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OpenRepGrid and Friends - Presentation held at the 20th International Conference for Personal Construct Psychology, Sydney, Australia, July 2013

If you have any questions about OpenRepGrid visit the OpenRepGrid Google group under http://groups.google.com/group/openrepgrid

OpenRepGrid and Friends - Presentation held at the 20th International Conference for Personal Construct Psychology, Sydney, Australia, July 2013

If you have any questions about OpenRepGrid visit the OpenRepGrid Google group under http://groups.google.com/group/openrepgrid

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OpenRepGrid and Friends

  1. 1. OpenRepGrid & Friends Tools for the Analysis of Repertory Grid Data ICPCP Conference, Sydney, July 21, 2013 Mark Heckmann University of Bremen, Germany
  2. 2. PART I •  Motivation for OpenRepGrid •  Why R? •  The OpenRepGrid project PART II •  Getting started with R •  Getting started with OpenRepGrid •  Creating analysis reports •  How to add new features PART III •  Graphical User Interfaces for OpenRepGrid •  Preview: A grid administration software
  3. 3. Part I
  4. 4. General requirements for (grid) software •  Durability •  Availability •  Functionality •  Compatibility •  Documentation •  Openness •  Extensibility •  Usability
  5. 5. Current     situa+on    
  6. 6. No grid software offers all methods of analysis that have been devised in the literature Source: http://callcentersindia.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/selection-process.png
  7. 7. THE STRUCTURAL QUADRANTS METHOD: A NEW APPROACH TO THE ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRUCT SYSTEM COMPLEXITY VIA THE REPERTORY GRID JOSEP GALLIFA and LUIS BOTELLA Department of Psychology, Ramon Llull University, Barcelona, Spain This article presents a new mathematical method (the Structural Quadrants Method) for the assessment of construct system complexity via the repertory grid. The Struc- tural Quadrants Method (SQM) is presented step by step, and its sensitivity to grid structure is illustrated by applying it to five case studies. A validational study demonstrating the discriminative power of the SQM and comparing it to tradi- tional measures is included. Results indicate that the SQM discriminates between a group of 11 experts and one of 11 novices in terms of grid complexity as expected (i.e., detecting high degrees of differentiation and integration in the experts’ grids and low degrees of differentiation and integration in the novices’ grids). The dis- criminative power of the SQM is unparalleled by the traditional measures of grid structure compared in this article. The article ends with a section on the distinctive advantages of the SQM and some suggestions for future research. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 13:1–26, 2000 Copyright ã 2000 Taylor & Francis 1072-0537/00 $12.00 + .00
  8. 8. Not extensible by user No framework to support experimental types of analysis
  9. 9. The output of most programs does not easily lend itself to subsequent computation Source: http://www.jacksofscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/computing_occurs.jpg
  10. 10. Development by a single person or a small group of researchers, each with their own special competencies in a certain field of research and often limited time resources. (Fromm, 2009)
  11. 11. Source: http://www.kirchen-und-kapellen.de/images/content/Community.jpg No joint community effort to improve a program: Development and documentation is delegated to the software providers
  12. 12. Source:  h1p://evolu+on.berkeley.edu/evosite/misconceps/images/misconcep+ons_beavers2.gif   Discontinued development once its initiators have moved on to other fields or retired “the programs that are currently available have a short shelf-life in that they are unlikely to be updated once their creators have retired” (Fransella, Bannister & Bell, 2004, p. 38)
  13. 13. What to do? •  Software design that enables users to contribute to its development •  Set up infra- and communication structures to foster participation in a joint development Go  Open  Source!  
  14. 14. Why ?
  15. 15. •  Because I am familiar with it J •  is the lingua franca in the field of statistics •  runs on all major platforms •  is managable by non-programmers •  becomes increasingly popular within the social sciences
  16. 16. Muenchen,R.A.(2012).Popularityofdataanalysissoftware.http:// r4stats.com/articles/popularity/
  17. 17. •  provides an underlying framework for further computations •  provides a wealth of functionality •  extensible (GUI, 3D etc.) Suitable for Open Source grid software development
  18. 18. OpenRepGrid project OpenRepGrid R package OpenRepGrid Wiki
  19. 19. User entry points •  Give feedback: bug reports, suggestions ... •  Supply method descriptions to trigger development •  Provide R code snippets •  Generate tutorials and case studies •  Join the R package development team
  20. 20. Development process Adding graphical user interface(s) Create wide range of analysis methods Documentation in Wiki 2011 2013 Phase 2Phase 1 Researchers with basic R skills Anyone
  21. 21. Part II
  22. 22. Getting Started with R
  23. 23. Setup +   www.r-project.org www.rstudio.org
  24. 24. 30  
  25. 25. 31   Using R as a calculator 4 + 4 ! ! ! ! !# Addition! 4 - 1 ! ! ! !# Subtraction! ! 2 + 2 * 3! ! !# standard calculating rules ! (2-1) * (2+2) ! !# standard use of brackets!
  26. 26. 32   Variable assignments a <- 2 + 2 ! ! !# assignment operator! a ! ! ! ! !# variable value is 4! ! a <- 100 ! ! # change variable value! a * 10 ! ! ! ! !# use the variable !
  27. 27. 33   Objects Objects (Variables) names may contain numbers, letters, underscores or dots. The name must not contain a function (+, - *, / etc.). object1 <- 10! object.1 <- “hallo”!
  28. 28. 34   Functions Function (lat. performance, execution) Every function uses round brackets     rnorm(4)! ! ! ! !   
  29. 29. 36   “Nurse, get on the internet, go to SURGERY.COM, scroll down and click on the ,‘Are you totally lost?’ icon.“
  30. 30. 37   Objects Opening help files ?rnorm! ! Commands inside the function’s round brackets are called arguments. A function may take zero to many arguments. rnorm(4, mean=10)! !
  31. 31. Generate 10 random numbers with mean 100 and a standard deviation of 15. You have 2 minutes Your turn
  32. 32. Getting started with OpenRepGrid www.openrepgrid.org
  33. 33. Web Repository with 3.500+ packages OpenRepGrid Load package when starting R
  34. 34. 44   OpenRepGrid is shipped with several sample grid data sets from the literature. Type in the name of a data set and press enter boeker! ! ! 8 - martin ! george - 7 | 9 - elizabeth ! karl - 6 | | | 10 - therapist ! kurt - 5 | | | | | 11 - irene ! father - 4 | | | | | | | 12 - childhood self ! mother - 3 | | | | | | | | | 13 - self before illness ! ideal self - 2 | | | | | | | | | | | 14 - self with delusion! self - 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | 15 - self as dreamer ! | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ! balanced (1) 1 4 2 2 3 5 2 5 4 2 6 2 2 3 3 (1) get along wit! isolated (2) 3 6 3 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 2 2 3 (2) sociable ! ely integrated (3) 2 2 2 3 5 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 4 5 3 (3) excluded ! discursive (4) 4 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 5 4 (4) passive ! open minded (5) 2 1 2 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 6 3 2 2 3 (5) indifferent ! dreamy (6) 4 5 3 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 6 3 3 3 2 (6) dispassionate! cally oriented (7) 2 1 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 (7) depressed ! playful (8) 4 5 4 3 4 3 2 3 4 4 5 3 2 4 3 (8) serious ! ocially minded (9) 2 1 3 2 4 5 4 1 3 2 6 3 3 3 3 (9) selfish ! quarrelsome (10) 5 5 5 5 5 2 5 2 4 4 1 6 5 5 5 (10) peaceful ! artistic (11) 5 1 2 4 3 5 3 2 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 (11) technical ! scientific (12) 2 1 5 3 4 4 5 3 4 1 6 4 2 3 3 (12) emotional !
  35. 35. For easier handling we save the boeker dataset in the object x! x <- boeker! ! ! !
  36. 36. Importing a dataset from a .txt file! ! ! x <- importTxt() # interactive dialog! ! # sample file path on windows! x <- importTxt(“C:mark/grid_1.txt") ! ! # sample file path on MacOs / Unix! x <- importTxt(“~/mark/grid_1.txt") ! ! ! !
  37. 37. Subsetting a grid using the squared brackets operator, e.g. extracting rows 1 to 5 x[1:5, ]! ! ! ! 8 - martin ! george - 7 | 9 - elizabeth ! karl - 6 | | | 10 - therapist ! kurt - 5 | | | | | 11 - irene ! father - 4 | | | | | | | 12 - childhood self ! mother - 3 | | | | | | | | | 13 - self before illness ! ideal self - 2 | | | | | | | | | | | 14 - self with delusion! self - 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | 15 - self as dreamer ! | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ! balanced (1) 1 4 2 2 3 5 2 5 4 2 6 2 2 3 3 (1) get along wit! isolated (2) 3 6 3 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 2 2 3 (2) sociable ! ely integrated (3) 2 2 2 3 5 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 4 5 3 (3) excluded ! discursive (4) 4 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 5 4 (4) passive ! open minded (5) 2 1 2 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 6 3 2 2 3 (5) indifferent !
  38. 38. Creating a bertin plot bertin(x)! ! !
  39. 39. Opening the documentation ?bertin! ! !
  40. 40. Changing the look by modifying the arguments bertin(x, colors=c("white","darkblue"))! !
  41. 41. Creating biplots of elements and constructs biplot2d(x)! !
  42. 42. Creating composite plots of elements and constructs biplot3d(x)! !
  43. 43. Detect implicative dilemmas using correlations indexDilemma(x, self=1, ideal=2)! ###################! Implicative Dilemma! ###################! ! Dilemmatic Self-Ideal Construct Pairs! #####################################! ! By A Priori Criteria:! ! RexSI Rtot Constructs! 1 0.52 0.63 1 balanced - get along * <==> 5 open minde - indifferen! 2 0.60 0.64 1 balanced - get along * <==> 6 dreamy - dispassion! 3 -0.35 -0.54 1 balanced - get along * <==> 7 practicall - depressed! 4  0.35 0.42 1 balanced - get along * <==> 8 playful – serious! RexSI = Correlations excluding Self & ideal! Rtot = Correlations including Self & ideal! Rtot was used as criterion! * = discrepant construct pair!
  44. 44. Generate a cluster dendrogram for the boeker grid. You have 2 minutes Your turn
  45. 45. Writing things down
  46. 46. out now!
  47. 47. Press  to   generate     document   Insert  tags  
  48. 48. Using R markdown •  Markdown is a lightweight language to structure a document •  R code chunks can be directly included •  Include R code between the following tags ```{r} # Some R Code here ```
  49. 49. Generate a report with inter-construct correlations for the boeker dataset. You have 2 minutes Your turn
  50. 50. Adding new features
  51. 51. Create a function that counts the number of midpoint ratings Task
  52. 52. Writing new functions f <- function(){! !# some R commands! }! f()! ! ! f <- function(x){! !x! }! f(12)! ! !
  53. 53. ! midpoints <- function(x) { ! !scores <- getRatingLayer(x) ! !midpoint <- getScaleMidpoint(x) ! !sum(scores == midpoint)! }! ! midpoints(bell2010)! The Midpoint Function
  54. 54. Part III
  55. 55. Graphical User Interfaces
  56. 56. OpenRepGrid  -­‐  the  workhorse   Web  based     Local   Building GUIs on top of OpenRepGrid PC / Server GUI type OnAir   Other  special  purpose   implementa+ons  ?  
  57. 57. www.onair.openrepgrid.org
  58. 58. gridhub: computer-guided grid adminstration Preview  
  59. 59. gridhub developers Matthias Kaulartz (programming) Mark Heckmann (concept)
  60. 60. Want to participate? You have suggestions or ideas? Just get in touch!
  61. 61. Thanks!
  62. 62. Literature •  Fransella, F., Bell, R. C., & Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique (2nd ed.). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. •  Fromm, M. (2009). Grid Software. European Personal Construct Association. Retrieved July 25, 2010, from http://www.epca-net.org/ repgrid/software. •  Heckmann, M. (2011). OpenRepGrid - An R package for the analysis of repertory grids (Unpublished diploma thesis). University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. •  Muenchen, R. A. (2011). The Popularity of Data Analysis Software. Retrieved March 28, 2011, from http://sites.google.com/site/ r4statistics/popularity. •  R Development Core Team. (2011). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org/.

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