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OpenRepGrid & Friends
Tools for the Analysis of Repertory Grid Data
ICPCP Conference, Sydney, July 21, 2013
Mark Heckmann
...
PART I
•  Motivation for OpenRepGrid
•  Why R?
•  The OpenRepGrid project
PART II
•  Getting started with R
•  Getting sta...
Part I
General requirements for (grid) software
•  Durability
•  Availability
•  Functionality
•  Compatibility
•  Documentation
...
Current	
  	
  
situa+on	
  	
  
No grid software
offers all methods
of analysis that
have been
devised in the
literature
Source: http://callcentersindia.f...
THE STRUCTURAL QUADRANTS METHOD:
A NEW APPROACH TO THE ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRUCT
SYSTEM COMPLEXITY VIA THE REPERTORY GRID
JO...
Not
extensible by
user
No framework
to support
experimental
types of analysis
The output of
most programs
does not easily
lend itself to
subsequent
computation
Source: http://www.jacksofscience.com/wp...
Development by a
single person or a
small group of
researchers, each with
their own special
competencies in a
certain fiel...
Source: http://www.kirchen-und-kapellen.de/images/content/Community.jpg
No joint
community effort
to improve a
program:
De...
Source:	
  h1p://evolu+on.berkeley.edu/evosite/misconceps/images/misconcep+ons_beavers2.gif	
  
Discontinued
development
o...
What to do?
•  Software design that enables users
to contribute to its development
•  Set up infra- and communication
stru...
Why ?
•  Because I am familiar with it J
•  is the lingua franca in the field of
statistics
•  runs on all major platforms
•  i...
Muenchen,R.A.(2012).Popularityofdataanalysissoftware.http://
r4stats.com/articles/popularity/
•  provides an underlying framework for
further computations
•  provides a wealth of functionality
•  extensible (GUI, 3D ...
OpenRepGrid project
OpenRepGrid R package OpenRepGrid Wiki
User entry points
•  Give feedback: bug reports,
suggestions ...
•  Supply method descriptions to trigger
development
•  P...
Development process
Adding graphical
user interface(s)
Create wide range
of analysis methods
Documentation in
Wiki
2011 20...
Part II
Getting Started
with R
Setup
+	
  
www.r-project.org www.rstudio.org
30	
  
31	
  
Using R as a calculator
4 + 4 ! ! ! ! !# Addition!
4 - 1 ! ! ! !# Subtraction!
!
2 + 2 * 3! ! !# standard calculati...
32	
  
Variable assignments
a <- 2 + 2 ! ! !# assignment operator!
a ! ! ! ! !# variable value is 4!
!
a <- 100 ! ! # chan...
33	
  
Objects
Objects (Variables) names may contain numbers,
letters, underscores or dots. The name must not
contain a fu...
34	
  
Functions
Function (lat. performance, execution)
Every function uses round brackets
	
  
	
  
rnorm(4)!
!
!
!
!
...
36	
  
“Nurse, get on the internet, go to SURGERY.COM,
scroll down and click on the ,‘Are you totally
lost?’ icon.“
37	
  
Objects
Opening help files
?rnorm!
!
Commands inside the function’s round brackets are
called arguments. A function...
Generate 10 random
numbers with mean 100
and a standard
deviation of 15.
You have 2 minutes
Your turn
Getting
started with
OpenRepGrid
www.openrepgrid.org
Web Repository with
3.500+ packages
OpenRepGrid
Load package
when starting R
44	
  
OpenRepGrid is shipped with several sample grid data
sets from the literature. Type in the name of a data set
and p...
For easier handling we save the boeker dataset in
the object x!
x <- boeker!
!
!
!
Importing a dataset from a .txt file!
!
!
x <- importTxt() # interactive dialog!
!
# sample file path on windows!
x <- imp...
Subsetting a grid using the squared brackets
operator, e.g. extracting rows 1 to 5
x[1:5, ]!
!
!
!
8 - martin !
george - 7...
Creating a bertin plot
bertin(x)!
!
!
Opening the documentation
?bertin!
!
!
Changing the look by modifying the arguments
bertin(x, colors=c("white","darkblue"))!
!
Creating biplots of elements and constructs
biplot2d(x)!
!
Creating composite plots of elements and constructs
biplot3d(x)!
!
Detect implicative dilemmas using correlations
indexDilemma(x, self=1, ideal=2)!
###################!
Implicative Dilemma!...
Generate a cluster
dendrogram for the
boeker grid.
You have 2 minutes
Your turn
Writing things
down
out now!
Press	
  to	
  
generate	
  	
  
document	
  
Insert	
  tags	
  
Using R markdown
•  Markdown is a lightweight language to
structure a document
•  R code chunks can be directly included
•...
Generate a report
with inter-construct
correlations for the
boeker dataset.
You have 2 minutes
Your turn
Adding new
features
Create a function that
counts the number of
midpoint ratings
Task
Writing new functions
f <- function(){!
!# some R commands!
}!
f()!
!
!
f <- function(x){!
!x!
}!
f(12)!
!
!
!
midpoints <- function(x) { !
!scores <- getRatingLayer(x) !
!midpoint <- getScaleMidpoint(x) !
!sum(scores == midpoint)!...
Part III
Graphical User
Interfaces
OpenRepGrid	
  -­‐	
  the	
  workhorse	
  
Web	
  based	
  	
   Local	
  
Building GUIs on top of OpenRepGrid
PC /
Server
...
www.onair.openrepgrid.org
gridhub:
computer-guided
grid adminstration
Preview	
  
gridhub developers
Matthias Kaulartz
(programming)
Mark Heckmann
(concept)
Want to participate?
You have suggestions or ideas?
Just get in touch!
Thanks!
Literature
•  Fransella, F., Bell, R. C., & Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory
grid technique (2nd ed.). Chiches...
OpenRepGrid and Friends
OpenRepGrid and Friends
OpenRepGrid and Friends
OpenRepGrid and Friends
OpenRepGrid and Friends
OpenRepGrid and Friends
OpenRepGrid and Friends
OpenRepGrid and Friends
OpenRepGrid and Friends
OpenRepGrid and Friends
OpenRepGrid and Friends
OpenRepGrid and Friends
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OpenRepGrid and Friends - Presentation held at the 20th International Conference for Personal Construct Psychology, Sydney, Australia, July 2013

If you have any questions about OpenRepGrid visit the OpenRepGrid Google group under http://groups.google.com/group/openrepgrid

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OpenRepGrid and Friends

  1. 1. OpenRepGrid & Friends Tools for the Analysis of Repertory Grid Data ICPCP Conference, Sydney, July 21, 2013 Mark Heckmann University of Bremen, Germany
  2. 2. PART I •  Motivation for OpenRepGrid •  Why R? •  The OpenRepGrid project PART II •  Getting started with R •  Getting started with OpenRepGrid •  Creating analysis reports •  How to add new features PART III •  Graphical User Interfaces for OpenRepGrid •  Preview: A grid administration software
  3. 3. Part I
  4. 4. General requirements for (grid) software •  Durability •  Availability •  Functionality •  Compatibility •  Documentation •  Openness •  Extensibility •  Usability
  5. 5. Current     situa+on    
  6. 6. No grid software offers all methods of analysis that have been devised in the literature Source: http://callcentersindia.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/selection-process.png
  7. 7. THE STRUCTURAL QUADRANTS METHOD: A NEW APPROACH TO THE ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRUCT SYSTEM COMPLEXITY VIA THE REPERTORY GRID JOSEP GALLIFA and LUIS BOTELLA Department of Psychology, Ramon Llull University, Barcelona, Spain This article presents a new mathematical method (the Structural Quadrants Method) for the assessment of construct system complexity via the repertory grid. The Struc- tural Quadrants Method (SQM) is presented step by step, and its sensitivity to grid structure is illustrated by applying it to five case studies. A validational study demonstrating the discriminative power of the SQM and comparing it to tradi- tional measures is included. Results indicate that the SQM discriminates between a group of 11 experts and one of 11 novices in terms of grid complexity as expected (i.e., detecting high degrees of differentiation and integration in the experts’ grids and low degrees of differentiation and integration in the novices’ grids). The dis- criminative power of the SQM is unparalleled by the traditional measures of grid structure compared in this article. The article ends with a section on the distinctive advantages of the SQM and some suggestions for future research. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 13:1–26, 2000 Copyright ã 2000 Taylor & Francis 1072-0537/00 $12.00 + .00
  8. 8. Not extensible by user No framework to support experimental types of analysis
  9. 9. The output of most programs does not easily lend itself to subsequent computation Source: http://www.jacksofscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/computing_occurs.jpg
  10. 10. Development by a single person or a small group of researchers, each with their own special competencies in a certain field of research and often limited time resources. (Fromm, 2009)
  11. 11. Source: http://www.kirchen-und-kapellen.de/images/content/Community.jpg No joint community effort to improve a program: Development and documentation is delegated to the software providers
  12. 12. Source:  h1p://evolu+on.berkeley.edu/evosite/misconceps/images/misconcep+ons_beavers2.gif   Discontinued development once its initiators have moved on to other fields or retired “the programs that are currently available have a short shelf-life in that they are unlikely to be updated once their creators have retired” (Fransella, Bannister & Bell, 2004, p. 38)
  13. 13. What to do? •  Software design that enables users to contribute to its development •  Set up infra- and communication structures to foster participation in a joint development Go  Open  Source!  
  14. 14. Why ?
  15. 15. •  Because I am familiar with it J •  is the lingua franca in the field of statistics •  runs on all major platforms •  is managable by non-programmers •  becomes increasingly popular within the social sciences
  16. 16. Muenchen,R.A.(2012).Popularityofdataanalysissoftware.http:// r4stats.com/articles/popularity/
  17. 17. •  provides an underlying framework for further computations •  provides a wealth of functionality •  extensible (GUI, 3D etc.) Suitable for Open Source grid software development
  18. 18. OpenRepGrid project OpenRepGrid R package OpenRepGrid Wiki
  19. 19. User entry points •  Give feedback: bug reports, suggestions ... •  Supply method descriptions to trigger development •  Provide R code snippets •  Generate tutorials and case studies •  Join the R package development team
  20. 20. Development process Adding graphical user interface(s) Create wide range of analysis methods Documentation in Wiki 2011 2013 Phase 2Phase 1 Researchers with basic R skills Anyone
  21. 21. Part II
  22. 22. Getting Started with R
  23. 23. Setup +   www.r-project.org www.rstudio.org
  24. 24. 30  
  25. 25. 31   Using R as a calculator 4 + 4 ! ! ! ! !# Addition! 4 - 1 ! ! ! !# Subtraction! ! 2 + 2 * 3! ! !# standard calculating rules ! (2-1) * (2+2) ! !# standard use of brackets!
  26. 26. 32   Variable assignments a <- 2 + 2 ! ! !# assignment operator! a ! ! ! ! !# variable value is 4! ! a <- 100 ! ! # change variable value! a * 10 ! ! ! ! !# use the variable !
  27. 27. 33   Objects Objects (Variables) names may contain numbers, letters, underscores or dots. The name must not contain a function (+, - *, / etc.). object1 <- 10! object.1 <- “hallo”!
  28. 28. 34   Functions Function (lat. performance, execution) Every function uses round brackets     rnorm(4)! ! ! ! !   
  29. 29. 36   “Nurse, get on the internet, go to SURGERY.COM, scroll down and click on the ,‘Are you totally lost?’ icon.“
  30. 30. 37   Objects Opening help files ?rnorm! ! Commands inside the function’s round brackets are called arguments. A function may take zero to many arguments. rnorm(4, mean=10)! !
  31. 31. Generate 10 random numbers with mean 100 and a standard deviation of 15. You have 2 minutes Your turn
  32. 32. Getting started with OpenRepGrid www.openrepgrid.org
  33. 33. Web Repository with 3.500+ packages OpenRepGrid Load package when starting R
  34. 34. 44   OpenRepGrid is shipped with several sample grid data sets from the literature. Type in the name of a data set and press enter boeker! ! ! 8 - martin ! george - 7 | 9 - elizabeth ! karl - 6 | | | 10 - therapist ! kurt - 5 | | | | | 11 - irene ! father - 4 | | | | | | | 12 - childhood self ! mother - 3 | | | | | | | | | 13 - self before illness ! ideal self - 2 | | | | | | | | | | | 14 - self with delusion! self - 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | 15 - self as dreamer ! | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ! balanced (1) 1 4 2 2 3 5 2 5 4 2 6 2 2 3 3 (1) get along wit! isolated (2) 3 6 3 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 2 2 3 (2) sociable ! ely integrated (3) 2 2 2 3 5 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 4 5 3 (3) excluded ! discursive (4) 4 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 5 4 (4) passive ! open minded (5) 2 1 2 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 6 3 2 2 3 (5) indifferent ! dreamy (6) 4 5 3 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 6 3 3 3 2 (6) dispassionate! cally oriented (7) 2 1 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 (7) depressed ! playful (8) 4 5 4 3 4 3 2 3 4 4 5 3 2 4 3 (8) serious ! ocially minded (9) 2 1 3 2 4 5 4 1 3 2 6 3 3 3 3 (9) selfish ! quarrelsome (10) 5 5 5 5 5 2 5 2 4 4 1 6 5 5 5 (10) peaceful ! artistic (11) 5 1 2 4 3 5 3 2 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 (11) technical ! scientific (12) 2 1 5 3 4 4 5 3 4 1 6 4 2 3 3 (12) emotional !
  35. 35. For easier handling we save the boeker dataset in the object x! x <- boeker! ! ! !
  36. 36. Importing a dataset from a .txt file! ! ! x <- importTxt() # interactive dialog! ! # sample file path on windows! x <- importTxt(“C:mark/grid_1.txt") ! ! # sample file path on MacOs / Unix! x <- importTxt(“~/mark/grid_1.txt") ! ! ! !
  37. 37. Subsetting a grid using the squared brackets operator, e.g. extracting rows 1 to 5 x[1:5, ]! ! ! ! 8 - martin ! george - 7 | 9 - elizabeth ! karl - 6 | | | 10 - therapist ! kurt - 5 | | | | | 11 - irene ! father - 4 | | | | | | | 12 - childhood self ! mother - 3 | | | | | | | | | 13 - self before illness ! ideal self - 2 | | | | | | | | | | | 14 - self with delusion! self - 1 | | | | | | | | | | | | | 15 - self as dreamer ! | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ! balanced (1) 1 4 2 2 3 5 2 5 4 2 6 2 2 3 3 (1) get along wit! isolated (2) 3 6 3 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 2 2 3 (2) sociable ! ely integrated (3) 2 2 2 3 5 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 4 5 3 (3) excluded ! discursive (4) 4 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 5 4 (4) passive ! open minded (5) 2 1 2 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 6 3 2 2 3 (5) indifferent !
  38. 38. Creating a bertin plot bertin(x)! ! !
  39. 39. Opening the documentation ?bertin! ! !
  40. 40. Changing the look by modifying the arguments bertin(x, colors=c("white","darkblue"))! !
  41. 41. Creating biplots of elements and constructs biplot2d(x)! !
  42. 42. Creating composite plots of elements and constructs biplot3d(x)! !
  43. 43. Detect implicative dilemmas using correlations indexDilemma(x, self=1, ideal=2)! ###################! Implicative Dilemma! ###################! ! Dilemmatic Self-Ideal Construct Pairs! #####################################! ! By A Priori Criteria:! ! RexSI Rtot Constructs! 1 0.52 0.63 1 balanced - get along * <==> 5 open minde - indifferen! 2 0.60 0.64 1 balanced - get along * <==> 6 dreamy - dispassion! 3 -0.35 -0.54 1 balanced - get along * <==> 7 practicall - depressed! 4  0.35 0.42 1 balanced - get along * <==> 8 playful – serious! RexSI = Correlations excluding Self & ideal! Rtot = Correlations including Self & ideal! Rtot was used as criterion! * = discrepant construct pair!
  44. 44. Generate a cluster dendrogram for the boeker grid. You have 2 minutes Your turn
  45. 45. Writing things down
  46. 46. out now!
  47. 47. Press  to   generate     document   Insert  tags  
  48. 48. Using R markdown •  Markdown is a lightweight language to structure a document •  R code chunks can be directly included •  Include R code between the following tags ```{r} # Some R Code here ```
  49. 49. Generate a report with inter-construct correlations for the boeker dataset. You have 2 minutes Your turn
  50. 50. Adding new features
  51. 51. Create a function that counts the number of midpoint ratings Task
  52. 52. Writing new functions f <- function(){! !# some R commands! }! f()! ! ! f <- function(x){! !x! }! f(12)! ! !
  53. 53. ! midpoints <- function(x) { ! !scores <- getRatingLayer(x) ! !midpoint <- getScaleMidpoint(x) ! !sum(scores == midpoint)! }! ! midpoints(bell2010)! The Midpoint Function
  54. 54. Part III
  55. 55. Graphical User Interfaces
  56. 56. OpenRepGrid  -­‐  the  workhorse   Web  based     Local   Building GUIs on top of OpenRepGrid PC / Server GUI type OnAir   Other  special  purpose   implementa+ons  ?  
  57. 57. www.onair.openrepgrid.org
  58. 58. gridhub: computer-guided grid adminstration Preview  
  59. 59. gridhub developers Matthias Kaulartz (programming) Mark Heckmann (concept)
  60. 60. Want to participate? You have suggestions or ideas? Just get in touch!
  61. 61. Thanks!
  62. 62. Literature •  Fransella, F., Bell, R. C., & Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique (2nd ed.). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. •  Fromm, M. (2009). Grid Software. European Personal Construct Association. Retrieved July 25, 2010, from http://www.epca-net.org/ repgrid/software. •  Heckmann, M. (2011). OpenRepGrid - An R package for the analysis of repertory grids (Unpublished diploma thesis). University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. •  Muenchen, R. A. (2011). The Popularity of Data Analysis Software. Retrieved March 28, 2011, from http://sites.google.com/site/ r4statistics/popularity. •  R Development Core Team. (2011). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org/.

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