4. ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO
MENTAL HEALTH CARE
An alternative approach to mental
health care is one that emphasizes the
interrelationship between mind, body, and
spirit. Although some alternative
approaches have a long history, many
5. HISTORY OF ALTERNATIVE
The National Center for
Complementary and Alternative
Medicine (NCCAM) at the National
Institutes of Health was created in 1992
to help evaluate alternative methods of
treatment and to integrate those that
are effective into mainstream health
The National Centre for Complimentary and
Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) defines,
“complimentary and alternative medicine
(CAM) as a group of diverse medical and
health care system, practices and products
that are not presently considered to be a part
of conventional medicine”.
Complimentary therapies are those used in
conjunction with conventioal medical practice.
Alternative therapies are those that are
used instead of conventional medicine.
7. REASONS WHY PEOPLE SEEK CAM
Wanting greater control over their lives.
Having a sense of responsibility for their own
Wanting a more holistic orientation in health
Concern over the side effects of
Finding the result of conventional treatments
to be inadequate
A desire for cultural and philosophical
congruence with personal belief about health
Dissatisfaction with conventional health care.
Unwilling to ‘grin and bear’ the effects of
The rapid pace and ease of information
In 1999, Eliopoulos identified FIVE basic
principles underlying CAM:
1. The body has the ability to heal itself
2. Health and healing are related to a harmony
of body and spirit.
3. Basic good health practices build the
foundation for healing.
4. Healing practices are individualized.
5. The people are responsible for their own
11. MAJOR DOMAIN OF CAM USED IN
Alternative medical system
Manipulative and Body-
12. MAJOR DOMAIN OF CAM USED IN
Alternative medical system:
The Chinese practice of inserting
needles into the body at specific points
manipulates the body's flow of energy to
balance the endocrine system.
This manipulation regulates functions
such as heart rate, body temperature, and
respiration, as well as sleep patterns and
The benefit of acupuncture include:
1. Improvement the micro-circulation.
2. Relaxation of muscles.
3. Release of endorphins, enkephalins,
serotonin and adrenocorticotropic
4. Activation of B and T lymphocytes.
5. Improvement in the complete blood cell.
21. AYURVEDIC MEDICINE
It is a natural antidote to diseases as well as
powerful healer for stress.
To integrate and balance the body, mind,
Ayurveda uses diet, herbs, massage, yoga,
internal cleaning and life-styles adjustment
to harmonize body, mind and spirit.
23. Homeopathic medicine
Homeopathy seeks to stimulate the
body ability to heal itself by giving very
small doses of highly diluted substances
that in larger to produce the illness or
symptoms ( an approach called ‘like
I. Homeopathy believes that their remedies
mobilize the body vital force to co-ordinated
healing responses throughout of the body.
II. The body translates the information on the
local physical changes that leads to
recovery from acute and chronic diseases.
It focuses 0n the self healing and health
care is tailored to the individual needs.
A teacher establishing and maintaining
optimal health and balance, treatment of
the whole person.
Prevention of disease through a healthy
lifestyle and therapeutic use of nutrition.
28. Spiritual healing and prayer
Spiritual intervention focuses on
developing a sense of meaning, purposes
and hope for individuals in their current
This may be a religious or non-religious
experience depending on the individual own
30. Herbal therapies
Herbal medicine, the oldest known
from of health care, uses plants to treat
disease and promote health.
Herbal medicine are available as
extract, tincture, infusions decoction, pills,
and powders, even a moistened cloth
applied to the skin can as a herbal remedy.
It poses many challenges and underscores
the need for nurses at every level to
knowledgeable of herbal medicine to
ensure safe and effective practices.
It is concerned with the psychological
and pharmacological effects of the essential
oils introduced by means of inhalation,
olfaction and dermal application.
34. Role of nurses:
Nurse should caution people who are
considering aromatherapy to be aware that
aromatic oils vary in quality, their production
is not regulated and some may be toxic
Oils should not be used near the eyes and
should always be diluted in a suitable oil or
water before application to skin.
35. Special diet therapies, mega doses of vitamins and minerals
Good nutrition can help with
adaptation to the inevitable stresses of life
promoting a healthy body and feeling of
Nutritional deficiencies often first appear in
the form of mental symptoms.
Researchers believes that the
imbalances in the system can be
regulated by nutritional supplement.
37. T`ai chi
T`ai chi( tie chee), sometimes defined as
“moving mediciation” is a chinese blend of
exercise and energy work consisting of a series
of choreographed, continuous slow movements
performed with mental concentration and
Improve circulation, balance, flow of chi.
Reduce the stress and anxiety.
Restore the energy and health.
38. Qi Gong
It is the therapeutic Chinese
practices that includes gentle
exercise for the breath, body,
mind, and voice.
Alleged benefits include decreased stress
Enhanced body-mind connection for greater
mental clarity, energy and performance
Promote the vitality, personal growth and
It also sedatives effect on the nervous
system, promotes voluntary muscles
relaxation and improves self images
through reorganised posture.
42. therapeutic touch
It is a process by which practitioners
believe that they can transmit energy to a
person who is ill or injured to potentiate the
Laying on of hands ( the healer passing
hands over the body without actually
touching it, to detect the energy imbalances
and redirect the energy )
To provide relaxation by removing tension
in a zone area.
Stimulate the relaxation
45. Bio-electromagnetic based therapies
It involves the use of magnetic fields in
the prevention and treatment of disease.
Magnetic field therapy uses two methods-
static and pulsed.
The static method involves placing magnet
belts, shoes inserts and mattresses for 2-24
The pulse method involves using a machine
to effect alternating electromagnetic fields.
52. Psychiatric nurse and CAM
The most frequently employed therapies
used by the nurse are massage, music
exercise, diet, prayer and counselling.
The basic principles are:
1. The body has the ability to heal itself.
2. Nursing attends to the needs of the whole
53. 3. Basic good health practices build the
foundation for healing.
4. Healing practices are individualized.
5. Patient are responsible for their own