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Quantitative Research Design

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Quantitative Research Design

  1. 1. JEFFREY A. LUCEROMPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEDr, FIIER Healthcare Provider, Educator, Research Generalist RESEARCH DESIGN
  2. 2. What is research design? What is its significance in writing a research paper? ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  3. 3. During the session, the participants are expected to: 1. Familiarize with the definition, purpose and nature of different research designs 2. Identify the different research designs in quantitative method; and 3. Select what research design can be applicable for a given research problem. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  4. 4. Research Design Definition “Research design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collection and analyzing the needed information” -William Zikmund “ Research design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance” -Kerlinger Methods Questions ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  5. 5. Identifying the appropriate method of gathering information Ideal to solve the problem identified ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  6. 6. Approaches in Research Qualitative Mixed Quantitative ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  7. 7. Significant relationship among variables through the use of numbers Meaning of responses, verbal or non-verbal ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  8. 8. Quantitative Research Designs •Describes •Relates variables Non- Experimental •Cause and effect Experimental ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  9. 9. Quantitative Research Designs Non-Experimental Descriptive Research Design Longitudinal Research Design Correlational Research Design Experimental True Experimental Design Quasi-Experimental Design ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  10. 10. Non-Experimental Research Design (1) • Descriptive Research Design • A design used to describe a certain condition or phenomenon in a given sample using quantifiable descriptors. • It involves the use frequency count, percentage, Likert scale, mean, and standard deviation in answering the research questions. • Example: • A teacher wants to determine the number of her students, grouped according to their sex, who are still non-readers. • A teacher wants to determine the general academic performance of her students in mathematics. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  11. 11. Non-Experimental Research Design (2) •Longitudinal Research Design • A design used to describe a certain condition or phenomenon in a given population using quantifiable descriptors. • It involves the use frequency count, percentage, Likert scale, mean, and standard deviation in answering the research questions. • It is the prolonged process of a descriptive research. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  12. 12. Non-Experimental Research Design (3) •Correlational Research Design •A design used to seek significant relationship between identified variables. • Example: • A teacher wants to find out if sex can be a predictor of performance in English in his class. • A teacher wants to determine if belonging to a broken family has a relationship to the students’ attitude towards attending classes. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  13. 13. Experimental Research Design (1) •True Experimental •Characteristics: •Randomization •Manipulation •Control The absence of ONE characteristic then makes the research quasi-experimental. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  14. 14. Experimental Research Design (2) •Quasi-Experimental •Pre-experimental •Time series design ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  15. 15. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  16. 16. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  17. 17. Definitions • Experimental Treatments • Alternative manipulations/intervention of the independent variable being investigated • Experimental Group • Group of subjects exposed to the experimental treatment • Control Group • Group of subjects exposed to the control condition • Not exposed to the experimental treatment ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  18. 18. •Extraneous Variables •Variables other than the manipulated variables that affect the results of the experiment •Can potentially invalidate the results ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  19. 19. Symbolism for Diagramming Experimental Designs X = exposure of a group to an experimental treatment O = observation or measurement of the dependent variable If multiple observations or measurements are taken, subscripts indicate temporal order – I.e., O1, O2, etc. = random assignment of test units; individuals selected as subjects for the experiment are randomly assigned to the experimental groups R
  20. 20. Pre-Experimental Designs • Do not adequately control for the problems associated with loss of external or internal validity • Cannot be classified as true experiments • Often used in exploratory research • Three Examples of Pre-Experimental Designs • One-Shot Design • One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design • Static Group Design ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  21. 21. 1. One-Shot Design • A.K.A. – after-only design • A single measure is recorded after the treatment is administered • Study lacks any comparison or control of extraneous influences • No measure of test units not exposed to the experimental treatment • May be the only viable choice in taste tests • Diagrammed as: X O1 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  22. 22. SAMPLE PROBLEM One-Shot Design A group of students were given a lecture about sentence patterns in English and then were given a some exercises about it. Diagrammed as: X O1 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  23. 23. 2. One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design • Subjects in the experimental group are measured before and after the treatment is administered. • No control group • Offers comparison of the same individuals before and after the treatment (e.g., training) • If time between 1st & 2nd measurements is extended, may suffer maturation • Can also suffer from history, mortality, and testing effects • Diagrammed as O1 X O2 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  24. 24. SAMPLE PROBLEM One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design Students in a homogenous section were given a diagnostic test in Mathematics. Then, they designed a software to improve learning outcomes in this subject. Afterwards, they were given an achievement test to show how technology can be successfully implemented in schools. • Diagrammed as O1 X O2 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  25. 25. 3. Static Group Design •A.K.A., after-only design with control group •Experimental group is measured after being exposed to the experimental treatment •Control group is measured without having been exposed to the experimental treatment •No pre-measure is taken •Major weakness is lack of assurance that the groups were equal on variables of interest prior to the treatment •Diagrammed as: Experimental Group X O1 Control Group O2 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  26. 26. SAMPLE PROBLEM Static Group Design A teacher is handling two groups of non-readers. In order to find out the effectiveness of her intervention, she applied it to one group while applying a traditional approach to the other. • Diagrammed as: • Experimental Group X O1 Control Group O2 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  27. 27. True-Experimental Designs • It can establish cause and effect relationships • Supports or refutes a hypothesis using statistical analysis • There are three criteria that must be met in a true experiment Control group and experimental group Researcher-manipulated variable Random assignment • Three Examples of True-Experimental Designs • Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design • Posttest-Only Control Group Design • Solomon Four-Group Design ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  28. 28. 1. Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design • A.K.A., Before-After with Control • True experimental design • Experimental group tested before and after treatment exposure • Control group tested at same two times without exposure to experimental treatment • Includes random assignment to groups • Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the same on both groups • Do run the risk of a testing effect ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  29. 29. Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design • Diagrammed as • Experimental Group: O1 X O2 • Control Group: O3 O4 • Effect of the experimental treatment equals (O2 – O1) -- (O4 – O3) R R ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  30. 30. SAMPLE PROBLEM Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design Researchers want to monitor the effect of a new teaching method upon two groups of children, both with pretest and posttest. Only the second group has the treatment. Other areas include evaluating the effects of counseling, testing medical treatments, and measuring psychological constructs. The only stipulation is that the subjects must be randomly assigned to groups, in a true experimental design. • Diagrammed as • Experimental Group: O1 X O2 • Control Group: O3 O4 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  31. 31. 2. Posttest-Only Control Group Design • A.K.A., After-Only with Control • True experimental design • Experimental group tested after treatment exposure • Control group tested at same time without exposure to experimental treatment • Includes random assignment to groups • Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the same on both groups • Do not run the risk of a testing effect • Use in situations when cannot pretest ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  32. 32. Posttest-Only Control Group Design •Diagrammed as • Experimental Group: X O1 • Control Group: O2 •Effect of the experimental treatment equals (O2 – O1) R R ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  33. 33. SAMPLE PROBLEM Posttest-Only Control Design A teacher is handling two groups of non- readers. In order to find out the effectiveness of her intervention, she applied it to one group while applying a traditional approach to the other. •Diagrammed as: • Experimental Group: X O1 • Control Group: O2 R R ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  34. 34. 3. Solomon Four-Group Design • True experimental design • Combines pretest-posttest with control group design and the posttest-only with control group design • Provides means for controlling the interactive testing effect and other sources of extraneous variation • Does include random assignment ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  35. 35. Solomon Four-Group Design • Diagrammed as • Experimental Group 1: O1 X O2 • Control Group 1: O3 O4 • Experimental Group 2: X O5 • Control Group 2: O6 • Effect of independent variable (O2 – O4) & (O5 – O6) • Effect of pretesting (O4 – O6) • Effect of pretesting & measuring (O2 – O5) • Effect of random assignment (O1 – O3) R R R R ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  36. 36. SAMPLE PROBLEM Solomon Four Group Design A researcher would like to find out the effect of reading intervention in the student’s English academic grade. All groups undergo randomization. First group, students with intervention, pretest & posttest. Second group, students with pretest & posttest only. Third group, students with intervention & posttest. Fourth group, students were given posttest only. • Diagrammed as • Experimental Group 1: O1 X O2 • Control Group 1: O3 O4 • Experimental Group 2: X O5 • Control Group 2: O6 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  37. 37. • Involves periodic measurements on the dependent variable for a group of test units (one group only) • After multiple measurements, experimental treatment is administered (or occurs naturally) • After the treatment, periodic measurements are continued in order to determine the treatment effect • Diagrammed as: O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8 Time Series Designs ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  38. 38. Time Series Design To examine the effect of using an online classroom on the academic performance of students in biology, The students’ performance is measured once before the program, and then 3 weeks after the program, and at the end of one quarter following program implementation. The outcomes at different time points are compared to assess the program effect. SAMPLE PROBLEM Diagrammed as: O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8 ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  39. 39. • A series of periodic measurements is taken from two groups of test units (an experimental group and a control). • The experimental group is exposed to a treatment and then another series of periodic measurements is taken from both groups. Diagrammed as: O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 O7 O8 O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8 Multiple Time Series Design ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  40. 40. Multiple Time Series Design Suppose that a weight loss study used different follow-up procedures for experimental and control group participants. The researchers assess weight data after one year by telephoning control group participants, but they have the intervention participants come in to the clinic to be weighed. Then the weight differences between the groups could be due to differing assessment procedures, rather than to the intervention. SAMPLE PROBLEM Diagrammed as: O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 O7 O8 O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8
  41. 41. ©JALucero, MPMG, MAEd, MAN, RN, CSE, SHNC, FRIN, FRIEdr, FIIER
  42. 42. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!

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