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COSC 426: Augmented Reality
Mark Billinghurst
mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org
July 12th 2013
Lecture 1: Introduction
Mark Billinghurst
  PhD Electrical Engineering
  University of Washington
  Interaction Design
  Museum experiences
  Tools for designers
  Augmented Reality
  Mobile AR, Evaluation,
  Multimodal Interfaces, Collaborative
  Collaboration
  Enhanced FtF and remote collaboration
  Social networking
Overview
  One two hour lecture a week
  Friday 11am – 1pm
  You will learn
  Introduction to Augmented Reality
  Augmented Reality technology
  AR Interaction techniques
  Interaction Design
  AR authoring tools
  Research directions in AR
  Complete a simple project
Course Outline
  Wk 1 (July 8th): Introduction to Augmented Reality (AR)
  Wk 2 (July 15th): AR Technology
  Wk 3 (July 22nd): AR Developer Tools
  Wk 4 (July 29th): AR Interaction Techniques
  Wk 5 (Aug 5th): AR Applications
  Wk 6 (Aug 12th): Outdoor and Mobile AR
  Wk 9 (Sept 2nd): Collaborative AR
  Wk 10 (Sept 9th): AR research Directions
  Wk 11 (Sept 16th): Final Project Presentations
Assessment
  Research project – 40%
  Group work (2-4 people)
  Due Sept 27th
  Two Class Assignments – 20 %
  Programming assignments, individual work
  Final Exam – 40%
  Exam week Oct 3rd – 14th
Introduction
A Brief History of Time
  Trend
  smaller, cheaper, more functions, more intimate
  Technology becomes invisible
  Intuitive to use
  Interface over internals
  Form more important than function
  Human centered design
A Brief History of Computing
  Trend
  smaller, cheaper, faster, more intimate, intelligent objects
  Computers need to become invisible
  hide the computer in the real world
-  Ubiquitous / Tangible Computing
  put the user inside the computer
-  Virtual Reality
Invisible Interfaces
Jun Rekimoto, Sony CSL
Graphical User Interfaces
  Separation between real and digital worlds
  WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer) metaphor
Ubiquitous Computing
  Computing and sensing embedded in real world
  Particle devices, RFID, motes, arduino, etc
Virtual Reality
  1985…
Virtual Reality
  Immersive VR
  Head mounted display, gloves
  Separation from the real world
1977 – Star Wars
Augmented Reality Definition
  Defining Characteristics [Azuma 97]
  Combines Real and Virtual Images
-  Both can be seen at the same time
  Interactive in real-time
-  The virtual content can be interacted with
  Registered in 3D
-  Virtual objects appear fixed in space
Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence, 6(4), 355-385.
2008 - CNN
  Put AR pictures here
Augmented Reality Examples
AR vs VR
  Virtual Reality: Replaces Reality
  Scene Generation: requires realistic images
  Display Device: fully immersive, wide FOV
  Tracking and Sensing: low accuracy is okay
  Augmented Reality: Enhances Reality
  Scene Generation: minimal rendering okay
  Display Device: non-immersive, small FOV
  Tracking and Sensing: high accuracy needed
Milgram’s Reality-Virtuality continuum
Mixed Reality
Reality - Virtuality (RV) Continuum
Real
Environment
Augmented
Reality (AR)
Augmented
Virtuality (AV)
Virtual
Environment
"...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum."
P. Milgram and A. F. Kishino, Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays
IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E77-D(12), pp. 1321-1329, 1994.
Augmented Virtuality
  VR with windows into the real world
Metaverse
  Neal Stephenson’s “SnowCrash”
  The Metaverse is the convergence of:
  1) virtually enhanced physical reality
  2) physically persistent virtual space
  Metaverse Roadmap
  http://metaverseroadmap.org/
Metaverse Dimensions
• Augmentation technologies that layer information onto
our perception of the physical environment.
• Simulation refers to technologies that model reality
• Intimate technologies are focused inwardly, on the
identity and actions of the individual or object;
• External technologies are focused outwardly, towards
the world at large;
Metaverse Components
  Four Key Components
  Virtual Worlds
  Augmented Reality
  Mirror Worlds
  Lifelogging
Mirror Worlds
  Mirror worlds are informationally-enhanced
virtual models of the physical world.
  Google Earth, MS Street View, Google Maps
LifeLogging
  Technologies record and report the intimate
states and life histories of objects and users
  Nokia LifeBlog, Nike+, FitBits
  Steve Mann - LifeLogging
Gordon Bell: LifeLogging
1 TB to store 65 years of data
Summary
  Augmented Reality has three key features
  Combines Real and Virtual Images
  Interactive in real-time
  Registered in 3D
  AR can be classified alongside other technologies
  Invisible Interfaces
  Milgram’s Mixed Reality continuum
  MetaVerse
AR History
A Brief History of AR (1)
  1960’s: Sutherland / Sproull’s
first HMD system was see-
through
A Brief History of AR (2)
F16 – Head Up Display
A Brief History of AR (3)
1960 - 70’s: US Air Force helmet mounted
displays (T. Furness)
A Brief History of AR (4)
1970 - 80’s: US Air Force Super Cockpit (T. Furness)
A Brief History of AR (5)
  Early 1990’s: Boeing coined the term “AR.” Wire harness
assembly application begun (T. Caudell, D. Mizell).
A Brief History of AR (6)
  1994: Motion stabilized display [Azuma]
  1995: Fiducial tracking in video see-through [Bajura / Neumann]
  1996: UNC hybrid magnetic-vision tracker
A Brief History of AR (7)
  1996: MIT Wearable Computing efforts
  1998: Dedicated conferences begin (ISMAR)
  Late 90’s: Collaboration, outdoor, interaction
  Late 90’s: Augmented sports broadcasts
History Summary
  1960’s – 80’s: Early Experimentation
  1980’s – 90’s: Basic Research
  Tracking, displays
  1995 – 2005: Tools/Applications
  Interaction, usability, theory
  2005 - : Commercial Applications
  Games, Medical, Industry
2007 - AR Reaches Mainstream
  MIT Technology Review
  March 2007
  list of the 10 most
exciting technologies
  Economist
  Dec 6th 2007
  Reality, only better
Gartner Hype Cycle
2009 - AR in Magazines
  Esquire Magazine
  Dec 2009 issue
  12 pages AR content
  Many Others
  Wired
  Colors
  Red Bull
  Etc
Google Searches for AR
2008 - Browser Based AR
  Flash + camera + 3D graphics
  High impact
  High marketing value
  Large potential install base
  1.6 Billion web users
  Ease of development
  Lots of developers, mature tools
  Low cost of entry
  Browser, web camera
Impact of Web-based AR
  Boffswana Living Sasquatch
  http://www.boffswana.com/news/?p=605
  In first month
  100K unique visits
  500K page views
  6 minutes on page
2005 - Mobile Phone AR
  Mobile Phones
  camera
  processor
  display
  AR on Mobile Phones
  Simple graphics
  Optimized computer vision
  Collaborative Interaction
AR Advertising (HIT Lab NZ 2007)
  Txt message to download AR application (200K)
  See virtual content popping out of real paper advert
  Tested May 2007 by Saatchi and Saatchi
2008: Location Aware Phones
Nokia NavigatorMotorola Droid
2009 - Outdoor Information Overlay
  Mobile phone based
  Tag real world locations
  GPS + Compass input
  Overlay graphics data on live video
  Applications
  Travel guide, Advertising, etc
  Wikitude, Layar, Junaio, etc..
  Android based, Public API released
Layar (www.layar.com)
  Location based data
  GPS + compass location
  Map + camera view
  AR Layers on real world
  Customized data
  Audio, 3D, 2D content
  Easy authoring
  Android, iPhone
AR Today
 Key Technologies Available
-  Robust tracking (Computer Vision, GPS/sensors)
-  Display (Handheld HMDs)
-  Input Devices (Kinect, etc)
-  Developer tools (Qualcomm, Metaio, ARTW)
 Commercial Business Growing
-  Gaming, GPS/Mobile, Online Advertisement
•  >$5 Billion USD by 2016 (Markets andMarkets)
•  >$1.5 Billion USD in Mobile AR by 2014 (Juniper Research)
  Web based AR
  Flash, HTML 5 based AR
  Marketing, education
  Outdoor Mobile AR
  GPS, compass tracking
  Viewing Points of Interest in real world
  Eg: Junaio, Layar, Wikitude
  Handheld AR
  Vision based tracking
  Marketing, gaming
  Location Based Experiences
  HMD, fixed screens
  Museums, point of sale, advertising
Typical AR Experiences
AR Business Today
  Marketing
  Web-based, mobile
  Mobile AR
  Geo-located information and service
  Driving demand for high end phones
  Gaming
  Mobile, Physical input (Kinect, PS Move)
  Upcoming areas
  Manufacturing, Medical, Military
Some Commercial AR Companies
  ARToolworks (http://www.artoolworks.com/)
  ARToolKit, FLARToolKit, SDKs
  Metaio (http://www.metaio.com/)
  Marketing, Industry, SDKs
  Total Immersion (http://www.t-immersion.com/)
  Marketing, Theme Parks, AR Experiences
  Qualcomm (http://www.vuforia.com/)
  Mobile AR, Vuforia SDK
  Many small start-ups (String, Ogmento, etc)
Summary
  Augmented Reality has a long history going
back to the 1960’s
  Interest in AR has exploded over the last few
years and is being commercialized quickly
  AR is growing in a number of areas
  Mobile AR
  Web based AR
  Marketing experiences
Sample AR Applications
Applications
  Medicine
  Manufacturing
  Information overlay
  Architecture
  Museum
  Marketing
  Gaming
Applications: medical
  “X-ray vision” for surgeons
  Aid visualization, minimally-invasive operations.
Training. MRI, CT data.
  Ultrasound project, UNC Chapel Hill.
Courtesy
UNC
Chapel
Hill
Medical AR Trials
  Sauer et al. 2000 at Siemens
Corporate Research, NJ
  Stereo video see through
F. Sauer, Ali Khamene, S. Vogt: An Augmented Reality Navigation System with a
Single-Camera Tracker: System Design and Needle Biopsy Phantom Trial,
MICCAI 2002
Assembly and maintenance
© 1993 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, &
D. Seligmann, Columbia University
© 1996 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, &
A. Webster, Columbia University
PS3 - Eye of Judgment (2007)
  Computer Vision Tracking
  Card based battle game
  Collaborative AR
  October 24th 2007
AR Books – Markerless Tracking
AR Annotations
Columbia
University
HRL
© 1993 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre,
M. Haupt, & E. Solomon,
Columbia University
© 1997 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre,
T. Höllerer, & A. Webster,
Columbia University
Broadcast TV
Interactive Museum Experiences
  BlackMagic
  Virtual America’s Cup
  410,000 people in six months
  MagicPlanet
  TeManawa science museum
  Virtual Astronomy
  Collaborative AR experience
  ARVolcano
  Interactive AR kiosk
  Scienceworks museum, Melbourne
Digital Binocular Station
http://www.DigitalBinocularStation.com/
Museum Archeology
  LifePlus (2002-2004)
  Natural feature tracking
  Virtual characters
  Mobile AR system
  Archeoguide (2000-2002)
  Cultural heritage on-site guide
  Hybrid tracking
  Virtual overlay
Sales and Marketing
  Connect with brands and branded objects
  Location Based Experiences
  Lynx Angels
  Web based
  Rayban glasses
  Mobile
  Ford Ka campaign
  Print based
  Red Bull Magazine
Summary
  AR technology can be used to develop a wide
range of applications
  Promising application areas include
  Games
  Education
  Engineering
  Medicine
  Museums
  Etc..
Things to Do..
  Find your favourite YouTube video showing
an AR interface – send to mark
  Read – Feiner Scientific American article
  Find a friend for the project
  Think about project ideas

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2013 426 Lecture 1: Introduction to Augmented Reality

  • 1. COSC 426: Augmented Reality Mark Billinghurst mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org July 12th 2013 Lecture 1: Introduction
  • 2. Mark Billinghurst   PhD Electrical Engineering   University of Washington   Interaction Design   Museum experiences   Tools for designers   Augmented Reality   Mobile AR, Evaluation,   Multimodal Interfaces, Collaborative   Collaboration   Enhanced FtF and remote collaboration   Social networking
  • 3. Overview   One two hour lecture a week   Friday 11am – 1pm   You will learn   Introduction to Augmented Reality   Augmented Reality technology   AR Interaction techniques   Interaction Design   AR authoring tools   Research directions in AR   Complete a simple project
  • 4. Course Outline   Wk 1 (July 8th): Introduction to Augmented Reality (AR)   Wk 2 (July 15th): AR Technology   Wk 3 (July 22nd): AR Developer Tools   Wk 4 (July 29th): AR Interaction Techniques   Wk 5 (Aug 5th): AR Applications   Wk 6 (Aug 12th): Outdoor and Mobile AR   Wk 9 (Sept 2nd): Collaborative AR   Wk 10 (Sept 9th): AR research Directions   Wk 11 (Sept 16th): Final Project Presentations
  • 5. Assessment   Research project – 40%   Group work (2-4 people)   Due Sept 27th   Two Class Assignments – 20 %   Programming assignments, individual work   Final Exam – 40%   Exam week Oct 3rd – 14th
  • 7. A Brief History of Time   Trend   smaller, cheaper, more functions, more intimate   Technology becomes invisible   Intuitive to use   Interface over internals   Form more important than function   Human centered design
  • 8. A Brief History of Computing   Trend   smaller, cheaper, faster, more intimate, intelligent objects   Computers need to become invisible   hide the computer in the real world -  Ubiquitous / Tangible Computing   put the user inside the computer -  Virtual Reality
  • 10. Graphical User Interfaces   Separation between real and digital worlds   WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer) metaphor
  • 11. Ubiquitous Computing   Computing and sensing embedded in real world   Particle devices, RFID, motes, arduino, etc
  • 13. Virtual Reality   Immersive VR   Head mounted display, gloves   Separation from the real world
  • 15. Augmented Reality Definition   Defining Characteristics [Azuma 97]   Combines Real and Virtual Images -  Both can be seen at the same time   Interactive in real-time -  The virtual content can be interacted with   Registered in 3D -  Virtual objects appear fixed in space Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence, 6(4), 355-385.
  • 17.   Put AR pictures here Augmented Reality Examples
  • 18. AR vs VR   Virtual Reality: Replaces Reality   Scene Generation: requires realistic images   Display Device: fully immersive, wide FOV   Tracking and Sensing: low accuracy is okay   Augmented Reality: Enhances Reality   Scene Generation: minimal rendering okay   Display Device: non-immersive, small FOV   Tracking and Sensing: high accuracy needed
  • 19. Milgram’s Reality-Virtuality continuum Mixed Reality Reality - Virtuality (RV) Continuum Real Environment Augmented Reality (AR) Augmented Virtuality (AV) Virtual Environment "...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum." P. Milgram and A. F. Kishino, Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E77-D(12), pp. 1321-1329, 1994.
  • 20. Augmented Virtuality   VR with windows into the real world
  • 21. Metaverse   Neal Stephenson’s “SnowCrash”   The Metaverse is the convergence of:   1) virtually enhanced physical reality   2) physically persistent virtual space   Metaverse Roadmap   http://metaverseroadmap.org/
  • 22. Metaverse Dimensions • Augmentation technologies that layer information onto our perception of the physical environment. • Simulation refers to technologies that model reality • Intimate technologies are focused inwardly, on the identity and actions of the individual or object; • External technologies are focused outwardly, towards the world at large;
  • 23. Metaverse Components   Four Key Components   Virtual Worlds   Augmented Reality   Mirror Worlds   Lifelogging
  • 24.
  • 25. Mirror Worlds   Mirror worlds are informationally-enhanced virtual models of the physical world.   Google Earth, MS Street View, Google Maps
  • 26.
  • 27. LifeLogging   Technologies record and report the intimate states and life histories of objects and users   Nokia LifeBlog, Nike+, FitBits
  • 28.   Steve Mann - LifeLogging
  • 29. Gordon Bell: LifeLogging 1 TB to store 65 years of data
  • 30. Summary   Augmented Reality has three key features   Combines Real and Virtual Images   Interactive in real-time   Registered in 3D   AR can be classified alongside other technologies   Invisible Interfaces   Milgram’s Mixed Reality continuum   MetaVerse
  • 32. A Brief History of AR (1)   1960’s: Sutherland / Sproull’s first HMD system was see- through
  • 33. A Brief History of AR (2) F16 – Head Up Display
  • 34. A Brief History of AR (3) 1960 - 70’s: US Air Force helmet mounted displays (T. Furness)
  • 35. A Brief History of AR (4) 1970 - 80’s: US Air Force Super Cockpit (T. Furness)
  • 36. A Brief History of AR (5)   Early 1990’s: Boeing coined the term “AR.” Wire harness assembly application begun (T. Caudell, D. Mizell).
  • 37. A Brief History of AR (6)   1994: Motion stabilized display [Azuma]   1995: Fiducial tracking in video see-through [Bajura / Neumann]   1996: UNC hybrid magnetic-vision tracker
  • 38. A Brief History of AR (7)   1996: MIT Wearable Computing efforts   1998: Dedicated conferences begin (ISMAR)   Late 90’s: Collaboration, outdoor, interaction   Late 90’s: Augmented sports broadcasts
  • 39. History Summary   1960’s – 80’s: Early Experimentation   1980’s – 90’s: Basic Research   Tracking, displays   1995 – 2005: Tools/Applications   Interaction, usability, theory   2005 - : Commercial Applications   Games, Medical, Industry
  • 40. 2007 - AR Reaches Mainstream   MIT Technology Review   March 2007   list of the 10 most exciting technologies   Economist   Dec 6th 2007   Reality, only better
  • 42. 2009 - AR in Magazines   Esquire Magazine   Dec 2009 issue   12 pages AR content   Many Others   Wired   Colors   Red Bull   Etc
  • 44. 2008 - Browser Based AR   Flash + camera + 3D graphics   High impact   High marketing value   Large potential install base   1.6 Billion web users   Ease of development   Lots of developers, mature tools   Low cost of entry   Browser, web camera
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47. Impact of Web-based AR   Boffswana Living Sasquatch   http://www.boffswana.com/news/?p=605   In first month   100K unique visits   500K page views   6 minutes on page
  • 48. 2005 - Mobile Phone AR   Mobile Phones   camera   processor   display   AR on Mobile Phones   Simple graphics   Optimized computer vision   Collaborative Interaction
  • 49. AR Advertising (HIT Lab NZ 2007)   Txt message to download AR application (200K)   See virtual content popping out of real paper advert   Tested May 2007 by Saatchi and Saatchi
  • 50. 2008: Location Aware Phones Nokia NavigatorMotorola Droid
  • 51. 2009 - Outdoor Information Overlay   Mobile phone based   Tag real world locations   GPS + Compass input   Overlay graphics data on live video   Applications   Travel guide, Advertising, etc   Wikitude, Layar, Junaio, etc..   Android based, Public API released
  • 52. Layar (www.layar.com)   Location based data   GPS + compass location   Map + camera view   AR Layers on real world   Customized data   Audio, 3D, 2D content   Easy authoring   Android, iPhone
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55. AR Today  Key Technologies Available -  Robust tracking (Computer Vision, GPS/sensors) -  Display (Handheld HMDs) -  Input Devices (Kinect, etc) -  Developer tools (Qualcomm, Metaio, ARTW)  Commercial Business Growing -  Gaming, GPS/Mobile, Online Advertisement •  >$5 Billion USD by 2016 (Markets andMarkets) •  >$1.5 Billion USD in Mobile AR by 2014 (Juniper Research)
  • 56.   Web based AR   Flash, HTML 5 based AR   Marketing, education   Outdoor Mobile AR   GPS, compass tracking   Viewing Points of Interest in real world   Eg: Junaio, Layar, Wikitude   Handheld AR   Vision based tracking   Marketing, gaming   Location Based Experiences   HMD, fixed screens   Museums, point of sale, advertising Typical AR Experiences
  • 57. AR Business Today   Marketing   Web-based, mobile   Mobile AR   Geo-located information and service   Driving demand for high end phones   Gaming   Mobile, Physical input (Kinect, PS Move)   Upcoming areas   Manufacturing, Medical, Military
  • 58. Some Commercial AR Companies   ARToolworks (http://www.artoolworks.com/)   ARToolKit, FLARToolKit, SDKs   Metaio (http://www.metaio.com/)   Marketing, Industry, SDKs   Total Immersion (http://www.t-immersion.com/)   Marketing, Theme Parks, AR Experiences   Qualcomm (http://www.vuforia.com/)   Mobile AR, Vuforia SDK   Many small start-ups (String, Ogmento, etc)
  • 59.
  • 60. Summary   Augmented Reality has a long history going back to the 1960’s   Interest in AR has exploded over the last few years and is being commercialized quickly   AR is growing in a number of areas   Mobile AR   Web based AR   Marketing experiences
  • 62. Applications   Medicine   Manufacturing   Information overlay   Architecture   Museum   Marketing   Gaming
  • 63. Applications: medical   “X-ray vision” for surgeons   Aid visualization, minimally-invasive operations. Training. MRI, CT data.   Ultrasound project, UNC Chapel Hill. Courtesy UNC Chapel Hill
  • 64. Medical AR Trials   Sauer et al. 2000 at Siemens Corporate Research, NJ   Stereo video see through F. Sauer, Ali Khamene, S. Vogt: An Augmented Reality Navigation System with a Single-Camera Tracker: System Design and Needle Biopsy Phantom Trial, MICCAI 2002
  • 65. Assembly and maintenance © 1993 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, & D. Seligmann, Columbia University © 1996 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, & A. Webster, Columbia University
  • 66. PS3 - Eye of Judgment (2007)   Computer Vision Tracking   Card based battle game   Collaborative AR   October 24th 2007
  • 67.
  • 68. AR Books – Markerless Tracking
  • 69. AR Annotations Columbia University HRL © 1993 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, M. Haupt, & E. Solomon, Columbia University © 1997 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, T. Höllerer, & A. Webster, Columbia University
  • 71. Interactive Museum Experiences   BlackMagic   Virtual America’s Cup   410,000 people in six months   MagicPlanet   TeManawa science museum   Virtual Astronomy   Collaborative AR experience   ARVolcano   Interactive AR kiosk   Scienceworks museum, Melbourne
  • 73. Museum Archeology   LifePlus (2002-2004)   Natural feature tracking   Virtual characters   Mobile AR system   Archeoguide (2000-2002)   Cultural heritage on-site guide   Hybrid tracking   Virtual overlay
  • 74. Sales and Marketing   Connect with brands and branded objects   Location Based Experiences   Lynx Angels   Web based   Rayban glasses   Mobile   Ford Ka campaign   Print based   Red Bull Magazine
  • 75. Summary   AR technology can be used to develop a wide range of applications   Promising application areas include   Games   Education   Engineering   Medicine   Museums   Etc..
  • 76. Things to Do..   Find your favourite YouTube video showing an AR interface – send to mark   Read – Feiner Scientific American article   Find a friend for the project   Think about project ideas