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Meat and Poultry
Definition
Meat
• Refers to the muscles of animals used as food. Internal
organs of animals used as food is also included in this
broad definition.
• The animals commonly raised for meat worldwide are
cattle, sheep, pig and poultry which is dominated by
chicken.
• Other mammalian species are also used as food in various
parts of the world according to culture and availability.
Poultry
• The word poultry refers to all domesticated birds raised
for their meat. Although chickens are the most popular
poultry consumed, other species includes turkeys, ducks,
geese, guinea fowls and pigeons.
• Game birds such as pheasant, wild duck, and quail are
also consumed, but few of them reach the marketplace.
Not readily available in all parts of the country yet, but
starting to be seen, are emus and ostriches.
Consumption of Meat
• Throughout the history, meat has been considered a high
value food. Nutrition studies indeed show that meats are
high grade protein sources. The low consumption of meat
in many countries in Asia and Africa was then considered
to be the reason for malnutrition for these regions.
Subsequent studies and further analysis proved that
assumption to be a fallacy. Malnutrition is a consequence
of poverty, which in turn has interrelated causes, lack of
food being foremost.
Philippine Per Capita Consumption of 4 Major Meat Products
Year Pork (kg) Chicken
(kg)
Beef (kg) Carabeef
(kg)
1995 11.61 5.83 2.02 0.87
1996 12.21 6.51 2.21 0.92
1997 12.54 6.96 2.43 1.03
1998 12.70 6.75 2.32 0.93
1999 13.10 7.03 2.43 1.16
Average 12.43 6.51 2.28 0.98
Source: Department of Agriculture – Agribusiness and Marketing Systems 2003
•Today, the over consumption of meats, is considered
to be a major culprit of the so called lifestyle
diseases. The current accepted healthy diet means
less red meat, use of chicken and fish and more
complex carbohydrates from fruits and vegetables.
A good balance of food from animal and plant
sources ensuring a wide variety of food sources in
both categories, and eating in moderation, then as
now, is still sound advice.
Lifestyle Diseases
•A disease associated with the way a person or
group of people lives. Lifestyle diseases include
atherosclerosis, heart diseases, and
stroke; obesity and type 2 diabetes; and diseases
associated with smoking and alcohol and drug
abuse. Regular physical activity helps prevent
obesity, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, colon
cancer, and premature mortality.
Estimated Per Capita Poultry Meat Consumption in Selected Countries
(2002)
Country Consumption (kg)
Philippines 6.7
India 0.7
Indonesia 3.4
China 9.6
Korea 11.3
Thailand 13.0
Japan 13.8
Malaysia 32.1
Australia 32.4
Taiwan 34.0
USA 49.3
Hong Kong 57.4
Source: Foreign Agriculture Service, Dept. of Agriculture 2003
Meat Structure
Muscle
Muscle
Muscle Bundles
Muscle Fibers
Myofibrils
Myofilaments
- we consider it as the meat in
the animal used as food.
- basic cellular units of both the
living muscle and of meat.
- sarcomere is its basic unit.
- Two filaments: THICK ACTIN and
the THIN MYOSIN (also called the
contractile proteins)
- Embedded in sarcoplasmic
protein matrix
The smallest unit readily discernable is the
bundle of muscle fibers, enclosed in a
sheath, the perimysium. Muscle fibers are
the basic cellular units of both the living
muscle and of meat. These fibers are
multinucleated and are rather long relative
to their diameter. The connective tissue
around each muscle fiber is the
endomysium.
Schematic Diagram of Muscle Fiber in
relation to Connective Tissues
Connective Tissues
• Meat animal’s body is supported by bones and
tendons. Held together by fibrous connective
tissues.
• Merged into a large mass, the tendon at the
termini of each muscles which is anchored to the
skeleton. Veins and arteries as well as larger
nerves are inside the perimysium, while
capillaries and the smaller nerves are in the
endomysium.
• Contains two types of proteins: COLLAGEN and
ELASTIN
Collagen
• Embedded collagen fibers is where the strength
of the bones came from (also calcium)
• Elongated proteins that form extremely strong
but small fibrils which associate together to
form collagen fibers which in turn form sheets
or cables that can be easily distinguished in
meat cuts.
• Collagens are the most abundant protein in the
animal body and important in determining the
toughness of the meat.
Collagen
• Collagen fibers shrink in hot water and are
converted to gelatin. At around 65°C, the
helical structure of collagen is disrupted and
the chains fall into random arrangement
making way for the conversion to gelatin. This
change is significant in the tenderization of
meat cuts with high connective tissue content.
Elastin
• Elastin has true elastic properties
compared to collagen which derives
its elasticity only when it forms into
cable-like tendons.
• Elastic properties are necessary in the
tissues of the neck, the
abdominal/intestinal wall and the
arterial system.
Fats
Location of Fat
• Fat cells are usually located
abdominally, under the skin and
within in the endomysium
surrounding muscle fibers
Marbling
• When fat is associated with the
muscle fiber due to its appearance in
the meat as wavy lines and resembles
the appearance of marble.
Meat Composition
Meat composition varies with:
- Species of animal source
- Species variations due to breed, age and sex,
diet and exercise conditions.
- Anatomical placement of the meat in focus.
Meat Protein Fat Ash Water
Beef 17.5 22.0 0.9 60
Veal 18.8 14.0 1.0 66
Pork 11.9 45.0 0.6 42
Lamb 15.7 27.7 0.8 56
Horse 20.0 4.0 1.0 74
Chicken 20.2 12.6 1.0 66
Duck 16.2 30.0 1.0 52.8
Turkey 20.1 20.2 1.0 58.3
Typical Percentage Composition of Some Meats with
Medium Amounts of Fat
Color Changes in Meat and Post
Mortem
Post Mortem Changes in Meat
• The process of converting once living muscle to
meat begins soon after the animal has been bled
and the oxygen in the muscles is rapidly
exhausted.
• Impartial bleeding is a major defect that leads to
early meat spoilage.
Post Mortem Changes in Meat
• Pre-rigor stage
• Rigor Mortis
• Post Rigor Stage
• Meat PH
• PSE and DFD Meat
Pre-rigor stage
• Involving a series of changes in cell metabolism
as well as the protein structure.
• Upon death, the ATP stores are depleted, oxygen
is stopped, leading to anaerobic glycolysis and
subsequent formation of lactic acid which in
turn in cause the pH to fall.
Rigor Mortis
• Immediately after the animal is killed, the
muscles are soft and pliable.
• As the pH falls, the development of a stiff and
rigid conditions occurs.
• Biochemically, it is accompanied by the
formation of actomyosin a linked protein from
what was previously two distinct actin and
myosin proteins of the muscle fiber.
Rigor Mortis
• The onset rigor mortis occurs within the first 12
hours after slaughter and may last for varying
periods within 24 hours.
• For chicken the onset is less than 30 minutes, for
turkey less than one hour, the pork from 15
minutes to 3 hours. And for beef 6 to 12 hours
(Hulitin, HO, 1976).
• Fishes are known to exhibit shorter rigor mortis
periods.
Post Rigor Stage
• After the stiffening process, that characterizes
rigor mortis, the muscles gradually tenderize.
• The main factor in the resolution of rigor is loss
of biological regulation of proteinases.
Chilling and Cold Shortening
• Used to control post rigor changes.
Factors lead to deterioration because
of Bacterial and Enzymatic Action:
• The condition of slaughter.
• The health and condition of the animal prior to
slaughter.
• The storage condition of the meat.
• The pH or acidity of the meat.
Meat pH
• The drop in pH is one of the most mortem
biochemical events in meat.
• Normal pH is 7.2 to 7.4 which is reduced to
about pH 5.5 for red meats and about pH 5.9 for
poultry.
• The loss of water holding capacity (WHC), in
turn leads to low product yield and pork quality.
• WHC is the ability of meat to retain its water
during processing, storage, and cooking.
PSE and DFD Meat
• PSE: Pale, Soft, Exudative
• DFD: Dark, Firm, and Dry
• A low meat ph is often associated with low WHC
and pale meat colr.
• High Meat pH oftens causes a dark meat color,
both pale and dark colors are unattractive to
costumers and have poor cooking quality.
pH and Meat Properties
Rate of pH decrease Final pH Meat Characteristic
Slow and Gradual 6.0-6.5 .Dark Meat
Slow and Gradual 5.7-6.0 Slightly Dark Meat
Gradual 5.3-5.7 Normal Color
Rapid 5.3-5.6 Normal Color
Rapid 5.0 Normal Color to slightly
Dark
Rapid 5.1-5.4 then 5.3-5.6 Dark to Pale. Exudative
Pale and exudative
Meat Cuts, Types of Meat and
Poultry and Aging
Meat cuts
1. Carcasses
2. Primal or wholesale cuts
3. Fabricated cuts
Primal and wholesale
Lamb
Beef
Pork
Types of meat and
Poultry
(Meat)
Beef
- The ancestor of the beef cattle was a type of wild
ox domesticated in ancient Greece and Turkey
during the stone age.
- Red meat consumption continues to increase to
North American consumers.
- Beef originates from cattle that are classified
according to gender and age:
1. Steers- male cattle that are castrated while
young.
2. Bulls- these older uncastrated males that
provide stag meat usually used for breeding.
3. Heifers and cows- heifers, females that have not
borne a calf, are also used for meat. The meat
from cows, female cattle that have borne calves.
4. Calves- their meat is inferred to as baby beef.
Veal
- Veal comes from the young calves of beef cattle.
These very young animals are fed a milk-based
diet or formula that have their movements
greatly restricted, resulting in meat with an
exceptionally milky flavor, pale color, and tender
texture.
Veal chop
Lamb and mutton
- Lamb and mutton are the meat of sheep.
- Difference between the two is the age of the
animal from which they come.
• Lamb comes from sheep less than 14 months
old, and mutton from those over 14 months.
• Mutton is also darker and tougher than lamb
and has a stronger flavor
Lamb
Mutton
Pork
- Most pork is derived from young swine of either
gender slaughtered at 7 months of age.
- About one-third of all pork is sold fresh,
whereas the rest is cured and provided to
consumers as ham, sausage, luncheon meats,
and bacon.
Types of Meat and Poultry
(Poultry)
Chicken (Poulet)
• Most popular and widely eaten
poultry in the world
• Inexpensive and readily
available
• Contains both light and dark
meat
• Relatively lean
• Available fresh or frozen in a
variety of forms
• Extremely versatile
Chicken Classes
• Game Hen
▫ 5-6 weeks old
• Broiler/fryer
▫ 13 weeks old
• Roaster
▫ 3-5 months old
• Capon
▫ Under 8 months old
• Hen/stewing
▫ Over 10 months old
Game Hen
• Young or immature
progeny of Cornish
chickens or of a
Cornish chicken and a
White Rock chicken
• Very flavorful
• 2 lb. or less
• Spit roast, broil, grill or
oven roast
Broiler/fryer
• Young with soft,
smooth textured skin
• Relatively lean
• Flexible breastbone
• 3 lb. 8 oz. or less
• Can use any cooking
method
Capon
• Surgically castrated male
• Tender meat with soft smooth
skin
• Bred for well-flavored meat
• Contains a high portion of light to
dark meat
• Relatively high in fat
• 6-10 lb.
• Roast
Cuts of Chicken
Duck (Canard)
• Classes
▫ Broiler
▫ Roaster
▫ Mature
• Contains only dark meat
• Large amount of fat
• High percentage of bone
and fat to meat
• Roast
Goose (Oie)
• Classes
▫ Young
▫ Mature
• Contains only dark
meat
• Very fatty skin
• Popular at holidays
• Served with acidic
fruit-based sauces to
offset fattiness
Guinea (Pintade)
• Classes
▫ Young
▫ Mature
• Domesticated
descendant of a game
bird
• Has both light and dark
meat
• Tender enough to sauté
• Contains little fat
• Usually is barded prior
to roasting
Pigeon (Pigeon)
• Commonly called squab
• Contains only dark
meat
• Meat is tender
• Contains very little fat
• Suited for broiling,
sautéing or roasting
Turkey (Dinde)
• Classes
▫ Fryer/roaster
▫ Young
▫ Yearling
▫ Mature
• Second most popular category
of poultry in the U.S.
• Contains both light and dark
meat
• Relatively small amount of fat
• Young turkey can be prepared
in any manner
Ratites
• Ostrich
• Emu
• Rhea
74
OSTRICH
Aging
Aging
• Aging is a practice of storing meat carcasses
usually beef at chill temperature just above 0º for
10-14 days at70 percent relative humidity prior to
cutting. This practice has been shown to increase beef
tenderness.
• Pork and lamb are usually not aged.
Types of aging
• Dry Aging
- It is accomplished with careful temperature and humidity
and air flow monitoring. Ultra violet is sometimes used to
control microbial growth.
-Carcasses are hung in refrigeration units at 34°F to 38°F (1°C
to 3°C) with low (70 to 75 percent) or high (85 to 90 percent)
humidity for 11 ⁄2 to 6 weeks.
• Fast Aging
- It involves holding the meat at higher temperatures for
shorter time.
- Most beef is aged in plastic shrink-wrap. Warmer
temperatures of 70°F (21°C) with a high humidity of 85 to
90 percent lower the aging time to 2 days, but additional
aging will occur during the 10 or so days it takes the meat to
reach the consumer. Ultraviolet lights are used to inhibit
microbial growth. Most retail meat is fast aged.
• Vacuum Pack Aging
- meat cuts are vacuum packed prior to aging
at controlled temperature.
- Less weight loss and spoilage occur in meats
that are aged by vacuum packing
(cryovacing). During this process, meat
carcasses are divided into smaller cuts,
vacuum packed in moisture- and vapor-proof
plastic bags, and then aged under
refrigeration.
Tenderizing
Meat And Poultry
Tenderness
It involves three aspects:
1. the initial penetration of the meat by the teeth upon
biting/chewing
2. the ease in which the meat breaks into fragments, and
3. the amount of residue left after chewing. (Weir 1960)
Tenderness of the meat is affected by both Pre-Slaughter and Post
Mortem Factors
Pre-Slaughter Factors
1. Species of the animals from where the meat is taken.
2. The specific breed of the animal
3. Age and Sex
4. The specific part of the animal from where the meat was
derived.
5. Stress on the animal before slaughter
Post Slaughter Factors
Post-Slaughter Factors are: post mortem glycolysis, aging,
tenderizing treatments and storage.
• Post mortem glycolysis
-is a series of chemical reactions, which include the
conversion of muscle glycogen to lactic acid: resulting in
increased in acidity (lowering of pH).
• Aging
- Is a practice of storing meat carcasses usually beef at chill
temperature just above 0C for 10-14 days at percent relative
humidity prior to cutting.
Dry Aging
- original method
- carried out in controlled
environment with temperatures of 0 to 20C,
80to 85% relative humidity and air flow of
0.5 to 2.0 m per second for 3 to 4 weeks.
Uncovered meat is hung in rails in these
controlled rooms.
Wet Aging
- aging occurs when the meat cuts
are vacuum packed in waterproof-plastic
materials boxed for distribution. Aging
happens during the transportation and/or
storage of the packed chilled meat.
• Hanging Method
- method of hanging the
carcass during aging and/or chilling
has been found to affect tenderness as
well. Common practice is to hang
carcass by the heel of the hind leg.
• Electrical Stimulation
- a practice of passing
electrical current (voltage vary from
30V to 1000V ) on the freshly
slaughtered carcass. This practice
accelerates the passing of rigor
mortis. Some of the advantages
cited are: prevention of cold
shortening, improving color,
tenderness and flavor.
• In-Vitro Enzyme Treatment
- practice of giving
proteolytic enzymes to beef intended
for slaughter is still one more
method of achieving tender meat.
Giving the live animal proteolytic
enzymes such as papain or bromelin
intravenously.
Mechanical Methods
Pounding
- meat is pound until
thin before drying. The
action of pounding breaks
the muscle fibers and
connective tissues. This
method of pre- preparation
of fillet.
Slicing Thinly
- slicing thinly cuts
the muscle fiber and makes
chewing easier. This is
applied to meat cuts intended
for stir frying or sautéing.
Grinding/Chopping
- chopping or grinding to
break the connective tissues and
muscle fibers before forming
patties or balls or any other
desired shape.
Marinating
- is intended primarily to
heighten or incorporate flavors in
meat, but it has added effect of
tendering.
Marinating solution contains an acid such as wine, vinegar,
kalamansi, salt, and seasoning.
Use of Proteolytic Enzymes
- proteolytic enzymes of plants or bacterial origin are used
in commercial meat tenderizing preparations. The enzymes acts
on the muscle fibers making them shorter and more tender.
most commonly used plant enzymes are papain from
papaya latex, bromelin from pineapple and ficin from figs.
Prolonged Simmering
- most common way of tenderizing meat. The
tenderizing action is due to the conversion of collagen to
gelatin.
Tenderizing and
cookery of
meat and poultry
Cooking meat achieves the following
objectives:
*Improve eating quality and digestibility,
tenderization, food safety.
*Enhance and develop flavors.
*Brings about color changes makes the
meat more tender and digestible.
* Destroys parasites and pathogenic
microorganisms that may be present
making the meat safer for consumption.
Tempera
ture
Pigment Protein
Fiber
Protein-
bound
water
collagen
C F
38 100 Red Uncoiled,
starts
coagulatio
n
Flow-out
of muscle
fiber
Solid
60 140 Red Continue
coagulatio
n
Continue
to flow out
Begin to
dissolve
71 160 Pink Mostly
coagulated
Continue
to dissolve
79 175 Brown-
gray
Coagulate
d
Continue
to dissolve
93 200 Brown-
gray
Dense
associatio
n
Dissolve
rapidly
Effects on Cooking on
Meat:
Constituents
Beef/Carabeef
Cooking Methods
• Grilling. The cuts suitable
for grilling are sirloin steak,
rump steak, porterhouse
steak, T-bone steak. Grilling
must be preheated but racks
should not be. Grease to
prevent sticking. Turn meat
once. Baste as needed.
Beef/Carabeef Cooking
Methods
• Roasting. Large cuts
such as ribs and sirloin
are best suited for
roasting. Whole young
calf may also be roasted.
Baste the meat with its
own drippings as it cooks
to prevent from drying
out. Internal
temperature for rare is
55°C, and for medium
71°C, for well done 77°C.
Beef/Carabeef Cooking
Methods • Pot Roasting. Beef cuts
such as flank, brisket,
rump, top side, and
silverside are suited for
roasting. Use a very large
pan with heavy lid. Brown
first then place on a bed of
vegetables; cover and cook
under low heat for 45
minutes per half kilo. The
covered pot may also be
heated in a preheated oven
at 165°C also at 45 minutes
per half kilo.
Beef/Carabeef Cooking
Methods
• Pan Frying. Cuts suited
for grilling may also be
fried, the tender cuts cut
into small/thin sections.
Just enough fat to cover
the bottom of the pan.
Cook at high heat. Turn
only once.
Beef/Carabeef Cooking
Methods
• Braising. Suitable for
same cut as the those pot
roasting (brisket, rump,
sirloin, etc.). Brown meat
first in small amount of
fat. Use also a bed of
vegetable but add some
liquid. Cover and cook
ovr loow heat for 2 to 3
hours
Beef/Carabeef Cooking
Methods
• Stewing. Used tough cuts
of meat such as shin,
chuck and flank. Also for
tripe or pata. May or may
not be coated with flour.
May or may not be
browned. May or may not
use a bed of vegetables.
Use small amount of liquid
but replenish as needed.
Cooking time up to 3
hours depending on cut
used. May also be cooked
in the covered pot inside
the oven.
Pork Cooking Methods
• Grilling. Chops of all
kinds can be grilled or
fried.
Pork Cooking Methods
• Roasting.All joints are
suitable for roasting,
even whole as in lechon.
Cook to internal
temperature of 77°C to
insure safety.
Pork Cooking Methods
• Stewing/Boiling.
Suitable for all cuts as in
sinigang.
Poultry Cooking Methods
• Grilling/Frying. All cuts
including whole chicken
and duck may be grilled
or fried.
Poultry Cooking Methods
• Roasting. This is the
most important way of
cooking poultry, chicken
eggs, goose, duck, and
turkey. Cook to internal
temperature of 75 °C.
When roasting stuffed
birds, cook the stuffing
separately and stuff
when the bird is cooked
then cook a bit longer.
Poultry Cooking Methods
• Braising and Casseroling.
Good method of cooking
poultry. Suitable for older,
tougher birds but may also
be used for younger birds.
May be applied to whole
birds including turkey to
shorten the time. In this
case braising is done to
fully cook the bird then
roasted to brown the
surface. This technique
leads to less shrinkage.
Meat and Poultry
Storage and
Assessing Quality
How is Meat and Poultry Chilled and
Maintained at the Plant?
• Meat and poultry products are chilled
immediately after slaughter to acceptable
internal temperatures which insure the prompt
removal of the animal heat and preserve the
wholesomeness of the products. Generally, red
meat carcasses (which are above 90° F at the
time of slaughter) are chilled in a blast cooler
with rapidly moving chilled air, and, in some
instances, a cold water shower.
• Poultry is required to be chilled to 40° F or less
within specified time frames, depending upon
the size of the carcass. Whole birds and parts of
major size are chilled in ice or ice and water
media. Poultry parts are chilled in ice, air or
water spray with continuous drainage. Giblets
must be chilled to 40° or below within two hours
of slaughtering the birds.
How Does Packaging Prolong Storage
Times?
• Packaging is a physical barrier to cross
contamination. Microorganisms exist
everywhere in nature. They are in the soil, air,
and water. The simple act of covering food keeps
microorganisms from contacting the food.
Covered perishable foods can be stored longer
and at better quality than uncovered foods.
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and
vacuum packaging help prolong storage.
What Effect Does Vacuum Packaging
and MAP Have on Meat Storage?
• Oxygen in the air hastens both the chemical
breakdown and microbial spoilage of many foods.
To help preserve foods longer, scientists have
developed ways to help overcome the effects of
oxygen. Vacuum packaging, for example, removes
air from packages and produces a vacuum inside.
MAP (modified atmosphere packaging) helps to
preserve foods by replacing some or all of the
oxygen in the air inside the package with other gases
such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen. (examples:
lunch meat in a blister package; raw beef brisket or
filets in vacuum packaging; fresh turkeys).
Temperature for Raw Poultry
• USDA's rules for labeling raw poultry products as to their
storage temperature became effective on December 1997. The
term "fresh" may ONLY be placed on raw poultry that has
never been below 26° F. Poultry held at 0° or below must be
labeled "frozen" or "previously frozen." No specific
labeling is required on poultry between 0 and 26° F.
• This poultry label rule addresses a truth-in-labeling issue, not
food safety, because most pathogenic bacteria do not grow or
grow very slowly at normal refrigerator temperatures. The
Agency concluded that the term "fresh" should not be used
on the labeling of raw poultry products that have been chilled
to the point they are hard to the touch.
During Transportation
• To prevent rapid growth of pathogenic bacteria,
perishable meat and poultry products should be
kept cold (40° or below) or frozen (0° or below)
during transport from the plant to a refrigerated
warehouse or retail store. Microorganisms capable
of causing food-borne illness either don't grow or
grow very slowly at refrigerated temperatures of
40°F. Freezing keeps food safe by slowing the
movement of molecules, causing any microbes
present to enter a dormant stage. There's also no
risk of dripping juices to contaminate nearby
products and storage areas.
REFRIGERATOR HOME STORAGE (at
40° F or below) OF FRESH OR
UNCOOKED PRODUCTS
REFRIGERATOR HOME STORAGE (40°
F or below) OF PROCESSED
PRODUCTS SEALED AT PLANT
Assessing Quality
• The quality of meat and poultry products is
appreciated through sensory impressions, and
therefore its assessment is very subjective.
However, it is known that there are objective
traits very important for the final properties of
meat; this includes the breed and feeding of
animals, weight of carcasses, and aging of meat
after slaughter.
• In general, the success of sensory analysis relies
on the capability to identify, with a precise
description, a kind of product that should be
reproducible as many times as we need to be
tested for as many consumers as possible.
• Notice that from each animal, there are only a
limited amount of similar pieces of meat, and
thus we can only provide pieces of a given breed,
weight, and aging period.
Meat Safety
The safety of meat in the Philippines is the
responsibility of the national meat inspection
service, an agency of the department of
agriculture. Republic act 9296 signed into law in
may 2004, embodies the protection of human
and animal health against hazards in meat, from
farm produce to processes meats. The law
specifically mentions the application of the
HACCP approach to ensure meat safety.
The NMIS have put in place a system of
accrediting slaughterhouses and dressing plants
in the country. Those with AAA accreditation are
allowed to export their products; those with AA
are allowed to bring the meat to other provinces
and regions in the country. Those with A rating
are allowed to sell within the province.
Unfortunately, there are still many
slaughterhouses that have not been accredited.
Furthermore, in many communities animals
may be slaughtered even without the benefit of
sanitary inspector.
Key concerns of fresh meat safety are: presence
of parasites contamination with pathogens due
to improper slaughter methods and unsanitary
handling. For cooked meat the issues may be
undercooked meat especially lechon.
Parasites
Routine meat inspection looks for signs of
parasitic infection so heavily infested meats are
condemned. Parasites undetected during such
routine examination are easily killed by
adequate cooking.
Safe cooking Temperatures
The USDA has lowered the recommended
safe cooking temperature for whole cuts of pork
,steaks, roasts, and chops from 160 F to 145 F
but added a three minute rest time before
carving or consuming. The safe temperature for
cuts of beef, veal and lamb remains unchanged
at 145 F, but a three minute rest time is added as
part of its cooking. Ground beef, veal, lamb and
pork should be cooked to 160 F and do not
require a rest time the safe cooking t poultry
products, including ground chicken and turkey
remains at 165F.
Using Thermometer
With most thermometer, position the probe in the
thickest part of the meat cut away from fat bone or
gristle. For beef burgers chicken pieces pork chops,
meat loaves, roast and casseroles take the food away
from the heat when the meat is almost done.
Remember the large pieces of food have the residual
heat. Position the probe of the thermometer in the
thickest part of the piece but take extra precaution
not to hit the bone. You do not want to take the
temperature of the bone which will tend to have
higher temperature than the meat part.
Safe storage
Meats are among the most perishable foods.
This ready perishability makes it a potentially
hazardous food. At ambient temperatures meat
spoils so fast. It is therefore necessary to keep it
in chilled storage.
References:
• Basic Foods for Filipinos (3rd and 4th Edition)
• Understanding Foods by Amy Brown
• Professional Cooking by Wayne Gislen
• http://www.peta.org/action/10-surprising-
facts-chickens/
• http://mainstreetmeats.com/health-facts-about-
meat/
• http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp
?articlekey=38316

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Meat and poultry

  • 2. Meat • Refers to the muscles of animals used as food. Internal organs of animals used as food is also included in this broad definition. • The animals commonly raised for meat worldwide are cattle, sheep, pig and poultry which is dominated by chicken. • Other mammalian species are also used as food in various parts of the world according to culture and availability.
  • 3. Poultry • The word poultry refers to all domesticated birds raised for their meat. Although chickens are the most popular poultry consumed, other species includes turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea fowls and pigeons. • Game birds such as pheasant, wild duck, and quail are also consumed, but few of them reach the marketplace. Not readily available in all parts of the country yet, but starting to be seen, are emus and ostriches.
  • 4. Consumption of Meat • Throughout the history, meat has been considered a high value food. Nutrition studies indeed show that meats are high grade protein sources. The low consumption of meat in many countries in Asia and Africa was then considered to be the reason for malnutrition for these regions. Subsequent studies and further analysis proved that assumption to be a fallacy. Malnutrition is a consequence of poverty, which in turn has interrelated causes, lack of food being foremost.
  • 5. Philippine Per Capita Consumption of 4 Major Meat Products Year Pork (kg) Chicken (kg) Beef (kg) Carabeef (kg) 1995 11.61 5.83 2.02 0.87 1996 12.21 6.51 2.21 0.92 1997 12.54 6.96 2.43 1.03 1998 12.70 6.75 2.32 0.93 1999 13.10 7.03 2.43 1.16 Average 12.43 6.51 2.28 0.98 Source: Department of Agriculture – Agribusiness and Marketing Systems 2003
  • 6. •Today, the over consumption of meats, is considered to be a major culprit of the so called lifestyle diseases. The current accepted healthy diet means less red meat, use of chicken and fish and more complex carbohydrates from fruits and vegetables. A good balance of food from animal and plant sources ensuring a wide variety of food sources in both categories, and eating in moderation, then as now, is still sound advice.
  • 7. Lifestyle Diseases •A disease associated with the way a person or group of people lives. Lifestyle diseases include atherosclerosis, heart diseases, and stroke; obesity and type 2 diabetes; and diseases associated with smoking and alcohol and drug abuse. Regular physical activity helps prevent obesity, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, colon cancer, and premature mortality.
  • 8. Estimated Per Capita Poultry Meat Consumption in Selected Countries (2002) Country Consumption (kg) Philippines 6.7 India 0.7 Indonesia 3.4 China 9.6 Korea 11.3 Thailand 13.0 Japan 13.8 Malaysia 32.1 Australia 32.4 Taiwan 34.0 USA 49.3 Hong Kong 57.4 Source: Foreign Agriculture Service, Dept. of Agriculture 2003
  • 11. Muscle Muscle Bundles Muscle Fibers Myofibrils Myofilaments - we consider it as the meat in the animal used as food. - basic cellular units of both the living muscle and of meat. - sarcomere is its basic unit. - Two filaments: THICK ACTIN and the THIN MYOSIN (also called the contractile proteins) - Embedded in sarcoplasmic protein matrix
  • 12. The smallest unit readily discernable is the bundle of muscle fibers, enclosed in a sheath, the perimysium. Muscle fibers are the basic cellular units of both the living muscle and of meat. These fibers are multinucleated and are rather long relative to their diameter. The connective tissue around each muscle fiber is the endomysium.
  • 13. Schematic Diagram of Muscle Fiber in relation to Connective Tissues
  • 14.
  • 16. • Meat animal’s body is supported by bones and tendons. Held together by fibrous connective tissues. • Merged into a large mass, the tendon at the termini of each muscles which is anchored to the skeleton. Veins and arteries as well as larger nerves are inside the perimysium, while capillaries and the smaller nerves are in the endomysium. • Contains two types of proteins: COLLAGEN and ELASTIN
  • 17. Collagen • Embedded collagen fibers is where the strength of the bones came from (also calcium) • Elongated proteins that form extremely strong but small fibrils which associate together to form collagen fibers which in turn form sheets or cables that can be easily distinguished in meat cuts. • Collagens are the most abundant protein in the animal body and important in determining the toughness of the meat.
  • 18. Collagen • Collagen fibers shrink in hot water and are converted to gelatin. At around 65°C, the helical structure of collagen is disrupted and the chains fall into random arrangement making way for the conversion to gelatin. This change is significant in the tenderization of meat cuts with high connective tissue content.
  • 19. Elastin • Elastin has true elastic properties compared to collagen which derives its elasticity only when it forms into cable-like tendons. • Elastic properties are necessary in the tissues of the neck, the abdominal/intestinal wall and the arterial system.
  • 20. Fats
  • 21. Location of Fat • Fat cells are usually located abdominally, under the skin and within in the endomysium surrounding muscle fibers
  • 22. Marbling • When fat is associated with the muscle fiber due to its appearance in the meat as wavy lines and resembles the appearance of marble.
  • 24. Meat composition varies with: - Species of animal source - Species variations due to breed, age and sex, diet and exercise conditions. - Anatomical placement of the meat in focus.
  • 25. Meat Protein Fat Ash Water Beef 17.5 22.0 0.9 60 Veal 18.8 14.0 1.0 66 Pork 11.9 45.0 0.6 42 Lamb 15.7 27.7 0.8 56 Horse 20.0 4.0 1.0 74 Chicken 20.2 12.6 1.0 66 Duck 16.2 30.0 1.0 52.8 Turkey 20.1 20.2 1.0 58.3 Typical Percentage Composition of Some Meats with Medium Amounts of Fat
  • 26. Color Changes in Meat and Post Mortem
  • 27. Post Mortem Changes in Meat • The process of converting once living muscle to meat begins soon after the animal has been bled and the oxygen in the muscles is rapidly exhausted. • Impartial bleeding is a major defect that leads to early meat spoilage.
  • 28. Post Mortem Changes in Meat • Pre-rigor stage • Rigor Mortis • Post Rigor Stage • Meat PH • PSE and DFD Meat
  • 29. Pre-rigor stage • Involving a series of changes in cell metabolism as well as the protein structure. • Upon death, the ATP stores are depleted, oxygen is stopped, leading to anaerobic glycolysis and subsequent formation of lactic acid which in turn in cause the pH to fall.
  • 30. Rigor Mortis • Immediately after the animal is killed, the muscles are soft and pliable. • As the pH falls, the development of a stiff and rigid conditions occurs. • Biochemically, it is accompanied by the formation of actomyosin a linked protein from what was previously two distinct actin and myosin proteins of the muscle fiber.
  • 31. Rigor Mortis • The onset rigor mortis occurs within the first 12 hours after slaughter and may last for varying periods within 24 hours. • For chicken the onset is less than 30 minutes, for turkey less than one hour, the pork from 15 minutes to 3 hours. And for beef 6 to 12 hours (Hulitin, HO, 1976). • Fishes are known to exhibit shorter rigor mortis periods.
  • 32. Post Rigor Stage • After the stiffening process, that characterizes rigor mortis, the muscles gradually tenderize. • The main factor in the resolution of rigor is loss of biological regulation of proteinases.
  • 33. Chilling and Cold Shortening • Used to control post rigor changes.
  • 34. Factors lead to deterioration because of Bacterial and Enzymatic Action: • The condition of slaughter. • The health and condition of the animal prior to slaughter. • The storage condition of the meat. • The pH or acidity of the meat.
  • 35. Meat pH • The drop in pH is one of the most mortem biochemical events in meat. • Normal pH is 7.2 to 7.4 which is reduced to about pH 5.5 for red meats and about pH 5.9 for poultry. • The loss of water holding capacity (WHC), in turn leads to low product yield and pork quality. • WHC is the ability of meat to retain its water during processing, storage, and cooking.
  • 36. PSE and DFD Meat • PSE: Pale, Soft, Exudative • DFD: Dark, Firm, and Dry • A low meat ph is often associated with low WHC and pale meat colr. • High Meat pH oftens causes a dark meat color, both pale and dark colors are unattractive to costumers and have poor cooking quality.
  • 37.
  • 38. pH and Meat Properties Rate of pH decrease Final pH Meat Characteristic Slow and Gradual 6.0-6.5 .Dark Meat Slow and Gradual 5.7-6.0 Slightly Dark Meat Gradual 5.3-5.7 Normal Color Rapid 5.3-5.6 Normal Color Rapid 5.0 Normal Color to slightly Dark Rapid 5.1-5.4 then 5.3-5.6 Dark to Pale. Exudative Pale and exudative
  • 39. Meat Cuts, Types of Meat and Poultry and Aging
  • 40. Meat cuts 1. Carcasses 2. Primal or wholesale cuts 3. Fabricated cuts
  • 42. Beef
  • 43. Pork
  • 44. Types of meat and Poultry (Meat)
  • 45. Beef - The ancestor of the beef cattle was a type of wild ox domesticated in ancient Greece and Turkey during the stone age. - Red meat consumption continues to increase to North American consumers. - Beef originates from cattle that are classified according to gender and age:
  • 46. 1. Steers- male cattle that are castrated while young. 2. Bulls- these older uncastrated males that provide stag meat usually used for breeding. 3. Heifers and cows- heifers, females that have not borne a calf, are also used for meat. The meat from cows, female cattle that have borne calves. 4. Calves- their meat is inferred to as baby beef.
  • 47. Veal - Veal comes from the young calves of beef cattle. These very young animals are fed a milk-based diet or formula that have their movements greatly restricted, resulting in meat with an exceptionally milky flavor, pale color, and tender texture.
  • 49. Lamb and mutton - Lamb and mutton are the meat of sheep. - Difference between the two is the age of the animal from which they come. • Lamb comes from sheep less than 14 months old, and mutton from those over 14 months. • Mutton is also darker and tougher than lamb and has a stronger flavor
  • 50. Lamb
  • 52.
  • 53. Pork - Most pork is derived from young swine of either gender slaughtered at 7 months of age. - About one-third of all pork is sold fresh, whereas the rest is cured and provided to consumers as ham, sausage, luncheon meats, and bacon.
  • 54.
  • 55. Types of Meat and Poultry (Poultry)
  • 56. Chicken (Poulet) • Most popular and widely eaten poultry in the world • Inexpensive and readily available • Contains both light and dark meat • Relatively lean • Available fresh or frozen in a variety of forms • Extremely versatile
  • 57. Chicken Classes • Game Hen ▫ 5-6 weeks old • Broiler/fryer ▫ 13 weeks old • Roaster ▫ 3-5 months old • Capon ▫ Under 8 months old • Hen/stewing ▫ Over 10 months old
  • 58. Game Hen • Young or immature progeny of Cornish chickens or of a Cornish chicken and a White Rock chicken • Very flavorful • 2 lb. or less • Spit roast, broil, grill or oven roast
  • 59. Broiler/fryer • Young with soft, smooth textured skin • Relatively lean • Flexible breastbone • 3 lb. 8 oz. or less • Can use any cooking method
  • 60. Capon • Surgically castrated male • Tender meat with soft smooth skin • Bred for well-flavored meat • Contains a high portion of light to dark meat • Relatively high in fat • 6-10 lb. • Roast
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65.
  • 66.
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69. Duck (Canard) • Classes ▫ Broiler ▫ Roaster ▫ Mature • Contains only dark meat • Large amount of fat • High percentage of bone and fat to meat • Roast
  • 70. Goose (Oie) • Classes ▫ Young ▫ Mature • Contains only dark meat • Very fatty skin • Popular at holidays • Served with acidic fruit-based sauces to offset fattiness
  • 71. Guinea (Pintade) • Classes ▫ Young ▫ Mature • Domesticated descendant of a game bird • Has both light and dark meat • Tender enough to sauté • Contains little fat • Usually is barded prior to roasting
  • 72. Pigeon (Pigeon) • Commonly called squab • Contains only dark meat • Meat is tender • Contains very little fat • Suited for broiling, sautéing or roasting
  • 73. Turkey (Dinde) • Classes ▫ Fryer/roaster ▫ Young ▫ Yearling ▫ Mature • Second most popular category of poultry in the U.S. • Contains both light and dark meat • Relatively small amount of fat • Young turkey can be prepared in any manner
  • 75. Aging
  • 76. Aging • Aging is a practice of storing meat carcasses usually beef at chill temperature just above 0º for 10-14 days at70 percent relative humidity prior to cutting. This practice has been shown to increase beef tenderness. • Pork and lamb are usually not aged.
  • 77. Types of aging • Dry Aging - It is accomplished with careful temperature and humidity and air flow monitoring. Ultra violet is sometimes used to control microbial growth. -Carcasses are hung in refrigeration units at 34°F to 38°F (1°C to 3°C) with low (70 to 75 percent) or high (85 to 90 percent) humidity for 11 ⁄2 to 6 weeks. • Fast Aging - It involves holding the meat at higher temperatures for shorter time. - Most beef is aged in plastic shrink-wrap. Warmer temperatures of 70°F (21°C) with a high humidity of 85 to 90 percent lower the aging time to 2 days, but additional aging will occur during the 10 or so days it takes the meat to reach the consumer. Ultraviolet lights are used to inhibit microbial growth. Most retail meat is fast aged.
  • 78. • Vacuum Pack Aging - meat cuts are vacuum packed prior to aging at controlled temperature. - Less weight loss and spoilage occur in meats that are aged by vacuum packing (cryovacing). During this process, meat carcasses are divided into smaller cuts, vacuum packed in moisture- and vapor-proof plastic bags, and then aged under refrigeration.
  • 80. Tenderness It involves three aspects: 1. the initial penetration of the meat by the teeth upon biting/chewing 2. the ease in which the meat breaks into fragments, and 3. the amount of residue left after chewing. (Weir 1960) Tenderness of the meat is affected by both Pre-Slaughter and Post Mortem Factors Pre-Slaughter Factors 1. Species of the animals from where the meat is taken. 2. The specific breed of the animal 3. Age and Sex 4. The specific part of the animal from where the meat was derived. 5. Stress on the animal before slaughter
  • 81. Post Slaughter Factors Post-Slaughter Factors are: post mortem glycolysis, aging, tenderizing treatments and storage. • Post mortem glycolysis -is a series of chemical reactions, which include the conversion of muscle glycogen to lactic acid: resulting in increased in acidity (lowering of pH). • Aging - Is a practice of storing meat carcasses usually beef at chill temperature just above 0C for 10-14 days at percent relative humidity prior to cutting.
  • 82. Dry Aging - original method - carried out in controlled environment with temperatures of 0 to 20C, 80to 85% relative humidity and air flow of 0.5 to 2.0 m per second for 3 to 4 weeks. Uncovered meat is hung in rails in these controlled rooms. Wet Aging - aging occurs when the meat cuts are vacuum packed in waterproof-plastic materials boxed for distribution. Aging happens during the transportation and/or storage of the packed chilled meat.
  • 83. • Hanging Method - method of hanging the carcass during aging and/or chilling has been found to affect tenderness as well. Common practice is to hang carcass by the heel of the hind leg. • Electrical Stimulation - a practice of passing electrical current (voltage vary from 30V to 1000V ) on the freshly slaughtered carcass. This practice accelerates the passing of rigor mortis. Some of the advantages cited are: prevention of cold shortening, improving color, tenderness and flavor.
  • 84. • In-Vitro Enzyme Treatment - practice of giving proteolytic enzymes to beef intended for slaughter is still one more method of achieving tender meat. Giving the live animal proteolytic enzymes such as papain or bromelin intravenously.
  • 85. Mechanical Methods Pounding - meat is pound until thin before drying. The action of pounding breaks the muscle fibers and connective tissues. This method of pre- preparation of fillet. Slicing Thinly - slicing thinly cuts the muscle fiber and makes chewing easier. This is applied to meat cuts intended for stir frying or sautéing.
  • 86. Grinding/Chopping - chopping or grinding to break the connective tissues and muscle fibers before forming patties or balls or any other desired shape. Marinating - is intended primarily to heighten or incorporate flavors in meat, but it has added effect of tendering. Marinating solution contains an acid such as wine, vinegar, kalamansi, salt, and seasoning.
  • 87. Use of Proteolytic Enzymes - proteolytic enzymes of plants or bacterial origin are used in commercial meat tenderizing preparations. The enzymes acts on the muscle fibers making them shorter and more tender. most commonly used plant enzymes are papain from papaya latex, bromelin from pineapple and ficin from figs.
  • 88. Prolonged Simmering - most common way of tenderizing meat. The tenderizing action is due to the conversion of collagen to gelatin.
  • 90. Cooking meat achieves the following objectives: *Improve eating quality and digestibility, tenderization, food safety. *Enhance and develop flavors. *Brings about color changes makes the meat more tender and digestible. * Destroys parasites and pathogenic microorganisms that may be present making the meat safer for consumption.
  • 91. Tempera ture Pigment Protein Fiber Protein- bound water collagen C F 38 100 Red Uncoiled, starts coagulatio n Flow-out of muscle fiber Solid 60 140 Red Continue coagulatio n Continue to flow out Begin to dissolve 71 160 Pink Mostly coagulated Continue to dissolve 79 175 Brown- gray Coagulate d Continue to dissolve 93 200 Brown- gray Dense associatio n Dissolve rapidly Effects on Cooking on Meat: Constituents
  • 92.
  • 93. Beef/Carabeef Cooking Methods • Grilling. The cuts suitable for grilling are sirloin steak, rump steak, porterhouse steak, T-bone steak. Grilling must be preheated but racks should not be. Grease to prevent sticking. Turn meat once. Baste as needed.
  • 94.
  • 95. Beef/Carabeef Cooking Methods • Roasting. Large cuts such as ribs and sirloin are best suited for roasting. Whole young calf may also be roasted. Baste the meat with its own drippings as it cooks to prevent from drying out. Internal temperature for rare is 55°C, and for medium 71°C, for well done 77°C.
  • 96.
  • 97. Beef/Carabeef Cooking Methods • Pot Roasting. Beef cuts such as flank, brisket, rump, top side, and silverside are suited for roasting. Use a very large pan with heavy lid. Brown first then place on a bed of vegetables; cover and cook under low heat for 45 minutes per half kilo. The covered pot may also be heated in a preheated oven at 165°C also at 45 minutes per half kilo.
  • 98. Beef/Carabeef Cooking Methods • Pan Frying. Cuts suited for grilling may also be fried, the tender cuts cut into small/thin sections. Just enough fat to cover the bottom of the pan. Cook at high heat. Turn only once.
  • 99. Beef/Carabeef Cooking Methods • Braising. Suitable for same cut as the those pot roasting (brisket, rump, sirloin, etc.). Brown meat first in small amount of fat. Use also a bed of vegetable but add some liquid. Cover and cook ovr loow heat for 2 to 3 hours
  • 100. Beef/Carabeef Cooking Methods • Stewing. Used tough cuts of meat such as shin, chuck and flank. Also for tripe or pata. May or may not be coated with flour. May or may not be browned. May or may not use a bed of vegetables. Use small amount of liquid but replenish as needed. Cooking time up to 3 hours depending on cut used. May also be cooked in the covered pot inside the oven.
  • 101.
  • 102. Pork Cooking Methods • Grilling. Chops of all kinds can be grilled or fried.
  • 103. Pork Cooking Methods • Roasting.All joints are suitable for roasting, even whole as in lechon. Cook to internal temperature of 77°C to insure safety.
  • 104. Pork Cooking Methods • Stewing/Boiling. Suitable for all cuts as in sinigang.
  • 105.
  • 106. Poultry Cooking Methods • Grilling/Frying. All cuts including whole chicken and duck may be grilled or fried.
  • 107. Poultry Cooking Methods • Roasting. This is the most important way of cooking poultry, chicken eggs, goose, duck, and turkey. Cook to internal temperature of 75 °C. When roasting stuffed birds, cook the stuffing separately and stuff when the bird is cooked then cook a bit longer.
  • 108. Poultry Cooking Methods • Braising and Casseroling. Good method of cooking poultry. Suitable for older, tougher birds but may also be used for younger birds. May be applied to whole birds including turkey to shorten the time. In this case braising is done to fully cook the bird then roasted to brown the surface. This technique leads to less shrinkage.
  • 109. Meat and Poultry Storage and Assessing Quality
  • 110. How is Meat and Poultry Chilled and Maintained at the Plant? • Meat and poultry products are chilled immediately after slaughter to acceptable internal temperatures which insure the prompt removal of the animal heat and preserve the wholesomeness of the products. Generally, red meat carcasses (which are above 90° F at the time of slaughter) are chilled in a blast cooler with rapidly moving chilled air, and, in some instances, a cold water shower.
  • 111. • Poultry is required to be chilled to 40° F or less within specified time frames, depending upon the size of the carcass. Whole birds and parts of major size are chilled in ice or ice and water media. Poultry parts are chilled in ice, air or water spray with continuous drainage. Giblets must be chilled to 40° or below within two hours of slaughtering the birds.
  • 112. How Does Packaging Prolong Storage Times? • Packaging is a physical barrier to cross contamination. Microorganisms exist everywhere in nature. They are in the soil, air, and water. The simple act of covering food keeps microorganisms from contacting the food. Covered perishable foods can be stored longer and at better quality than uncovered foods. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and vacuum packaging help prolong storage.
  • 113. What Effect Does Vacuum Packaging and MAP Have on Meat Storage? • Oxygen in the air hastens both the chemical breakdown and microbial spoilage of many foods. To help preserve foods longer, scientists have developed ways to help overcome the effects of oxygen. Vacuum packaging, for example, removes air from packages and produces a vacuum inside. MAP (modified atmosphere packaging) helps to preserve foods by replacing some or all of the oxygen in the air inside the package with other gases such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen. (examples: lunch meat in a blister package; raw beef brisket or filets in vacuum packaging; fresh turkeys).
  • 114. Temperature for Raw Poultry • USDA's rules for labeling raw poultry products as to their storage temperature became effective on December 1997. The term "fresh" may ONLY be placed on raw poultry that has never been below 26° F. Poultry held at 0° or below must be labeled "frozen" or "previously frozen." No specific labeling is required on poultry between 0 and 26° F. • This poultry label rule addresses a truth-in-labeling issue, not food safety, because most pathogenic bacteria do not grow or grow very slowly at normal refrigerator temperatures. The Agency concluded that the term "fresh" should not be used on the labeling of raw poultry products that have been chilled to the point they are hard to the touch.
  • 115. During Transportation • To prevent rapid growth of pathogenic bacteria, perishable meat and poultry products should be kept cold (40° or below) or frozen (0° or below) during transport from the plant to a refrigerated warehouse or retail store. Microorganisms capable of causing food-borne illness either don't grow or grow very slowly at refrigerated temperatures of 40°F. Freezing keeps food safe by slowing the movement of molecules, causing any microbes present to enter a dormant stage. There's also no risk of dripping juices to contaminate nearby products and storage areas.
  • 116. REFRIGERATOR HOME STORAGE (at 40° F or below) OF FRESH OR UNCOOKED PRODUCTS
  • 117. REFRIGERATOR HOME STORAGE (40° F or below) OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS SEALED AT PLANT
  • 118.
  • 119. Assessing Quality • The quality of meat and poultry products is appreciated through sensory impressions, and therefore its assessment is very subjective. However, it is known that there are objective traits very important for the final properties of meat; this includes the breed and feeding of animals, weight of carcasses, and aging of meat after slaughter.
  • 120. • In general, the success of sensory analysis relies on the capability to identify, with a precise description, a kind of product that should be reproducible as many times as we need to be tested for as many consumers as possible. • Notice that from each animal, there are only a limited amount of similar pieces of meat, and thus we can only provide pieces of a given breed, weight, and aging period.
  • 122. The safety of meat in the Philippines is the responsibility of the national meat inspection service, an agency of the department of agriculture. Republic act 9296 signed into law in may 2004, embodies the protection of human and animal health against hazards in meat, from farm produce to processes meats. The law specifically mentions the application of the HACCP approach to ensure meat safety.
  • 123. The NMIS have put in place a system of accrediting slaughterhouses and dressing plants in the country. Those with AAA accreditation are allowed to export their products; those with AA are allowed to bring the meat to other provinces and regions in the country. Those with A rating are allowed to sell within the province. Unfortunately, there are still many slaughterhouses that have not been accredited. Furthermore, in many communities animals may be slaughtered even without the benefit of sanitary inspector.
  • 124. Key concerns of fresh meat safety are: presence of parasites contamination with pathogens due to improper slaughter methods and unsanitary handling. For cooked meat the issues may be undercooked meat especially lechon.
  • 125. Parasites Routine meat inspection looks for signs of parasitic infection so heavily infested meats are condemned. Parasites undetected during such routine examination are easily killed by adequate cooking.
  • 126. Safe cooking Temperatures The USDA has lowered the recommended safe cooking temperature for whole cuts of pork ,steaks, roasts, and chops from 160 F to 145 F but added a three minute rest time before carving or consuming. The safe temperature for cuts of beef, veal and lamb remains unchanged at 145 F, but a three minute rest time is added as part of its cooking. Ground beef, veal, lamb and pork should be cooked to 160 F and do not require a rest time the safe cooking t poultry products, including ground chicken and turkey remains at 165F.
  • 127. Using Thermometer With most thermometer, position the probe in the thickest part of the meat cut away from fat bone or gristle. For beef burgers chicken pieces pork chops, meat loaves, roast and casseroles take the food away from the heat when the meat is almost done. Remember the large pieces of food have the residual heat. Position the probe of the thermometer in the thickest part of the piece but take extra precaution not to hit the bone. You do not want to take the temperature of the bone which will tend to have higher temperature than the meat part.
  • 128. Safe storage Meats are among the most perishable foods. This ready perishability makes it a potentially hazardous food. At ambient temperatures meat spoils so fast. It is therefore necessary to keep it in chilled storage.
  • 129. References: • Basic Foods for Filipinos (3rd and 4th Edition) • Understanding Foods by Amy Brown • Professional Cooking by Wayne Gislen • http://www.peta.org/action/10-surprising- facts-chickens/ • http://mainstreetmeats.com/health-facts-about- meat/ • http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp ?articlekey=38316