2. What is geography?
science that studies the spatial differentiation and
distribution of phenomena of earth.
ancient and honorable field of learning with its
roots firmly set in classical antiquity.
It comes from two greek words: “geo” which means
the earth and “graphein/graphe” meaning “to
write” or “ to draw”, literally then, it means “earth
3. Understanding the tools of geography
Exploration- the act of traveling and searching for resources or
for information about the land or space itself.
Geocode (Geospatial Entity Object Code) – geospatial coordinate
system for specifying the exact location of a geospatial point at, below,
or above the surface of the earth at a given moment of time.
Geographic information system (GIS)- set of tools
that captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and presents data that are
linked to location(s). Combines elements of cartography, statistical
analysis, and database technology.
Globe- a three-dimensional scale model of a spheroid celestial
body such as a planet, star, or moon.
(Main articles: Geosophy and Philosophy of geography)
4. Terrestrial globe – globe of the Earth.
Map-a visual representation of an area, depicting the elements of
that area such as objects, regions, and themes.
Cartography– the study and practice of making maps.
Atlas- a collection of maps, typically of the Earth or a region
Map projection– any method of representing the surface of a
sphere or other shape on a plane. Necessary for creating maps.
(Main articles: Geosophy and Philosophy of
5. Demographics -the characteristics of a human population as
used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the
demographic profiles used in such research. Distinct from
demography, which is the statistical study of human populations.
Spatial analysis- a variety of statistical techniques used to
study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic
Surveying - the technique and science of accurately determining
the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the
distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the
surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps
and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes.
(Main articles: Geosophy and Philosophy of geography)
6. Two major subdivisions of geography
Physical or Natural
-describes and explains the distribution of the natural
features of the earth and defines the regions that are
continually affected by forces and processes in nature.
Humans or Cultural
-deals with the distribution of people, their cultural
attributes and their activities on the earth surface.
7. Fundamental concepts
-can be nominal, absolute or relative.
- can be an absolute physical measure, using units such as
kilometers or miles, or they can be relative, express in terms of time,
effort or cost.
- pertains to how things are located and situated in space
(patterns and density).
- refers to level of analysis, and direction-refers to the
angular orientation of a thing , a person, or an object.
- the opportunity for contact or for interaction from a
given point of location.
- all kinds of movement and flows that involve human
9. THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY
- “Where are we?” is the question that the theme
-may be absolute or it may be relative.
-these locations, whether relative or absolute,
may be of people or places.
Absolute location- is a latitude and longitude (a global
location) or a street address (local location).
Relative locations- are described by landmarks , time
direction or distance from one place to another and
may associate a particular place with another.
10. 2. PLACE
- have both human and physical characteristics ,
as well as images.
Physical characteristics – include mountains, rivers,
soil, beaches, wildlife.
Human characteristics – are derive from the ideas
and actions of people that
result in changes to the
environment, such as
buildings, roads, clothing,
and food habits.
11. 3. Human / Environmental Interaction
- we change the environment and then sometime
Mother Nature changes it back.
for Example: floods in the mid- West,
Hurricane Emily( Hatteras), and
earthquakes and mudslides in
Three key concepts to human/ environmental interaction
- Humans adapt on the environment.
- Humans modify the environment.
- Humans depend to the environment.
12. 4. MOVEMENT
- the movement of people, the import and
export of goods, and mass communication
have all played major roles in shaping our
world. People everywhere interact.
- people interact with each other through
13. 5. REGIONS
- is the basic unit of study in geography.
- is an area that displays a coherent unity
interms of the government, language, or
possibly the landform or situation.
- are human constructs that can be mapped and
14. Three basic types of Regions
-Formal Regions – are those defined by governmental
or administrative boundaries.
- Functional Regions- are those defined by a
- Vernacular Regions – are those loosely defined by
15. Themes of Geographic Study or
AREA STUDIES TRADITION
EARTH SCIENCE TRADITION
16. Learning to Make, Read, and Use
GETTING TO KNOW THE MAP:
1. Key / Symbols / Legend – learn to recognize
between the difference landmarks represented on your
map and, specifically, the route your taking.
2. Map Scale – Know the scale so that at a glance you
can see how far roughly you will be walking for, so that
you can plan your breaks, etc.
17. 3. Grid References – understand your maps grid
reference system and mark on key points, and might be a
good starting point to provide distances at a glance.
4. Height / Relief – Know the altitude, and learn to
spot using the contours of the map when the relief of the
land descends or ascends too quickly for you to
comfortably follow a particular route. Contours can also
be used as navigational landmarks and can help make a 2
dimensional map 3 dimensional in your mind.
5. Compass – make sure your compass is working before
you leave, and that you know how to use it! Advice is
18. READING A MAP:
-Reading a map is a skill that children love using.
-There is a sense of adventure that goes along
with traveling and exploring with the aid of
-Teaching your child to read a map will be
an enjoyable task.
19. LEARNING TO MAKE MAPS
-While normally associated with brainstorming
sessions, learning maps also have a place in study.
These maps, also known as concept maps, are
related to the outline but have a less restrictive
format, making them a natural option for taking
20. -Learning maps, similar in appearance to flow
charts and mind maps, can be used for lectures or
for mapping out a report.
Concept Map- is a diagram showing the relationship
among concepts. It is a graphical tool
for organizing and representing
21. LEARNING TO USE MAPS
As one of the most useful research tools in
environmental history, maps use vivid, visual
information to tell vast stories about place, space, and
time in a relatively small format.
There are literally hundreds of different kinds of
maps that can be used to tell very different stories.
One of the first things you need to ask when using
maps in your research is: What kind of map will best
convey or support my argument?
22. Why I choose the topic?
I choose the topic about Exploring our
geographic world, because it is helpful
and interesting to learn. It makes
everyone who was studying this, better
understand the relationships between
people and their environment. Also, it
gives us information that we want to know
about our geography or help us understand
our geographic world.
As we know about geography, literally, it means
“earth description”, and studying geography help us
understand the world we are living in.
In studying our geography, I learned about this
that, it teaches us important skills because through
this studies, you can learn to read maps. There is also
two major subdivisions of geography, the Physical/
Natural Elements and the Cultural/ Human Elements.
24. Wherein in here, it help us differentiate the natural
features and the man-made features in the earth.
Also, it helps me understand the difference between
the map and a globe, and the relationship between
humans and the environment in which we are living
As a student, there's really a need to study our
geography for us to better understand the world.
Making us more knowledgeable about the geography
of our own country where we live in.