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INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION FOR HEALTH

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INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION FOR HEALTH

  1. 1. INFORMATION EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION FOR HEALTH MATHEW T JOY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR HOLY CROSS COLLEGE OF NURSING
  2. 2. Health education • Acc. to the WHO, the health is the state of complete physical ,psychological social and spiritual well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity. • Health education is a term frequently used by health care professionals. It aims at achieving individual and community health. Health education is the translation of what is known about health into desirable individual and community behavior patterns by means of an educational process.
  3. 3. Continue….. • Acc. to the WHO, health education is like a general education which is concerned with changes in knowledge of people in its most usual forms, it concentrates on developing such practices as are believed to bring the best possible state of well-being. • Definition by John M.Last, health education as the presses by which individuals and groups of people learn to behave in a manner conducive to promotion, maintenance or restoration of health.
  4. 4. ALMAATA DECLARATION The declaration of alma ata (1978) emphasized the need for individual and community participation and gave a new meaning and direction to the practice of health education . Def: A process aimed at encouraging people to want to be healthy to know how to stay healthy, to do what they can individually and collectively to maintain health and to seek help when needed.
  5. 5. IMPORTANT COMPONENTS OF DEFINITION • Information: information that is relevant, interesting, simple and understandable. • Patient: the individual, family, group, people; what they think, feel, do, their value system, readiness to learn and bring in desired changes in their life style and environment. • Social environment: social culture and economic supports, barriers which may promote or inhibit behavior changes for health promotion. • Health education content: the content about health and disease, favorable and non favorable life style, environment, proper use of recourses and health care facilities, etc. • Communication methods: means for dissemination of and receiving information that can help in understanding, motivating and bringing in desired changes of healthy leaving.
  6. 6. Aims of health education: The definition adopted by WHO in 1969 and the Alma Ata declaration adopted in 1978 provide a useful basis for formulating the aims and objectives of health education.  To help the people understand that health is the most valuable community asset, and to help them achieve optimum health by their own activities and efforts.  To develop a sense of responsibility for improving their health as individual members of families and communities.
  7. 7.  To develop scientific knowledge, attitude, skills on health matters to enable people to develop correct habits.  To educate people for proper use of health services in whatever forms it is made available to them by the government.  To alter behavior that may have directly or indirectly influenced the occurrence or spread of diseases in a given setting, a culturally relevant health education program can be planned only after understanding the behavior in all its manifestations.
  8. 8. • Promoting the greater possible fulfilment of inherited powers of the body and the mind and happy adjustment of an individual in the society. • To provide a person with appropriate knowledge to enjoy decent health and also knowledge about the occurrence and spread of disease thus enabling him to adopt relevant preventive measures. • To create in him an interest in his own health and well-being. • To create in him an interest for the health of other members of his family as well those living in his surroundings. • To create in him a desire to support health education programmes in his area.
  9. 9. OBJECTIVE OF HEALTH EDUCATION: • The main objectives of health education are:- – To inform people or disseminate scientific knowledge about prevention of disease and promotion of health. – To motivate people to change their habits and lifestyle that are harmful to their health and also motivate people to adopt habits and ways of living conducive to healthy living. – To guide the people who need help to adopt and maintain healthy practices and lifestyle by showing proper community resources.
  10. 10. PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION: • Credibility of massage • Creating interest among participants • Motivating the participants • Enhance comprehension of content • Ensure reinforcement • Encourage active participation • Learning by doing • Known to unknown • Maintaining good human relations • Setting an example • Regular feedback • Efficient leadership
  11. 11. SCOPES OF HEALTH EDUCATION HUMAN BIOLOGY NUTRITION HYGIENE FAMILY HEALTH DISEASE PREVENTION & CONTROL PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS USE OF HEALTH SERVICES
  12. 12. IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH EDUCATION • The ultimate aim of health care is to promote, protect and maintain health and not only treat the disease. The requires people to have sufficient knowledge and bring in a change in a health behavior. This is possible through continuous and sustained health education. • Shortened hospital stays with early ambulation requires the preparation of patients and their family members for their convalescence and care they may have to undergo at home. This is done through health education as part of the total nursing care from the time of admission till the time of discharge. • There has been increase in long term and chronic illnesses and disabilities and both the patients and the families require a thorough understanding of the disease, related problems and treatment through well planned and organized health education programmes.
  13. 13. Continue….. • The consumer protection and human rights movements imply the need and importance of health education to become informed and act according to existing situations. • The goal of health for all and all the health lays emphasis on self care, self help and sufficiency, which determines the need for health education to bring in a change in health education, attitude and behavior. • For effective utilization of services that are planned and provided to the people through infrastructure in rural and urban areas, consumer participation is very important. This is made possible through education of people at large and specific groups in particular.
  14. 14. PLANNING FOR THE HEALTH EDUCATION  Health education cannot be planned in a vacuum.  It is planned in connection with a specific health programme or health service. Therefore the specifics of health education strategy in a group have to be formulated in accordance with its sociocultural, psychosocial, physical, economic and situational characteristics.  The planner should be fully conversant with the health education needed of the particular programme for which health education is to be planned.  It is essential to plan the health education activities before they are implemented so that desired objectives of the health education may be achieved more appropriately and effectively.
  15. 15. KEY QUESTIONS TO ASK WHEN PLANNING WHAT WILL BE DONE ? WHEN WILL IT BE DONE? WHERE WILL IT BE DONE? WHO WILL DO IT? WHAT RESOURCES ARE REQUIRED?
  16. 16. PURPOSE OF PLANNING IN HEALTH EDUCATION • Planning enables matching resources to the problem intended to solve through health education. • Planning helps in using resources more efficiently so that the best use of scarce resources may be ensured. • Planning helps in avoiding duplication of activities. For example you would not offer health education on the same topic to households at every visit. • Planning helps in prioritizing needs and activities. This is useful because the community may have a lot of problems but not the resources or the capacity to solve all these problems at the same time. • Planning enables thinking about how to develop the best methods to solve a problem.
  17. 17. Principles of planning in health education. • Focus on actual current needs and context of community. • Plan for basic needs and interest of the community. • Planning with actual beneficiaries of health education. • Identify and use all relevant community resources. • Follow principle of flexibility. • A realistic plan not hypothetical.
  18. 18. ASSESS NEED IDENTIFY AND PRIORITIZE SET GOALS AND OBJECTIVES DEVELOP STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION MONITOR AND EVALUATE STEPS IN PLANNING HEALTH EDUCATION
  19. 19. HEALTH EDUCATION WITH INDIVIDUAL, GROUP AND COMMUNITIES • HEALTH EDUCATION CAN BE CARRIED OUT AT VARIOUS LEVELS: • INDIVIDUAL LEVEL • GROUP LEVEL • COMMUNITY LEVEL • MASS LEVEL
  20. 20. HEALTH EDUCATION WITH INDIVIDUAL • Individual health education is an important part of the health education process by which includes the exchange of opinions, feelings,ideas or information with another person. • Nurses are routinely engaged in providing individual health education their patients, patients family in hospital as well as the community. • It can be more powerful than other methods of communication in bringing about health related behavioural change.
  21. 21. • Individual health education approach provides the opportunity to create mutual understanding between the two people: the one providing the health education and the receiver. They more closely interact and give and receive feedback immediately. • It also creates the opportunity to discuss problems that are sensitive and need special handling, for ex. Discussion on sexuality.
  22. 22. CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUAL LEVEL HEALTH EDUCATION • IT HELPS THE INDIVIDUALS TO LEARN AND ASSIMILATE HEALTH INFORMATION TO MODIFY CHANGE THEIR BEHAVIOUR. • IT MAY BE GIVEN IN PERSONAL INTERVIEWS IN THE PHYSICIAN’S CONSULTATION ROOM OR IN THE HEALTH CENTRE OR IN THE PEOPLE’S HOMES. • INDIVIDUALS CAN BE TAUGHT ACCORDING TO THEIR INTEREST. • IT MAY BE INCIDENTAL OR A WELL PLANNED ACTIVITY. • IT CAN BE IN THE FAMILY, SCHOOL, HEALTH CENTRES, CLINICS, OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENTS OR HOSPITAL WARDS. • TOPICS CAN BE SELECTED ACCORDING TO THE RELEVANCE OF THE SITUATION.
  23. 23. METHODS OF INDIVIDUAL HEALTH EDUCATION • HOME VISIT • PERSONAL CONTACT / COUNCELLING • PERSONAL LETTER
  24. 24. ADVANTAGES OF INDIVIDUAL HEALTH EDUCATION • The health educator can discuss, argue and persuade the individual to change his or her behavior. • It provides an opportunity to ask questions in terms of specific interest. • Individuals get an opportunity to clarify their doubts more promptly and easily.
  25. 25. LIMITATIONS OF INDIVIDAUL HEALTH EDUCATION • We can reach only a small number of people who come in contact with us. • It is time consuming and an expensive methods of health education. • It needs more efforts by the health educator.
  26. 26. • Group health education may be a useful way to deliver health education messages in an efficient manner. The group can provide support and encouragement to its members so they are able to maintain healthy behavior. • A well organized group permits sharing of experiences and skills so that people are able to learn from each other this makes its possible to pool the resources of all members. GROUP HEALTH EDUCATION
  27. 27. METHODS OF GROUP HEALTH EDUCATION LECTURE METHOD GROUP DISCUSSION DEMONSTRATION PANNEL DISCUSSIONS SYMPOSIUM WORKSHOPS CONFERENCE AND SEMINARS ROLE PLAY FIELD TRIP METHOD SKIT BUZZ SESSIONS OPEN FORUM
  28. 28. HEALTH EDUCATION WITH COMMUNITY • It is meant for defined community and its not only to create awareness but also to help people understand their health problems and need, find alternative solutions to their problems and needs, implement them, evaluate and get feedback and accordingly do the needful. • For health education at the community level, it is better to approach local leaders who are influential and who have the people’s confidence. Theses may include local officers such as patwari,numberdar, punchawat surpanch, police officer or block development officer. • Community level intervention combines the community organization and social marketing strategy that takes a systems approach.
  29. 29. • Although the intervention strategy is community based, community level interventions target specific population not simply the community in general. The patient populations have identified shared risk behaviors for disease and may also be identified by race, ethnicity, gender, or other health related behaviors.
  30. 30. Communicating health massages • Communicating health massages or health communication has become increasingly centered to health promotion efforts in last 20 years. Health communication is a very broad field of study that includes analysis of the interaction between health care providers and consumers in the delivery of care, the way consumers seek relevant health information, the provision of social support, the preserving and sharing of health information using different media and information terminologies, the sharing of health information for informed health care decisions making use of communication to coordinate interdependent activities between the health care providers, the administration of personnel and resources within complex health care systems and the development of health communication campaign interventions for health education and promotion.
  31. 31. • According to Everett Rogers, A pioneer in the communication field as any type of human communication concerned with health. Communication a health message encompasses the study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.
  32. 32. Factors contributing to the successful communication of health messages • Clarity of message: the massage should be clear to the audience. • Accuracy of massage:the massage delivered for health education must be accurate and fateful without the presence of any error. • Availability of appropriate resources to deliver the health massage: it must be ensured that there is Availability of appropriate resources for communicating the health massage because the target people must be able to have access and availability of these resources to receive the health message.
  33. 33. • Consistency in delivering the health message: there must be a provision that the health message is delivered consistency to the target people so that their motivation can help them achieve the desired goals or objectives of health education. • Health message must be cultural, competent and appropriate: each society or group of people as set cultural values; therefore, it must be ensured that the health message delivered in culturally appropriate to avoid undue problems and hindrances of health message delivery.
  34. 34. • Validity and reliability of the health message: the health message to be delivered must be valid and reliable for the content and method of message delivery so that desired purpose of health education may be achieved. • Constant repetition and re- enforcement : there must be constant repetition and re-enforcement for communication of the health message whenever required because that helps in bringing a permanent change in the health behavior of individuals who are reluctant to accept the expected change in their health behavior.
  35. 35. • Understandability of the health message to be communicated: the language and the content of the health message to be delivered must be understandable to the recipients so that the desired purpose may be achieved. • Feasibility of the health message: it must be ensure that the health message to be delivered is feasible in terms of time, money and resource available. • A realistic message: the messages must be realistic.
  36. 36. THE MESSANGERS’ FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE SUCCESSFUL COMMUNICATION OF THE HEALTH MESSAGE 1. POWER 1. PERCEIVED EXPERTISE 1. PERCEIVED HONESTY ATTRACTIVENES S OF MESSANGER 1. BEING SEMILAR TO THE TARGET AUDIENCE
  37. 37. METHODS AND MEDIA FOR COMMUNICATING THE HEALTH MESSAGE INDIVIDUAL/ GROUP METHOD AND MEDIA MASS METHODS AND MEDIA INDIVIDUAL INTERACTIONS: interview, dialogue, personal message or personal letter and home visit. LECTURE METHOD: media used is chalk and talk, flip charts, flannel charts, exhibition charts, posters etc. GROUP DISCUSSTION: demonstrations, panel discussions, symposium, workshops, conference, seminars, role playing, field trip method, skits, buzz sessions, and open forum. PERFORMING ARTS: music songs, dramas, skits, puppet shows, poetry, speech, gossips, jokes etc. VISUAL ARTS : paintings, certain printed literature, handicrafts and costuming. THE COMMON MEDIA USED ARE : television, radio, internet, printed material, direct material, posters, health museum and exhibitions.

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