strong preference7
  7. 7. ‫ﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬absolute preference9 ‫ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ‬inter mediate values between them2 , 4 , 6 , 8 ‫ﻭﺤﺩﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬)‫ﺒﺩﻴﻠﻴﻥ‬. (‫ﻤﺜﺎﻝﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺓ‬‫ﻭﻋﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻴﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻗﻌﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬)A,B(‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺜﻼﺙ‬‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬)Z,Y,X( ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺎﻀﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ‬.‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬)A(moderately preferred‫ﻝﻠﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬) B(‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬)X(،‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬)3(‫ﻝﻠﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺼﺹ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬)A(،‫ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬،‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻝﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬)B(،)A(‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬)B(‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬)A(‫ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻜﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬)A(‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬)B( inverse of the preference‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬)1/3. (‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻨﻭﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺭﻯ‬.‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ‬)‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬(‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬.‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺠﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬AHP]٤[]٦[[ 7 ]: ‫ﺃ‬-‫ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴ‬‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺼﻔﻭﻓﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬: ١-‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻨﺠﻤﻊ‬. ٢-‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺭﺝ‬. ٣-‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻔﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﻤﻊ‬. ٤-‫ﻋﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻘﺴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺼﻔﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﻤﻊ‬. ‫ﺏ‬-‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺼﻔﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬: ١-‫ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻔﻭﻓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻊ‬‫ﺔ‬. ٢-‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺔ‬. ٣-‫ﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﻤﻊ‬. ٤-‫ﺍﻝﺼﻔﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺴﻡ‬. ‫ﺝ‬-‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﻀﺭﺏ‬)4(‫ﻤﻥ‬)‫ﺃ‬(‫ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ )4(‫ﻤﻥ‬)‫ﺏ‬. ( ‫ﺩ‬-‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﻘﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻀﺭﺏ‬)‫ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ‬(‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﻘﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬)4(‫ﻤﻥ‬)‫ﺃ‬. ( ‫ﻫـ‬-‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﻝﻐﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬. ‫ﺍﻝ‬‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬:-‫ﺍﻝﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬: ‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻏﺏ‬‫ﺒﺩﻴﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬) Alternatives(‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬–‫ﺍﻝﺒﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬–‫ﻝﺴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻝﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺄﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻨﻭﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺴﻭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺄﺴﺘﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻤﻬﺎ‬،‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻷﺠل‬
  8. 8. ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﺘﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬،‫ﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻝﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬)criterias(‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺎﻀﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺘﺫﺓ‬،‫ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬)‫ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬. (‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺒﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺌﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﺘﺫﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺯﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻔﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﻜل‬،‫ﻤﺼﻔﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻀ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬: ١-‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻔﻭﻓﺔ‬: StudentsTeachers New DeptNew college New DeptNew college 21New college1/91New college 11/2New Dept.19New Dept. Top management New Dept.New college 51New college 11/5New Dept. ٢-‫ا‬: Top manag.StudentsTeachersCriterion 51/31Teachers 713Students 11/71/5Top manag. ‫ﺍﻝﺤل‬/‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬/‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺼﻔﻭﻓﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﺩﺃ‬‫ﻭﺤﺴﺏ‬‫ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤل‬ ‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ‬. ‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ‬: *‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﻝﻠﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﻨﺭﻤﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻝﻐﺭﺽ‬)New college(‫ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ‬)A. ( ‫ﻭ‬= =‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎ‬‫ﻨﻲ‬)New Dept.(‫ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ‬)B. ( Teachers Teachers A B A B Average 0.10.0990.1A1/91A
  9. 9. 0.90.9000.9B19B 1.01.11110 Students Students A B A B Average 0.6670.6670.667A21A 0.3330.3330.333B11/2B 1.00031.5 Top Manag. Top Manag. A B A B Average 0.8330.8330.833A51A 0.1670.1670.166B11/5B 1.00061.2 ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴ‬/‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻔﻭﻓﺔ‬: Top manag.Stud.Teach.Criterion 51/31Teachers 713Students 11/71/5Top manag. 131.4754.2 AverageTop manag.StudentsTeach.Criterion 0.2830.3850.2260.238Teachers 0.6440.5380.6780.714Students 0.0730.0760.0960.047Top manag. 1.000 ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻝﺜ‬/‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﻘﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻀﺭﺏ‬)‫ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ‬(‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﻘﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. Top manag.StudentsteachersCriteria Alternative
  10. 10. 0.8330.6670.1A 0.1670.3330.9B 0.0730.6440.283 ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺒﻌ‬/‫ﺃﺴﺒﻘﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻀﺭﺏ‬)‫ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ‬(‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﻘﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. Teachers = 0.283 B = 0.9 × 0.283 = 0.255 A = 0.1 × 0.283 = 0.028 Students = 0.644 A = 0.667 × 0.644 = 0.430 B = 0.333 × 0.644 = 0.214 Top manag = 0.073 A = 0.833 × 0.073 = 0.061 B = 0.167 × 0.073 = 0.012 ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺨﺎﻤﺴ‬/‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﻝﻐﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺒﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻤﻊ‬. Alternatives = A = 0.028 + 0.430 + 0.061 = 0.519 B = 0.255 + 0.214 + 0.012 = 0.481 ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩ‬)A(‫ﻜﻭﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺼل‬. ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ‬)AHP(‫ﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺯﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﺫﺍ‬)interviewer (‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬.‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻝﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬‫ﺭﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺩ‬)4(‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬،‫ﻭﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬،‫ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺯﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎل‬‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ .‫ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻷﺠل‬)consistency index(‫ﻝﻠﻤﻌـﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺯﻭﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬: CriteriaTop manag.StudentsTeachers 0.28351/31Teachers 0.644٧13Students 0.073 X ١1/71/5Top manag.
  11. 11. (1) ( 0.283) + (1/3)(0.644) + (5)(0.073) = 0.862 (3) (0.283) + (1) (0.644) + (7) (0.073) = 2.004 (1/5) (0.283 ) + (1/7) ( 0.644) + (1) (0.073 ) = 0.220 ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻨﺎﻅﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺯﺍﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬ 0.682/ 0.283 = 3.045 2.004 / 0.644 = 3.111 0.220 / 0.073 = 3.013 9.169 ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬)3(‫ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬.‫ﻭﻝﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻝﻙ‬‫ﺍﺩﻨﻰ‬‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬.‫ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ‬)‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬(‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬‫ﻲ‬)3(‫ﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬: 9.169 = ٣ ٠٥٦ ٣ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬)C I(‫ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺴﺏ‬: ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ n=‫ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬)‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬(‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬( )‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬.‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻝﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺫﺍ‬. ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬)0.028(‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻝﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻝﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻨﻲ‬.‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻝﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺒﻭﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬.‫ﺘ‬‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺩ‬)CI(‫ﺍﻝﻌﺸﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬)Random index(‫ﻝﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ‬)RI(‫ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ‬)‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬(‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬.‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬( 2 ). ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)2(:‫ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ‬)RI(‫ﻝـ‬n‫ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ 1098765432N 1.511.451.411.321.241.120.900.580RI =C I n–3.056 1–n CI CI = = = 3–3.056 1–3 0.056 2 CI 0.028/
  12. 12. ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﺫﺍ‬‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻔﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺯﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬CI RI/.‫ﻝﺩﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ‬)3(‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬n=3‫ﺍﻝﻌﺸﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﺔ‬)RI(‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬)0.58(‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﻴﻨﻪ‬)2(‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬: 0.048= ‫ﻤﻘﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬)Satisfactory. (‫ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻝـﻙ‬RI / CI ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﻐﺭ‬0.10‫ﻓ‬‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺒﻭﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﻬﻲ‬CIRI/‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬0.10‫ﻋـﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬)AHP(‫ﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ‬]٤] [٨.[ ‫ﺘﻘﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻝﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺘﺄﺴﻴﺴ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻝﻤ‬‫ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺭ‬:‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻀﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺀ‬‫ﺒﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬:- ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‬:-‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬: ١–‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻀﻌﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬‫ﻝﻘـﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬. ٢-‫ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻀﻌﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻁﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬. ٣–‫ﻭﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻀﻌﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﺯﺍﻨﻬﺎ‬. ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴ‬:-‫ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬: ١-‫ﻭﺨﺼﻭﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻝﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬. ٢-‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻠﺯﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﻫﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬DSS. ٣-‫ﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬AHP‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫـﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘـﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬. ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬: CI RI = 0.028 0.58
  13. 13. 1- Noorderhaven , Niels , Decisions Making , Great Britain at Biddles of Guildford , 1995 . 2- Daft , Richard L . , Organization Theory and Design, 7th_ Edition , USA , 2001 . 3- Hatch, Mary Jo, Organization Theory Modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives, Oxford Univercity, 1997. 4- Taylor III , Bemard W. , Introduction to Management Science , Canada , 2007 . 5- Winston, Waynel& Albright,Christian S., Management Science Modeling, Canda, 2007. 6- Winston , Waynel . , operations Research , Applications and Algorithms " Third Edition , USA , 1994 . 7- Taha, Hamdy A. Operation Research, An Introduction, Eight Edition, New Jersey, 2007. 8- Stutzke, Richard D. , Tools For Decision Analysis and Resolution, Colorado, 2004.

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