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  1. Socialization Prepared By: Maryan Joy Lopez
  2.  Stimulates children’s physical development; coordination and strength gradually improve, so they can feed themselves and walk.  While these biological developments are occurring, children are talked to handled by caregivers who provided them with food and protect them from physical harm.
  3.  In 1964, a classic study by Rene Spitz on hospitalism indicates that infants must have social contact with caregivers as well as physical care from them in order to develop normally.
  4.  The long and complicated process of social interaction through which the child learns the intellectual, physical and social skills needed to function as a member of society is called …..  The process of socialization begins at birth and continues through all of life.
  5.  During early childhood, we learn, most of all, from our parents who teach us through instruction that values, norms and skills that they have already.  They learn through observation and imitation.  They acquire a self-identity, a concept of who they are. Later, they will realize that certain behavior is expected in them.
  6.  According to Fichter, socialization is a process of mutual influence between a person and his fellowman, a process that results in an acceptance of, and adaptation to, the patterns of social behavior.
  7.  He also said that a person becomes social when he learns to get along with other people.
  8. Socialization can be described from two points of view:  It refers to the society acting upon the child  It refers to the process by which the society transmits its culture from one generation to the next and adapts the individual to the accepted and approved ways of organized social life.
  9. 1. To develop the skills and disciplines which are needed by the individual. 2. To instill the aspirations and values and the “design for living” which the particular society possess. 3. To teach the social roles of which individuals must enact in society.
  10.  The process of socialization is continuously at work “outside” the individual.  It affects not only the children and immigrants when they first come into the society but all the people within the society in all of their lives.  It provides them the patterns of behavior which are essential to the maintenance of the society and culture.
  11.  Subjectively, socialization is a process which goes on in the individual while he is adapting to the people around him.  The person “takes on” the habits of the society in which he lives. From the period of infancy, the individual becomes gradually “socially broken”.  As an imigrant, the person becomes sociologically “naturalize” to his adapted society.
  12.  Every society transmits its culture to succeeding generations. Through this, each generation acquires the elements of its society’s culture.
  13.  The training of every child received through the process of socialization greatly affects his personality.
  14.  It provides every individual the expected role he or she is to play in the society according to their sexes.
  15.  In the early times, it was believed that the difference in behavior between boys and girls were “inborn” and “natural”.  She studied primitive societies where sex roles differed sharply from those found in Western society.
  16.  She conclude that “masculine and feminine behavior was not inborn but was learned”.
  17.  Socialization rather than biology, determined behavioral differences between men and women.  Training children in behavior appropriate to their sex starts in infancy and continues into adolescence.
  18.  As the child is socialized into the society, he learns many things. The accumulated experience of this individual in his society forms the background from which he undergoes new experiences.  The sociologists say that the culture becomes “internalized”, that the individual “imbibes” it, and that in this way, “from the inside”, it continues to influence his conduct. Hence, the culture is not merely external to the individual. .
  19.  The ways of life he has learned, the ideas he holds, the values he treasures, all in some way come originally from outside of him.  A person tends to think and act according to the degree of conformity that he has achieved.  It has the social experiences of the individual as its content. There are the vantage points of reference and of comparison against which he forms opinions and judgments and according to which he behaves, often without any conscious reflection.
  20.  According to Fichter, this is the storehouse in which a person readily finds how he is expected to behave in the usual and frequently repeated situations of social life.  It is also the storehouse in which he draws for similarities out of the past when he is confronted with a novel social situation.  He said that social experience is (1) common to all human beings; (2) unique to each person; (3) specific to a particular culture and society.
  21.  The process of socialization can ultimately be reduced to the fact that the individual learns by contact to the society.  The process not to individual knowledge, which also comes from contact with others, but to shared knowledge which has social significance.  From this point of view, the manner in which he learns does not differ from that of simple learning.
  22.  The difference between simple learning and social learning is not in who learns, or in how he learns, but in what he learns.
  23.  The interaction between the learner and the thing learned is called a “response”.  The “reward” refers to any objet or event in which strengthens or makes easier the responses of the individual in striving to learn.
  24. Some of the subprocesses of social learning;  One tends to duplicate more or less, or exactly, the behavior of others.
  25.  A process outside the learning. It is found in the works and actions of those who are attempting to change the behavior of the learner.
  26.  It is a stimulative process in which two or more individuals vie with one another in achieving knowledge.
  27.  It is clear that the essential prerequisites of social learning are “contact’ and “communication”.  Human life is quite different from that of other animals because people are able to use languages or symbol to communicate.  A symbol is anything that is used to represent something else.
  28.  George Mead, an early symbolic interactionist, argued that human beings were the only animals who could manipulate symbols or communicate through language.
  29.  The goal is the state of affairs one wishes to achieve.  Motivation is a person’s wish or intention to achieve a goal.
  30.  Where a social interaction takes place makes a difference in what it means. Edward Hall identified three elements that define context: 1. The physical setting or place 2. Social environment 3. The activities surrounding the interaction
  31.  It refers to the rules that regulate the process of social interaction. Human behavior is patterned and for the most part, quite predictable.
  32.  When people do something for each other with the expressed purpose of receiving a reward or return, they are involved in an exchange.
  33.  This is a form of social interaction in which people act together to promote common interests or achieve shared goals.
  34. According to Robert Nisbet, a sociologists, there are four types of cooperation;  This is the oldest, most natural and most common form of cooperation. It arises from the needs of the situation.  Form of cooperation that is tied to custom and is passed on from one generation to the next.
  35.  Characterized by a joint effort that is under the control of people in authority. This is planned in advance and requires leadership.  This is a form of planned cooperation in which each person’s specific obligations are clearly spelled out.
  36.  People in conflict struggle with one another for some commonly prized object or value.  Conflict arises when people or groups have incompatible values or when the rewards or resources available to a society or its members are limited.
  37.  This is a special kind of conflict that can occur when one of the parties in a conflict is much stronger that the other.
  38.  It is a form of conflict in which individuals or groups confine their conflict within agreed upon rules.
  39.  It is from the perspective of the group rather than the individual. From it, we gain the image of people adapting to the attitudes of others, conforming to role expectations, and internalizing the norms and values of their community.
  40.  An analysis of what people say and do is not sufficient to explain human behavior. We need to understand the meaning that people attach to their words and actions. According to this, people employ symbols to convey meanings to one another.  Charles Horton Cooley developed the idea of the looking-glass-self. We acquire our sense of self by seeing ourselves reflected in the behavior of others and their attitudes toward us and by imagining what others think about us.
  41. The looking-glass-self involves three processes;  Presentation where we imagine the way we appear to others.  Identification where we identify with how we imagine others judge that appearance.  Subjective interpretation where we interpret those judgments for our own self image.
  42.  According to Mead, the self is something which has development. She also said that children develop a generalized impression of what people expect from them, it is termed generalized others.  According to Harry Sullivan, by enacting the behavior of the significant others, children come to incorporate the standards, attitudes, and beliefs of parents and teachers within their own personalities, a process termed internalization.
  43.  According to Karl Marx, capitalist society is torn by a fundamental conflict of interest between capitalists and workers.  Sigmund Freud also took the conflict view of socialization called social and biological conflict. He believed that every society has to repress and channel the primitive drives of people; otherwise civilization will be destroyed.
  44. 1.The Family .
  45. 2. Peer Groups
  46. 4. The school
  47. 3. The media
  48. 5. The workplace
  49. 1. Erick Erickson’s eight stages of human development
  50. 2. Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis theory 3. Jean Piaget’s cognitive development 4. George Mead- founder of symbolic interaction perspective in sociology. 5. Lawrence Kohlberg’s moral development