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The OpenRepGrid Project 
Software Tools for the Analysis and 
Administration of Repertory Grids 
EPCA Conference, Brno, Ju...
PART I 
• Motivation for OpenRepGrid 
• Why R? 
• The OpenRepGrid project 
PART II 
• Web-based interface for OpenRepGrid ...
Part I
General requirements for (grid) software 
• Durability 
• Availability 
• Functionality 
• Compatibility 
• Documentation ...
Current 
situa+on
No grid software offers all methods of analysis 
that have been devised in the literature 
Source: http://evolution.berkel...
Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 13:1–26, 2000 
Copyright ã 2000 Taylor & Francis 
1072-0537/00 $12.00 + .00 
THE STR...
No framework 
to support 
experimental 
types of analysis 
Not 
extensible by 
user
The output of 
most programs 
does not easily 
lend itself to 
subsequent 
computation 
Source: http://www.jacksofscience....
Development by a 
single person or a 
small group of 
researchers, each with 
their own special 
competencies in a 
certai...
No joint 
community effort 
to improve a 
program: 
Development and 
documentation is 
delegated to the 
software provider...
“the programs that are currently available 
have a short shelf-life in that they are unlikely to 
be updated once their cr...
What to do? 
• Software design that enables users 
to contribute to its development 
• Set up infra- and communication 
st...
Why ?
• Because I am familiar with it J 
• is the lingua franca in the field of 
statistics 
• runs on all major platforms 
• i...
• provides an underlying framework for 
further computations 
• provides a wealth of functionality 
• is extensible (GUI, ...
Part II
www. 
.org
www.openrepgrid.org 
OpenRepGrid 
R 
package 
OpenRepGrid 
wiki 
OpenRepGrid 
OnAir 
mul+grid 
one
OpenRepGrid 
OnAir 
A web based Graphical 
User Interface
www.onair.openrepgrid.org
Building GUIs on top of OpenRepGrid 
Web 
based 
Local 
OpenRepGrid 
R 
package 
GUI 
type 
PC / 
Server 
OnAir 
More 
spe...
Part III
A five minutes 
R primer
Setup 
+ 
www.r-project.org www.rstudio.org
38 
Using R as a calculator 
4 + 4 ! ! ! ! !# Addition! 
4 - 1 ! ! ! !# Subtraction! 
! 
2 + 2 * 3! ! !# standard calculat...
39 
Variable assignments 
a <- 2 + 2 ! ! !# assignment operator! 
a ! ! ! ! !# variable value is 4! 
! 
a <- 100 ! ! # cha...
41 
Functions 
Function (lat. performance, execution) 
Every function uses round brackets 
rnorm(4)! 
!!!! 
 
...
“Nurse, get on the internet, go to SURGERY.COM, 
scroll down and click on the ,‘Are you totally 
43 
lost?’ icon.“
44 
Help files 
Opening help files 
?rnorm! 
! 
Commands inside the function’s round brackets are 
called arguments. A fun...
Using the 
OpenRepGrid 
R package
Web Repository with 
3.500+ packages 
OpenRepGrid 
Load package 
when starting R
51 
OpenRepGrid is shipped with several sample grid data 
sets from the literature. Type in the name of a data set 
and pr...
For easier handling we save the boeker dataset in 
the object x! 
x <- boeker! 
! 
! 
!
Importing a dataset (textfile, gridstat, gridcore etc.) 
! 
x <- importTxt() # interactive dialog! 
!!! 
! 
! 
! 
! 
!
Subsetting a grid using the squared brackets 
operator, e.g. extracting rows 1 to 5 
x[1:5, ]! 
! 
! 
! 
8 - martin ! 
geo...
Creating a bertin plot 
bertin(x)! 
! 
!
Opening the documentation 
?bertin! 
! 
!
Changing the look by modifying the arguments 
bertin(x, colors=c("white","darkblue"))! 
!
Creating biplots of elements and constructs 
biplot2d(x)! 
!
Creating composite plots of elements and constructs 
biplot3d(x)! 
!
Detect implicative dilemmas using correlations 
indexDilemma(x, self=1, ideal=2)! 
###################! 
Implicative Dilem...
Writing things 
down
out now!
Press 
to 
generate 
document 
Insert 
tags
Using R markdown 
• Markdown is a lightweight language to 
structure a document 
• R code chunks can be directly included ...
Want to participate? 
You have suggestions or ideas? 
Just get in touch!
Thanks!
Adding new 
features
Task 
Create a function that 
counts the number of 
midpoint ratings
Writing new functions 
f <- function(){! 
!# some R commands! 
}! 
f()! 
!!f 
<- function(x){! 
!x! 
}! 
f(12)! 
! 
!
!m 
The Midpoint Function 
idpoints <- function(x) { ! 
!scores <- getRatingLayer(x) ! 
!midpoint <- getScaleMidpoint(x) !...
Want to participate? 
You have suggestions or ideas? 
Just get in touch!
Thanks!
Backup
Literature 
• Fransella, F., Bell, R. C., & Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory 
grid technique (2nd ed.). Chiche...
gridhub developers 
Matthias Kaulartz 
(programming) 
Mark Heckmann 
(concept)
The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools  for the analysis and administration of repertory  grid data
The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools  for the analysis and administration of repertory  grid data
The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools  for the analysis and administration of repertory  grid data
The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools  for the analysis and administration of repertory  grid data
The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools  for the analysis and administration of repertory  grid data
The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools  for the analysis and administration of repertory  grid data
The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools  for the analysis and administration of repertory  grid data
The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools  for the analysis and administration of repertory  grid data
The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools  for the analysis and administration of repertory  grid data
The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools  for the analysis and administration of repertory  grid data
The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools  for the analysis and administration of repertory  grid data
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The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools for the analysis and administration of repertory grid data

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In the workshop participants are introduced to the OpenRepGrid project. Part of the project is an open source software for the analysis of repertory grid data. The software currently comes in two flavors: As an online analysis tool and as an add-on package for the R program. The workshop gives an introduction to the software, its development philosophy and outlines the set of currently implemented features. Moreover, it is demonstrated how researchers may extend software features to suit their needs and actively contribute to its development. Further information about OpenRepGrid can be found on the program’s website under www.openrepgrid.org.

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The OpenRepGrid project – Software tools for the analysis and administration of repertory grid data

  1. 1. The OpenRepGrid Project Software Tools for the Analysis and Administration of Repertory Grids EPCA Conference, Brno, June 20, 2013 Mark Heckmann University of Bremen, Germany
  2. 2. PART I • Motivation for OpenRepGrid • Why R? • The OpenRepGrid project PART II • Web-based interface for OpenRepGrid PART III • Getting started with R • The OpenRepGrid R package • Creating analysis reports • (How to add new features)
  3. 3. Part I
  4. 4. General requirements for (grid) software • Durability • Availability • Functionality • Compatibility • Documentation • (Openness) • Extensibility • Usability
  5. 5. Current situa+on
  6. 6. No grid software offers all methods of analysis that have been devised in the literature Source: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/misconceps/images/misconceptions_beavers2.gif
  7. 7. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 13:1–26, 2000 Copyright ã 2000 Taylor & Francis 1072-0537/00 $12.00 + .00 THE STRUCTURAL QUADRANTS METHOD: A NEW APPROACH TO THE ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRUCT SYSTEM COMPLEXITY VIA THE REPERTORY GRID JOSEP GALLIFA and LUIS BOTELLA Department of Psychology, Ramon Llull University, Barcelona, Spain This article presents a new mathematical method (the Structural Quadrants Method) for the assessment of construct system complexity via the repertory grid. The Struc-tural Quadrants Method (SQM) is presented step by step, and its sensitivity to grid structure is illustrated by applying it to five case studies. A validational study demonstrating the discriminative power of the SQM and comparing it to tradi-tional measures is included. Results indicate that the SQM discriminates between a group of 11 experts and one of 11 novices in terms of grid complexity as expected (i.e., detecting high degrees of differentiation and integration in the experts’ grids and low degrees of differentiation and integration in the novices’ grids). The dis-criminative power of the SQM is unparalleled by the traditional measures of grid structure compared in this article. The article ends with a section on the distinctive advantages of the SQM and some suggest ions for future research.
  8. 8. No framework to support experimental types of analysis Not extensible by user
  9. 9. The output of most programs does not easily lend itself to subsequent computation Source: http://www.jacksofscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/computing_occurs.jpg
  10. 10. Development by a single person or a small group of researchers, each with their own special competencies in a certain field of research and often limited time resources. (Fromm, 2009)
  11. 11. No joint community effort to improve a program: Development and documentation is delegated to the software providers Source: http://www.kirchen-und-kapellen.de/images/content/Community.jpg
  12. 12. “the programs that are currently available have a short shelf-life in that they are unlikely to be updated once their creators have retired” (Fransella, Bannister & Bell, 2004, p. 38) Discontinued development once its initiators have moved on to other fields or retired Source: h1p://evolu+on.berkeley.edu/evosite/misconceps/images/misconcep+ons_beavers2.gif
  13. 13. What to do? • Software design that enables users to contribute to its development • Set up infra- and communication structures to foster participation in a joint development Go Open Source!
  14. 14. Why ?
  15. 15. • Because I am familiar with it J • is the lingua franca in the field of statistics • runs on all major platforms • is managable by non-programmers • becomes increasingly popular within the social sciences
  16. 16. • provides an underlying framework for further computations • provides a wealth of functionality • is extensible (GUI, 3D etc.) • provides easy to use web-interface options Suitable for Open Source grid software development
  17. 17. Part II
  18. 18. www. .org
  19. 19. www.openrepgrid.org OpenRepGrid R package OpenRepGrid wiki OpenRepGrid OnAir mul+grid one
  20. 20. OpenRepGrid OnAir A web based Graphical User Interface
  21. 21. www.onair.openrepgrid.org
  22. 22. Building GUIs on top of OpenRepGrid Web based Local OpenRepGrid R package GUI type PC / Server OnAir More special purpose GUIs? mulitgrid one
  23. 23. Part III
  24. 24. A five minutes R primer
  25. 25. Setup + www.r-project.org www.rstudio.org
  26. 26. 38 Using R as a calculator 4 + 4 ! ! ! ! !# Addition! 4 - 1 ! ! ! !# Subtraction! ! 2 + 2 * 3! ! !# standard calculating rules ! (2-1) * (2+2) ! !# standard use of brackets!
  27. 27. 39 Variable assignments a <- 2 + 2 ! ! !# assignment operator! a ! ! ! ! !# variable value is 4! ! a <- 100 ! ! # change variable value! a * 10 ! ! ! ! !# use the variable !
  28. 28. 41 Functions Function (lat. performance, execution) Every function uses round brackets rnorm(4)! !!!!   
  29. 29. “Nurse, get on the internet, go to SURGERY.COM, scroll down and click on the ,‘Are you totally 43 lost?’ icon.“
  30. 30. 44 Help files Opening help files ?rnorm! ! Commands inside the function’s round brackets are called arguments. A function may take zero to many arguments. rnorm(4, mean=10)! !
  31. 31. Using the OpenRepGrid R package
  32. 32. Web Repository with 3.500+ packages OpenRepGrid Load package when starting R
  33. 33. 51 OpenRepGrid is shipped with several sample grid data sets from the literature. Type in the name of a data set and press enter boeker! ! ! 8 - martin ! george - 7 | 9 - elizabeth ! karl - 6 | | | 10 - therapist ! kurt - 5 | | | | | 11 - irene ! father - 4 | | | | | | | 12 - childhood self ! mother - 3 | | | | | | | | | 13 - self before illness ! ideal self - 2 | | | | | | | | | | | 14 - self with delusion! self - 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | 15 - self as dreamer ! | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ! balanced (1) 1 4 2 2 3 5 2 5 4 2 6 2 2 3 3 (1) get along wit! isolated (2) 3 6 3 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 2 2 3 (2) sociable ! ely integrated (3) 2 2 2 3 5 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 4 5 3 (3) excluded ! discursive (4) 4 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 5 4 (4) passive ! open minded (5) 2 1 2 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 6 3 2 2 3 (5) indifferent ! dreamy (6) 4 5 3 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 6 3 3 3 2 (6) dispassionate! cally oriented (7) 2 1 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 (7) depressed ! playful (8) 4 5 4 3 4 3 2 3 4 4 5 3 2 4 3 (8) serious ! ocially minded (9) 2 1 3 2 4 5 4 1 3 2 6 3 3 3 3 (9) selfish ! quarrelsome (10) 5 5 5 5 5 2 5 2 4 4 1 6 5 5 5 (10) peaceful ! artistic (11) 5 1 2 4 3 5 3 2 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 (11) technical ! scientific (12) 2 1 5 3 4 4 5 3 4 1 6 4 2 3 3 (12) emotional !
  34. 34. For easier handling we save the boeker dataset in the object x! x <- boeker! ! ! !
  35. 35. Importing a dataset (textfile, gridstat, gridcore etc.) ! x <- importTxt() # interactive dialog! !!! ! ! ! ! !
  36. 36. Subsetting a grid using the squared brackets operator, e.g. extracting rows 1 to 5 x[1:5, ]! ! ! ! 8 - martin ! george - 7 | 9 - elizabeth ! karl - 6 | | | 10 - therapist ! kurt - 5 | | | | | 11 - irene ! father - 4 | | | | | | | 12 - childhood self ! mother - 3 | | | | | | | | | 13 - self before illness ! ideal self - 2 | | | | | | | | | | | 14 - self with delusion! self - 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | 15 - self as dreamer ! | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ! balanced (1) 1 4 2 2 3 5 2 5 4 2 6 2 2 3 3 (1) get along wit! isolated (2) 3 6 3 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 2 2 3 (2) sociable ! ely integrated (3) 2 2 2 3 5 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 4 5 3 (3) excluded ! discursive (4) 4 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 5 4 (4) passive ! open minded (5) 2 1 2 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 6 3 2 2 3 (5) indifferent !
  37. 37. Creating a bertin plot bertin(x)! ! !
  38. 38. Opening the documentation ?bertin! ! !
  39. 39. Changing the look by modifying the arguments bertin(x, colors=c("white","darkblue"))! !
  40. 40. Creating biplots of elements and constructs biplot2d(x)! !
  41. 41. Creating composite plots of elements and constructs biplot3d(x)! !
  42. 42. Detect implicative dilemmas using correlations indexDilemma(x, self=1, ideal=2)! ###################! Implicative Dilemma! ###################! ! Dilemmatic Self-Ideal Construct Pairs! #####################################! ! By A Priori Criteria:! ! RexSI Rtot Constructs! 1 0.52 0.63 1 balanced - get along * <==> 5 open minde - indifferen! 2 0.60 0.64 1 balanced - get along * <==> 6 dreamy - dispassion! 3 -0.35 -0.54 1 balanced - get along * <==> 7 practicall - depressed! 4 0.35 0.42 1 balanced - get along * <==> 8 playful – serious! RexSI = Correlations excluding Self & ideal! Rtot = Correlations including Self & ideal! Rtot was used as criterion! * = discrepant construct pair!
  43. 43. Writing things down
  44. 44. out now!
  45. 45. Press to generate document Insert tags
  46. 46. Using R markdown • Markdown is a lightweight language to structure a document • R code chunks can be directly included • Include R code between the following tags ```{r} # Some R Code here ```
  47. 47. Want to participate? You have suggestions or ideas? Just get in touch!
  48. 48. Thanks!
  49. 49. Adding new features
  50. 50. Task Create a function that counts the number of midpoint ratings
  51. 51. Writing new functions f <- function(){! !# some R commands! }! f()! !!f <- function(x){! !x! }! f(12)! ! !
  52. 52. !m The Midpoint Function idpoints <- function(x) { ! !scores <- getRatingLayer(x) ! !midpoint <- getScaleMidpoint(x) ! !sum(scores == midpoint)! }! ! midpoints(bell2010)!
  53. 53. Want to participate? You have suggestions or ideas? Just get in touch!
  54. 54. Thanks!
  55. 55. Backup
  56. 56. Literature • Fransella, F., Bell, R. C., & Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique (2nd ed.). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. • Fromm, M. (2009). Grid Software. European Personal Construct Association. Retrieved July 25, 2010, from http://www.epca-net.org/ repgrid/software. • Heckmann, M. (2011). OpenRepGrid - An R package for the analysis of repertory grids (Unpublished diploma thesis). University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. • Muenchen, R. A. (2011). The Popularity of Data Analysis Software. Retrieved March 28, 2011, from http://sites.google.com/site/ r4statistics/popularity. • R Development Core Team. (2011). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org/.
  57. 57. gridhub developers Matthias Kaulartz (programming) Mark Heckmann (concept)

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