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RH BILL1. Who among you have heard or read anything about the issue on RH Bill?
RH BILL2. What do you know about the said issue?
RH BILL3. What is your stand about the Bill? Are you pro-RH Bill? Or are you against it?4. Why do you say so?
Every time we expressed an argument, we used statements that would really hit the idea that we want to express.
That is why we need to think carefully and logically so that the statement would be accepted as true.
LOGICAL REASONINGConditional Statement p q has two parts: a hypothesis denoted by p, and a conclusion, denoted by q.
EXAMPLE 1:Glass objects are fragile.Conditional:If the objects are made of glass, then they are fragile. (TRUE)
LOGICAL REASONINGConverse Statement:-“If q, then p” is written as q p
EXAMPLE 1:Glass objects are fragile.Converse:If the objects are fragile, then they are made of glass. (FALSE)
LOGICAL REASONINGInverse Statement:- “If not p, then not q” is written as ~ p ~ q
EXAMPLE 1:Glass objects are fragile.Inverse:If the objects are not made of glass, then they are not fragile. (FALSE)
LOGICAL REASONINGContrapositive Statement:- “If not q, then not p” is written as ~ q ~ p
EXAMPLE 1:Glass objects are fragile.Contrapositive:If the objects are not fragile, then they are not made of glass. (FALSE)
LOGICAL REASONINGBiconditional:is form when a conditional and its converse are both true.In symbols: “p if and only if q” is written as p q
EXAMPLE 1:Glass objects are fragile.Biconditional:No biconditional statements can be drawn since the converse statement is false.
For BICONDITIONAL:ORIGINAL: Mammals have mammary glandsCONDITIONAL: If an animal is a mammal, then it has a mammary gland. (TRUE)
For BICONDITIONAL:CONVERSE: If an animal has mammary gland, then it is a mammal. (TRUE)BICONDITIONAL: An animal is a mammal if and only if it has a mammary gland. (TRUE)
Conditional statement may be true or false. To show that a conditional statement is TRUE, you must construct a logical argument using reasons.
1. Definition- a statement of a word, or term, or phrase which made use of previously defined terms2. Postulate- is a statement which is accepted as true without proof.
3. Theorem- is any statement that can be proved true.4. Corollary- to a theorem is a theorem that follows easily from a previously proved theorem.
EXAMPLE 2:Complementary angles are any twoangles whose sum of their measureis 90.CONDITIONAL: If two angles are complementary, then the sum of their measure is 90 . TRUE
CONVERSE: If the sum of the measures of two angles is 90, then they are complementary. TRUEBICONDITIONAL: Two angles are complementary if and only if the sum of their measure is 90. TRUE
INVERSE: If two angles are not complementary, then the sum is not . TRUECONTRAPOSITIVE: If the sum of the measures of two angles is not 90, then they are not complementary. TRUE
EXAMPLE 3:The sum of two odd numbers iseven.CONDITIONAL: If two numbers are odd, then their sum is even. TRUECONVERSE: If the sum of two numbers is even, then they are odd numbers. TRUE
BICONDITIONAL: Two numbers are odd if and only if their sum is even. TRUEINVERSE: If two numbers are even, then their sum is odd. FALSE
CONTRAPOSITIVE: If the sum of the numbers is odd, then they are odd numbers. FALSE
DEDUCTIVE REASONING-from deduce means to reason form known facts;-use in proving theorem;-using existing structures to deduce new parts of the structure.-“if a, then b”
SYLLOGISM- an argument made up of three statements: a major premise, a minor premise (both of which are accepted as true), and a conclusion.
EXAMPLES OF SYLLOGISM:Major Premise: If the numbers are odd, then their sum is even.Minor Premise: The numbers 3 and 5 are odd numbers.Conclusion: the sum of 3 and 5 is even.
EXAMPLES OF SYLLOGISM:Major Premise: If you want good health, then you should get 8 hours of sleep a day.Minor Premise: Aaron wants good health.Conclusion: Aaron should get 8 hours of sleep a day.
EXAMPLES OF SYLLOGISM:Major Premise: Right angles are congruent.Minor Premise: ∟1 and ∟2 are right angles.Conclusion: ∟1 and ∟2 are congruent.
EXAMPLES OF SYLLOGISM:Major Premise: Diligent students do their homeworks.Minor Premise: Amy and Andy are diligent students.Conclusion: Amy and Andy do their homeworks.
INDUCTIVE REASONING:It is a process of observing data, recognizing patterns, and making generalizations from observations.
Geometry is rooted in inductive reasoning. The geometry of ancient times was a collection of procedures and measurements that gave answers to practical problems.
Used to calculate land areas, build canals, and build pyramids.Using inductive reasoning to make a generalization called conjecture.
Use inductive reasoning to find thenext term/figure of each sequence.