Conditional sentences

Mariluz Rocha Bustamante
Mariluz Rocha BustamanteDirectora um Centro Educativo Delta
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.

Type If clause              Main clause                                                           Uses
0    Simple                 Simple present or the imperative                                      To talk about something that’s always true or commands.
     present
I    Simple                 Will/Won’t or Modal (can, should, might, may,etc.)                    Possible future action or situation.
     present
II   Simple past            Would/could/might/should/may/must + verb inf.                         Improbable or hypothetical action or situation.
                            without to
III      Past               Would/could/might/should/may/must + present                           Impossible action or situation. Something that didn’t
         Perfect            perfect                                                               happen or situation that didn’t exist in the past.


WISHES AND REGRETS.
I wish… and If only... mean the same, but If only… can express the wish more strongly.

Wish/If only + would (I/we wish + could to talk about a regret                           I wish I could pay another flat, but I earn not money enough!
about a present or future inability)
Wish/If only + past simple/past continuous to talk about a                               I wish she was/were here.
regret about a present situation
Wish/If only + past perfect to talk about a regret we have                               If only he’d tried to talk to his father.
about something that happened or didn’t happen in the past.


1. Put the verbs in the right tense
                              Barry Kent lives in a small house. He wishes he ........................ (own) a small flat but he can’t afford it. If he
........................ (have) a job, he ...................... (can) save some money. But Barry has no qualifications. ‘I w ish I ...................... (work) harder
at school,’ he says. ‘If I .................... (pass) a few exams, I .......................... (go) to college. If I can, I ....................... (go) to evening classes. I
hate this bedsit. I wish I ............................ (never/leave) home. But Mum was always nagging me.’ Barry has some advice for people at
school. ‘ If I .................. (be) you, I ...................... (study) hard. I wish I ...........................(listen) to my teacher’s advice years ago.’

2. Put the verbs into the correct tense
          1. If Alan ............................ (not/tease) the dog yesterday, it ..................... (not/bite) him and he .................... (not/have) to go to
hospital.
          2. I ......................... (not/make) the journey unless you .......................... (insist).
          3. Suppose he ........................... (come) for an interview when you told him to, ..............................(you/give) him the job?
          4. You’d better hurry. Otherwise, you................... (be) late for your appointment.
          5. If you ............................... (listen) to the BBC occasionallly while you were studying English, it ......................... (help).
          6. You ........................... (go) out tonight as long as you .................... (come) back by midnight.
          7. If you .......................... (buy) a laptop computer, I ........................ (show) you how to use it, but you don’t seem very interested in
the idea.
          8. If I ................................... (not/be) in time, ........................... (make) yourself something to eat.
          9. Suppose he ........................... (come) tomorrow, ................................(we/still/meet) him?
          10. Even if Ian ............................ (oppose) the idea, I ........................... (invest) the money you suggested.




                                                                                                     C/ Juan de Pineda, 112 | 955128277 - 603552291
3. Rewrite these sentences without changing the meaning of the original one

1. I think it will rain tomorrow. We’ll have to stay indoors.                      Suzi ....................................................
            If.................................                                    12. You missed a good game on Sunday.
            2. David must practise more to be a really good                        ‘I wish ..........................
pianist.                                                                           13. When I was younger, I didn’t learn how to play a
            If ...................................                        musical instrument.
            3. If anyone complains, refer them to the manager.                     ‘If ................................................
            Should..................................                               14. I didn’t bring a map. We got lost.
            4. you have to have a visa to enter China.                             Had...................................................
            Unless...................................                              15. Tom was sent to bed last night because he didn’t
            5. I need a grant in order to study at university.            behave himself.
            I won’t ...................................                            If .......................................
            6. I cannot afford to buy a PSP.                                       16. I don’t like Tony because he is always saying nasty
            If ....................................................       things.
            7. I couldn’t finish the crossword because it was too                  I wish...................................
difficult.                                                                         17. Drivers do not pay attention to the rules of the
            I .............................................               road. There are a lot of accidents.
            8. Tommy would love to have a baby sister.                             Unless ........................................
            Tommy wishes................................                           18. I advise you not to tell anyone.
            9. Take my advice – don’t move into that                               Were ............................................
neighbourhood.                                                                     19. He didn’t recover soon. He didn’t follow the
            I.......................................                      doctor’s order. (PROVIDED)
            10. It rained a lot when we were in England.                           ...........................
            I wish ........................................                        20. He may go to prison. He refuses to pay the fine.
            11. Suzi has to work very hard. Suzi cannot take more                  Unless .................................................
exercise.

OTHER WAYS OF SAYING ‘IF’
   A) SUPPOSE (THAT)/SUPPOSING (THAT) = WHAT IF?
       The clause which expresses the result appears in the interrogative form
          Suppose he comes tomorrow, will we still meet him?
          Suppose he went by train, would it be any quicker?
          Supposing that he had come for an interview, would you have given him a job?

     B) AS LONG AS/ SO LONG AS ; ON (THE) CONDITION THAT ; PROVIDED (THAT)/ PROVIDING (THAT).
        These expressions are used to express a strong limitation. They follow the structure of the three types of conditional
        sentences. They could be translated as follows ‘siempre qeu/ con tal de que / a condición de que + subjuntivo’
          You can go out tonight as long as you come back by midnight.
          He could have recovered provided (that) he had followed the doctor’s orders

     C) IN CASE is used with the present or the past tenses to say that a condition can take place or not. IN CASE refers to actions
        we can do in advance to be prepared for something
          Take an umbrella in case it rains.

IN CASE OF + NOUN: ‘IF THERE IS A /AN’
          In case of an accident, notify the police.

     D) OTHERWISE.
        A condition can be understood although it is not expressed. OTHERWISE is used in the place of a conditional clause. Its
        translation could be ‘de lo contrario’.
          You’d better hurry. Otherwise, you’ll be late for your appointment. (Otherwise: if you don’t hurry).


                                                                                                                                          2
EXERCISES
1) Complete the following sentences                                 2. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words
          1. Suppose Dan asks her for a date, …………………………….                      1. Don’t leave your medicine there ……………………. One
          2. The sun wouldn’t have damaged your skin provided       of the children gets hold of it.
that …………..                                                                     2. ………………….. I lend you the money, when will I get it
          3. Take my phone number in case …………………                   back?
          4. I’ll lend you the car on condition that ………………                     3. You can come to the meeting ……………….. you don’t
          5. …………………………………………………… so long as the                    say anything.
police patrolled the neighbourhood.                                             4. You should go with Mary …………………… she needs
                                                                    help.
                                                                                5. Tom will make a good footballer …………………. he
                                                                    trains more.

3. Write the meaning of OTHERWISE in each of the following sentences
         1. Her daughter translates everything for her. Otherwise, she wouldn’t manage at all.
         Otherwise means ‘If ………………………
         2. He used the dictionary in the test. Otherwise, he wouldn’t have known the answers.
         Otherwise means ‘If ……………………………………
         3. You must apply for the scholarship this week. Otherwise your application won’t be accepted.
         Otherwise means ‘If ……………..
         4. She’s got a deadline to meet. Otherwise she would be here now.
         Otherwise means ‘If …………


4. Rewrite the following sentences without changing the meaning
         1. Make a note of it because you may forget. (in case)

         2. If that actor doesn’t improve, he will be replaced. (otherwise)

         3. I wonder how he would react if he received the telegram now.
         Suppose…………
         4. You must eat only fresh fruit and vegetables in that country. Otherwise, you may get food poisoning.
         Provided ……………..
         5. They didn’t make any noise because they didn’t want to wake up the baby. (in case)

         6. Learning a foreign language is easy for those who start at an early age. (as long as)




                                                                              C/ Juan de Pineda, 112 | 955128277 - 603552291
MIXED CONDITIONALS.
         We do not always have to stick rigidly to the ‘three types of conditional sentences’. All types of conditionals can be mixed.
Any tense combination is possible if the context permits it.

                   If I am clever as you say I am, I would have been rich by now. (Type 1 + Type 3)
                   If you knew me better, you wouldn’t have said that. (Type 2 + Type 3)
                   If I had had your advantages, I’d be better off now. (Type 3 + Type 2)

1. Use mixed tenses in these sentences
         1. If I ……………………………. (be) you, I …………………………………….. (check) my facts before I wrote that letter.
         2. If you ………………………. (be) so hungry, you ……………………………. (not miss) breakfast.
         3. If he ……………………………… (not/catch) the 5.30 train, he …………………………… (not arrive) for another two hours.
         4. He ………………………………. (feel) very tired today if he ……………………………….. (play) rugby yesterday.
         5. If the snake bite ……………………………….. (be) poisonous, you …………………………………… (feel) very ill now.
         6. If I ………………………………………. (be) in your position, I …………………………………… (answer) his letter by now.

2. Rewrite the following mixed conditional sentences
         1. She isn’t at the meeting because she wasn’t told about it.
         2. I didn’t apply for the job. I don’t want to work there.
         3. He didn’t take his job seriously. He’s unemployed now.
         4. He didn’t train every day. He won’t win the race.
         5. I didn’t warn me. Now I’m in a difficult situation.
         6. I don’t know him very well so I didn’t give him any advice.




                                                                                                                                    4

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Conditional sentences

  • 1. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. Type If clause Main clause Uses 0 Simple Simple present or the imperative To talk about something that’s always true or commands. present I Simple Will/Won’t or Modal (can, should, might, may,etc.) Possible future action or situation. present II Simple past Would/could/might/should/may/must + verb inf. Improbable or hypothetical action or situation. without to III Past Would/could/might/should/may/must + present Impossible action or situation. Something that didn’t Perfect perfect happen or situation that didn’t exist in the past. WISHES AND REGRETS. I wish… and If only... mean the same, but If only… can express the wish more strongly. Wish/If only + would (I/we wish + could to talk about a regret I wish I could pay another flat, but I earn not money enough! about a present or future inability) Wish/If only + past simple/past continuous to talk about a I wish she was/were here. regret about a present situation Wish/If only + past perfect to talk about a regret we have If only he’d tried to talk to his father. about something that happened or didn’t happen in the past. 1. Put the verbs in the right tense Barry Kent lives in a small house. He wishes he ........................ (own) a small flat but he can’t afford it. If he ........................ (have) a job, he ...................... (can) save some money. But Barry has no qualifications. ‘I w ish I ...................... (work) harder at school,’ he says. ‘If I .................... (pass) a few exams, I .......................... (go) to college. If I can, I ....................... (go) to evening classes. I hate this bedsit. I wish I ............................ (never/leave) home. But Mum was always nagging me.’ Barry has some advice for people at school. ‘ If I .................. (be) you, I ...................... (study) hard. I wish I ...........................(listen) to my teacher’s advice years ago.’ 2. Put the verbs into the correct tense 1. If Alan ............................ (not/tease) the dog yesterday, it ..................... (not/bite) him and he .................... (not/have) to go to hospital. 2. I ......................... (not/make) the journey unless you .......................... (insist). 3. Suppose he ........................... (come) for an interview when you told him to, ..............................(you/give) him the job? 4. You’d better hurry. Otherwise, you................... (be) late for your appointment. 5. If you ............................... (listen) to the BBC occasionallly while you were studying English, it ......................... (help). 6. You ........................... (go) out tonight as long as you .................... (come) back by midnight. 7. If you .......................... (buy) a laptop computer, I ........................ (show) you how to use it, but you don’t seem very interested in the idea. 8. If I ................................... (not/be) in time, ........................... (make) yourself something to eat. 9. Suppose he ........................... (come) tomorrow, ................................(we/still/meet) him? 10. Even if Ian ............................ (oppose) the idea, I ........................... (invest) the money you suggested. C/ Juan de Pineda, 112 | 955128277 - 603552291
  • 2. 3. Rewrite these sentences without changing the meaning of the original one 1. I think it will rain tomorrow. We’ll have to stay indoors. Suzi .................................................... If................................. 12. You missed a good game on Sunday. 2. David must practise more to be a really good ‘I wish .......................... pianist. 13. When I was younger, I didn’t learn how to play a If ................................... musical instrument. 3. If anyone complains, refer them to the manager. ‘If ................................................ Should.................................. 14. I didn’t bring a map. We got lost. 4. you have to have a visa to enter China. Had................................................... Unless................................... 15. Tom was sent to bed last night because he didn’t 5. I need a grant in order to study at university. behave himself. I won’t ................................... If ....................................... 6. I cannot afford to buy a PSP. 16. I don’t like Tony because he is always saying nasty If .................................................... things. 7. I couldn’t finish the crossword because it was too I wish................................... difficult. 17. Drivers do not pay attention to the rules of the I ............................................. road. There are a lot of accidents. 8. Tommy would love to have a baby sister. Unless ........................................ Tommy wishes................................ 18. I advise you not to tell anyone. 9. Take my advice – don’t move into that Were ............................................ neighbourhood. 19. He didn’t recover soon. He didn’t follow the I....................................... doctor’s order. (PROVIDED) 10. It rained a lot when we were in England. ........................... I wish ........................................ 20. He may go to prison. He refuses to pay the fine. 11. Suzi has to work very hard. Suzi cannot take more Unless ................................................. exercise. OTHER WAYS OF SAYING ‘IF’ A) SUPPOSE (THAT)/SUPPOSING (THAT) = WHAT IF? The clause which expresses the result appears in the interrogative form Suppose he comes tomorrow, will we still meet him? Suppose he went by train, would it be any quicker? Supposing that he had come for an interview, would you have given him a job? B) AS LONG AS/ SO LONG AS ; ON (THE) CONDITION THAT ; PROVIDED (THAT)/ PROVIDING (THAT). These expressions are used to express a strong limitation. They follow the structure of the three types of conditional sentences. They could be translated as follows ‘siempre qeu/ con tal de que / a condición de que + subjuntivo’ You can go out tonight as long as you come back by midnight. He could have recovered provided (that) he had followed the doctor’s orders C) IN CASE is used with the present or the past tenses to say that a condition can take place or not. IN CASE refers to actions we can do in advance to be prepared for something Take an umbrella in case it rains. IN CASE OF + NOUN: ‘IF THERE IS A /AN’ In case of an accident, notify the police. D) OTHERWISE. A condition can be understood although it is not expressed. OTHERWISE is used in the place of a conditional clause. Its translation could be ‘de lo contrario’. You’d better hurry. Otherwise, you’ll be late for your appointment. (Otherwise: if you don’t hurry). 2
  • 3. EXERCISES 1) Complete the following sentences 2. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words 1. Suppose Dan asks her for a date, ……………………………. 1. Don’t leave your medicine there ……………………. One 2. The sun wouldn’t have damaged your skin provided of the children gets hold of it. that ………….. 2. ………………….. I lend you the money, when will I get it 3. Take my phone number in case ………………… back? 4. I’ll lend you the car on condition that ……………… 3. You can come to the meeting ……………….. you don’t 5. …………………………………………………… so long as the say anything. police patrolled the neighbourhood. 4. You should go with Mary …………………… she needs help. 5. Tom will make a good footballer …………………. he trains more. 3. Write the meaning of OTHERWISE in each of the following sentences 1. Her daughter translates everything for her. Otherwise, she wouldn’t manage at all. Otherwise means ‘If ……………………… 2. He used the dictionary in the test. Otherwise, he wouldn’t have known the answers. Otherwise means ‘If …………………………………… 3. You must apply for the scholarship this week. Otherwise your application won’t be accepted. Otherwise means ‘If …………….. 4. She’s got a deadline to meet. Otherwise she would be here now. Otherwise means ‘If ………… 4. Rewrite the following sentences without changing the meaning 1. Make a note of it because you may forget. (in case) 2. If that actor doesn’t improve, he will be replaced. (otherwise) 3. I wonder how he would react if he received the telegram now. Suppose………… 4. You must eat only fresh fruit and vegetables in that country. Otherwise, you may get food poisoning. Provided …………….. 5. They didn’t make any noise because they didn’t want to wake up the baby. (in case) 6. Learning a foreign language is easy for those who start at an early age. (as long as) C/ Juan de Pineda, 112 | 955128277 - 603552291
  • 4. MIXED CONDITIONALS. We do not always have to stick rigidly to the ‘three types of conditional sentences’. All types of conditionals can be mixed. Any tense combination is possible if the context permits it. If I am clever as you say I am, I would have been rich by now. (Type 1 + Type 3) If you knew me better, you wouldn’t have said that. (Type 2 + Type 3) If I had had your advantages, I’d be better off now. (Type 3 + Type 2) 1. Use mixed tenses in these sentences 1. If I ……………………………. (be) you, I …………………………………….. (check) my facts before I wrote that letter. 2. If you ………………………. (be) so hungry, you ……………………………. (not miss) breakfast. 3. If he ……………………………… (not/catch) the 5.30 train, he …………………………… (not arrive) for another two hours. 4. He ………………………………. (feel) very tired today if he ……………………………….. (play) rugby yesterday. 5. If the snake bite ……………………………….. (be) poisonous, you …………………………………… (feel) very ill now. 6. If I ………………………………………. (be) in your position, I …………………………………… (answer) his letter by now. 2. Rewrite the following mixed conditional sentences 1. She isn’t at the meeting because she wasn’t told about it. 2. I didn’t apply for the job. I don’t want to work there. 3. He didn’t take his job seriously. He’s unemployed now. 4. He didn’t train every day. He won’t win the race. 5. I didn’t warn me. Now I’m in a difficult situation. 6. I don’t know him very well so I didn’t give him any advice. 4