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is this guy?
Began in the web in 1995

Full CSS sites in 2002
Skills: UX, front-end dev, training

Recently: CSS pattern libraries
I have helped develop HTML/
CSS pattern libraries for very
large sites (media and university
sites) and complex applicatio...
In some cases, there are literally
hundreds of CSS, SCSS or
LESS files to review and
optimise as part of the process.
Moving away from
A few years ago, many front end
developers approached
websites and web applications
as a series of “pages”.
Pages were often designed and
built as complete entities. This
meant that page components
were often closely tied to their...
More recently, the focus has
shifted from full page layouts to
re-usable components.
A re-usable component could
be a layout grid structure, a
button, an input, a drop-down, a
menu, a heading, a table, or
pattern libraries
HTML/CSS pattern libraries are
used to resolve commonly used
interface components. These
components are created as
HTML an...
The terms “style guide” and
“pattern library” are often used
A style guide is a set of
standards for implementing the
overall design, and can include
corporate branding, color
Style guides are used to ensure
uniformity of the design or
“brand” across all aspects of
the website or application.
On the other hand, HTML/CSS
pattern libraries generally
document code components
for all aspects of the website or
On larger web projects, style
guides and HTML/CSS pattern
libraries are generally separate
For smaller web projects, style
guides and pattern libraries are
often combined into one
overall entity.
Pros and
Why use a pattern library at all?

Easier to build sites

Easier to maintain sites

Easier to hand over

Better workflow
What are the downsides?

Time-consuming to write

Often done post-project

Serve current need only
pattern libraries
There are a wide range of 

pre-existing pattern libraries
available today.
Some of these pattern libraries
have a simple purpose - such as
responsive grid systems.
Grid-based CSS libraries
1140 CSS Grid
Mueller Grid System
Responsive Grid System

Responsive Grid System

Less Framework
Others are considered full
“frameworks” that offer a wide
range of components.
These can include:

Reset styles

Grid systems

Typography styles

Browser fixes

Common user-interface
component styles
Complex CSS libraries







There are some great benefits to
using an existing framework:

ready-to-use solution

can pick & choose components

easy ...
There may also be some

may not suit your project

no need for a complex library

someone else’s conventions
Bootstrap vs. mid-range website
Bootstrap vs. University data site
Bootstrap vs. Banking application
Should you use a pre-existing
framework? It depends on the
needs of the site and your
team. There is no one answer.
Assuming you want to create
your own CSS pattern library,
how do you go about it?
Abstraction is essential to any
CSS pattern library.
The process involves:

looking for components that may
be repeated within the layout

defining their characteristics
An example:
coloured boxes
These boxes look like they have
similar characteristics. If they
were resolved into a pattern,
this would make our HTML an...
What are the key things to keep
in mind when creating any
Avoid using IDs
All patterns needs to be class-
based so they can appear as
many times as needed within an
HTML document.
/* avoid */!
#signup-box { }!
Avoid naming
based on content
We should avoid naming
patterns based on the content,
as we want to reuse these
patterns often within the layout.
/* avoid */!
.signup { }!
.member { }!
.member-news { }!
.wiki { }!
.support { }!
.database { }!
/* preferred */!
.box {...
Avoid location-
based styles
All patterns should work
regardless of where they’re
placed within the layout.
/* avoid */!
.sidebar .box { }!
.main .box { }!
/* preferred */!
.box { }
Avoid widths
Ideally, patterns should avoid
defining widths. Patterns should
be allowed to spread to the
width of any parent container.
/* avoid */!
.box-wide { width: 500px; }!
.box-medium { width: 240px; }!
.box-small { width: 120px; }!
/* preferred */!
Keep patterns as
simple as possible
Patterns should be defined as
simply as possible. Otherwise
they can become restrictive.
! border-bottom: 5px solid #C8C8C8;!
! background-color: #e6e6e6;!
! /* may not be suitable */!
! margin-bottom: ...
Don’t undo
Patterns should not be written
to undo other rules. For
example, the <h3> element:
We could be tempted to style
the <h3> element with a
coloured background - as it
looks like this is the “default”
/* default style */!
! padding: 1em;!
! color: white;!
! background-color: red;!
But what happens if we needed
to use an <h3> element later,
and it doesn’t have a
background-color? We might
have to write...
/* default style */!
! padding: 1em;!
! color: white;!
! background-color: red;!
/* undoing default style */!
It is best to avoid over-styling
elements or patterns so that
they do not have to be undone
/* default style */!
/* only when background needed */!
! padding: 1em;!
! color: white;!
! ba...
Avoid dependency
on HTML structure
Patterns should not rely on the
HTML structure. What happens
if the structure changes in some
instances - like a different
<div class="box">!
! <h3></h3>!
<div class="box">!
! <h4></h4>!
/* avoid if possible */!
.box h3, .box...
It is always better to create a
class-based pattern for any
specific styling needs.
<div class="box">!
! <h3 class="box-heading"></h3>!
<div class="box">!
! <h4 class="box-heading"></h4>!
modifiers & descendants
How can we let developers
know that our new class called
“box-heading” relates to the
“box” class?
<div class="box">!
! <h3 class="box-heading"></h3>!
We could use a naming
convention that was originally
defined as part of BEM:

And then extended by Nicolas

And then modified slightly
again by Harry Roberts:

This naming convention is based
on the idea that page layouts
can be broken down into a
series of re-usable “modules”.
If a module needs to be modified
or extended, a “module
modifier” would be used.
If a module has child elements
that need to be styled, a
“module descendant” could be
These different types of class
names need to be relatable and
/* Module */!
.module-name {}!
/* Module modifier*/!
.module-name--modifier-name {}!
/* Module descendant*/!
<!-- Module -->!
<div class="box"></div>!
<!-- Module modifier -->!
<div class="box box--alt"></div>!
<!-- Module desc...
With this naming convention, we
can now add two “module
descendants” to our HTML
<!-- Module -->!
<div class="box">!
! <!-- Module descendant -->!
! <h3 class="box__heading"></h3>!
! <!-- Module desc...
! margin-bottom: 1em;!
! border-bottom: 5px solid #C8C8C8;!
! background-color: #e6e6e6;!
Module modifiers
But what about the boxes that
are very similar, but have some
unique characteristics - like the
decorative cog image?
If we needed to modify or extend
the original module, we would
create a modifier class name.
<!-- Module modifier -->!
<div class="box box--alt">!
! <h3 class="box__heading"></h3>!
! <div class="box__content"></div>...
However, in this case, we need
to modify the “box__content”
class. We need to create a
“module descendant
<!-- Module modifier -->!
<div class="box">!
! <h3 class="box__heading"></h3>!
! <div class="box__content box__content
! padding-right: 100px;!
! background-image: url(cog.png);!
! background-repeat: no-repeat;!
! back...
In one of the boxes, there is a
piece of text that is aligned to
the right. How do we solve this?
We could make it another
module descendant - and
apply this to the link.
.box__link {}!
<div class="box">!
! <h3 class="box__heading"></h3>!
! <div class="box__content">!
! ! <p class="box_...
Or we could use a different type
of class, called a “helper” or
“utility” class.
Nicolas Gallagher’s SUIT CSS
includes a set of classes called

/* Utility classes */!
.u-utilityName {}!
<!-- example markup --> !
<article class="Tweet">!
! <a class="u-floatRight"...
Bootstrap also uses these types
of classes, but calls them
“helper” classes.

/* Utility classes */!
.text-muted { color: #777; } !
.text-primary { color: #428bca; }!
.text-success { color: #3c763d; }...
These types of classes are
designed to be added to
elements where needed,
without having to resort to
styling elements ind...
/* Helper classes */!
.h-text-right { text-align: right; }!
<!-- example markup --> !
<p class="h-text-right">!
! ...
For front-end developers who
grew up in the “keep your
markup clean” era, these
classes could be considered
the work of Sa...
I’ve found them to be invaluable
- when you need to add a single
function to an element without
having to create a specific...
Theme classes
In 2011, Jonathan Snook
introduced SMACSS. One of the
key principles is to categorise
CSS rules into five different
Base - HTML elements

Layout - grids

Module - reusable components

State - states of modules etc

Theme - theming modules...
These categories are a great way
to break up huge chunks of
CSS rules into manageable
We could use one of these
categories - theme styles - to
define the background-colors
on our headings.
<h3 class="box__heading bgcolor-red"></h3>!
<h3 class="box__heading bgcolor-blue"></h3>!
<h3 class="box__heading bgcolor-o...
.bgcolor-red, .bgcolor-blue, .bgcolor-
orange, .bgcolor-grey { color: #fff; }!
.bgcolor-red !
{ background-color: #B21F2...
Pattern library
Here are some tips on the
overall approach to CSS pattern
Smallest to largest
In mid 2013, Brad Frost
introduced Atomic Design - a
methodology for creating design
systems with five distinct levels
in a...
Atoms - HTML elements

Molecules - groups of atoms

Organisms - groups of molecules

Templates - groups of organisms

Atomic design defines the
process as starting from
smallest components and
building to largest.
Ideally, large components should
not need to be defined in a
pattern library as they should
be build up, like lego, from
Class names
Establish a class naming
convention as early as possible
in the process. Then document
this convention and enforce it!
Intuitive class
Make sure any class naming
convention is easy for others to
follow. I have worked on
projects where teams are
constantly c...
Keep it simple
I’ve worked on projects where
the LESS architecture needs to
be mapped out in spreadsheets
in order for teams to understan...
Bottom line:
HTML/CSS pattern libraries are
an important tool for anyone
doing CSS today no matter how
large or small your...
Russ Weakley

Max Design

Site: maxdesign.com.au

Twitter: twitter.com/russmaxdesign

Slideshare: slideshare.net/maxdesi...
Pre-existing pattern libraries
Pre-existing pattern libraries
Pre-existing pattern libraries
Pre-existing pattern libraries
Pre-existing pattern libraries
Pre-existing pattern libraries
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