1. PEH 4: LESSON 11
Volleyball as Team Sport
Volleyball is a team sport which is played in a court with a high net by two (2) teams with six (6)
Persons on each team court. It may be played by all male, all female, or mixed teams with net height
Adjustments for boys, girls or age-group differences; and using a variety of playing surfaces; wood,
rubberized materials, and or grass.
The basic objective of the game is to keep the ball which is served over the net, from
contacting the Floor on your side and to return it so that it contacts the floor on the opponents’ side before
they can return it.
The team that fails to return the ball within the specific limits loses the chance to serve and
gives a point to the team’s opponent. In the game volleyball, the cooperation of the members of the team
In the game volleyball, the cooperation of the members of the team is important.
The History Volleyball
Volleyball was first developed by William G. Morgan. After graduation from Springfield College in
Massachusetts in 1895, William G. Morgan took a position as physical director of the Holyoke Young
Men’s Christian Association. The main activity was basketball, a relatively strenuous sport for the
businessmen who used the facilities of the gymnasium. Some older men did not like it because of the
roughness of the game. In 1896 at a YMCA Conference at Springfield College, Mr. Morgan publicized a
new game. A net 6 feet 6 inches was stretched across the gymnasium. The main object of this new game
was to hit the ball back and forth over the net with the hands. The game was started with a serve.
The server was allowed three “outs” after which the opposite team was permitted to serve. To
constitute an out, the ball had to land out-of-bounds or hit the floor on a second bounce. The game was
introduced as “Mintonette” but after watching the game, a faculty member of Springfield College, Dr.
Alfred T. Halstead, recommended that the name be changed to volleyball. Shortly after the game’s
invention, Mr. Morgan drew up specifications for a special ball. By 1912, several rule changes had been
made. Volleyball became very popular with schools, colleges, playgrounds and the armed forces. In
1929, the United States Volleyball Association was formed. The game volleyball was introduced in the
Philippines by the YMCA in 1910. This sport became an Olympic sport in1964 during the Tokyo Olympic
Historical fact about volleyball
2. A. Volleyball was developed in 1895 by William G. Morgan at the Young Men's Christian Association
(YMCA) in Holyoke, Massachusetts.
B. It was created for businessmen who required a game that involved less physical contact than
C. Volleyball blended elements of baseball, basketball, handball, and tennis.
D. Volleyball was originally played using tennis net hung 6 feet 6 inches above the floor.
E. The first game of volleyball was played on July 7, 1896 at Springfield College. - Official volleyball was
designed in 1900.
F. The set and spike were introduced in the Philippines in 1916.
G. the United States Volleyball Association (USVBA, now called USA Volleyball) was formed in 1928.
H. Volleyball was introduced to the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964.
I. the Association of Volleyball Professionals (AVP) was formed in 1983.
J. U.S. men's team won the Gold medal and the U.S. women's team won the Silver medal at the 1984
Olympics in Los Angeles.
K. U.S. men's team won the Gold medal at the 1988 Olympics in Korea.
L. Volleyball celebrated 100 years of existence in 1995.
M. Two-person beach volleyball was added to the Olympics in 1996.
3. The net is placed vertically over the center line.
The top of the net is set at the height of 2.43 meters
(7 feet 115/8 inches). For men and 2.24 meters (7 feet 41/4 inches) for women.
Its height is measured from the center of the playing court.
The net is 1 meter wide and 9.50 meters long, and is made of square black mesh.
The ball is spherical, and is made of a flexible leather or synthetic leather with a
Bladder inside made of rubber or a similar material.
It may be a uniform light color or combination of colors.
The volleyball measures 65 to 67 centimeters (25 to 27 inches) in circumference and weighs
260 to 280 grams.
4. The size of the volleyball court will depend on the playing ability level and the equipment
used. Dimensions will range from approximately 20 feet wide by 40 feet long for Lawn or backyard
volleyball to 19 feet 6 inches wide by 59 feet long for tournament play. The width of the court is
determined by the size of the net used. The service areas should be a minimum of 6 feet in depth back of
the end line
• Volleyball is played by two teams of six players on a court divided by a net.
5. • The object of the game is to send the ball over the net so that the opposing team cannot return the
• Ball or prevent it from hitting the ground in their court.
• Each team has three hits to attempt to return the ball.
• The ball is put in play with a serve that is hit over the net to the opponents (May the touch net)
• The volley continues until the ball hits the playing court, goes out of bounds, or a team fails to Return
• When the receiving team wins a volley, it gains a point and the right to serve. The players rotate One
• When the serving team wins a volley, it wins a point and the right to continue serving.
• Each team consists of no more than six persons, with each side having an equal number.
• Each player must be in his or her own position before the ball is served.
• After the server strikes the ball, each player may cover any section of the court.
• Each player serves in turn and continues to serve until the volley is lost (side out).
• After a team has lost its serve, the team receiving the ball for the first serve must rotate one position
Clockwise before serving.
• The ball may be volleyed only three times from one team member to another before returning it Over
• During this volley a player may not hit the ball twice in succession. One or both hands may be Used.
• A blocking player is entitled to a second play at the ball. This 2nd hit counts as the teams 1st touch.
YOU ARE ALLOWED TO:
• Serve from anywhere behind the end line.
• Play the ball after it hits the net, even off of a serve.
• Spike, or Volley the ball off of a serve.
• Hit the ball with any part of the body.
• Double contact the first ball that comes over the net.
• Reach over the net to block, as long as it is the 3rd hit for the other team.
YOU ARE NOT ALLOWED TO
• Block the serve.
• Touch the net.
• Cross the center line and interfere with play.
• Scoop or “carry” the ball.
• Double contact the ball
• Play the ball when it’s on the opponent’s side of the net (see blocking exception above)
• Block, if you are a back row player.
• A player holds or throws the ball.
• The ball touches any part of the body, other than the hands or forearms.
• A player touches the net with any part of the body or hands, or reaches over the net.
• A player does not clearly hit the ball or allows the ball to come to rest on any part of parts of the
• A player hits the ball out of the boundaries of the court.
• A player allows the ball to hit the floor, or any object outside or over the court (except net),
• Before being legally returned to the opponent’s court.
• A player touches the ball twice in succession.
• The game is played by the Rally point system and a point is awarded on every serve.
• When the serving team fails to score, it is side out and the receiving team becomes the serving
• The game is played to 25 points, “win by 2.” With a cap of 30.
• A match consists of normally either 2 out of 3 sets or 3 out of 5 sets. In the event that the sets are
• Tied with only one set remaining, the last one is played to 15 points.
• Power – blocks and attacks on the outside
• Middle – blocks and attacks in the middle
• Setter – sets the ball
• Libero – a back-row-only player that is a defensive specialist
• “W” Service Formation - Receiving
• Front row: the middle player moves up to the net, the other two players receive short serves
• Back row: the middle player moves up to receive short serves, the other two players receive all the
• Deep serve
7. PEH 4: LESSON 12
The most fundamental skill to be learned is the ability to pass the ball to a teammate, which is required
on almost all plays. A forearm pass should be used to receive serves, low balls, and spikes. The forearm
pass is used to recover the opponents’ attack called a “dig.” A set is a high pass that is generally the
second play by a team to relay the ball for the spiker. A spike is a ball hit forcibly from a height above the
net. A kill is a spike that is impossible to return. Blocking is a defensive play that attempts to stop the
returning of the ball over the net
Basic Skills in Volleyball
Competitive teams master six basic skills: serve, pass, set, attack, block and dig. Each of
these skills comprises a number of specific techniques that have been introduced over the years and are
now considered standard practice in high-level volleyball.
This is what always starts the game and helps to keep the game. A player stands behind the
inline and serves the ball, in an attempt to drive it into the opponent's court. The main objective is to make
it land inside the court; it is also desirable to set the ball's direction, speed and acceleration so that it
becomes difficult for the receiver to handle it properly. A serve is called an "ace" when the ball lands
directly onto the court or travels outside the court after being touched by an opponent; when the only
player on the server's team to touch the ball is the server.
In contemporary volleyball, many types of serves are employed:
1. Underhand - A serve in which the player strikes the ball below the waist instead of tossing it up and
striking it with an overhand throwing motion. Underhand serves are considered very easy to receive and
are rarely employed in high-level competitions.
2. Sky ball serve - A specific type of underhand serve occasionally used in beach volleyball, where the
ball is hit so high it comes down almost in a straight line.
3. Topspin – An overhand serve where the player tosses the ball high and hits it with a wrist snap,
giving it topspin which causes it to drop faster than it would otherwise and helps maintain a straight flight
path. Topspin serves are generally hit hard and aimed at a specific returner or part of the court. Standing
topspin serves are rarely used above the high school level of play.
4. Float - An overhand serve where the ball is hit with no spin so that its path becomes unpredictable,
akin to a knuckleball in baseball.
5. Jump serve - An overhand serve where the ball is first tossed high in the air, then the player makes
a timed approach and jumps to make contact with the ball, hitting it with much pace and topspin. This is
the most popular serve among college and professional teams.
6. Jump float - An overhand serve where the ball is tossed high enough that the player may jump
before hitting it similarly to a standing float serve. The ball is tossed lower than a topspin jump serve, but
contact is still made while in the air. This serve is becoming more popular among college and professional
players because it has a certain unpredictability in its flight pattern. It is the only serve where the server's
feet can go over the inline.
8. This is a way of receiving the ball and setting for offensive attack, a player making a forearm
pass or bump also called reception, the pass is the attempt by a team to properly handle the opponent's
serve or any form of attack. Proper handling includes not only preventing the ball from touching the court
but also making it reach the position where the setter is standing quickly and precisely.
The skill of passing involves fundamentally two specific techniques: underarm pass, or bump,
where the ball touches the inside part of the joined forearms or platform, at waistline; and overhand pass,
where it is handled with the fingertips, like a set, above the head. Either are acceptable in professional
and beach volleyball; however, there are much tighter regulations on the overhand pass in beach
volleyball. When a player passes a ball to their setter, it's ideal that the ball does not have a lot of spin to
make it easier for the setter.
1. Underhand Pass -This pass is the best option in receiving a serve or spike.
2. Overhead Pass - This is also known as toss. This is usually done by the setter as preparation for an
offensive attack, usually a like spike.
The set is usually the second contact that a team makes with the ball. The main goal of
setting is to put the ball in the air in such a way that it can be driven by an attack into the opponent's
court. The setter coordinates the offensive movements of a team, and is the player who ultimately
decides which player will actually attack the ball.
Sometimes a setter refrains from raising the ball for a teammate to perform an attack and tries
to play it directly onto the opponent's court. This movement is called a "dump", this can only be performed
when the setter is in the front row, and otherwise it constitutes an illegal back court attack. The most
common dumps are to 'throw' the ball behind the setter or in front of the setter to zones 2 and 4.
More experienced setters toss the ball into the deep corners or spike the ball on the second hit.
As with a set or an overhand pass, the setter/passer must be careful to touch the ball with both hands at
the same time. If one hand is noticeably late to touch the ball this could result in a less effective set, as
well as the referee calling a 'double hit' and giving the point to the opposing team.
The attack, also known as the spike, is usually the third contact a team makes with the ball.
The object of this volleyball skill is to handle the ball so that it lands on the opponent's court and cannot
be defended. A player makes a series of steps (the "approach"), jumps, and swings at the ball.
The attack, also known as the spike, is usually the third contact a team makes with the ball.
The object of attacking is to handle the ball so that it lands on the opponent's court and cannot be
defended. A player makes a series of steps (the "approach"), jumps, and swings at the ball.
A block that is aimed at completely stopping an attack, thus making the ball remain in the
opponent's court, is called offensive. A well-executed offensive block is performed by jumping and
reaching to penetrate with one's arms and hands over the net and into the opponent's area.
Blocking refers to the actions taken by players standing at the net to stop or alter an opponent's
attack. A block that is aimed at completely stopping an attack, thus making the ball remain in the
opponent's court, is called offensive. A well-executed offensive block is performed by jumping and
reaching to penetrate with one's arms and hands over the net and into the opponent's area. It requires
9. anticipating the direction the ball will go once the attack takes place. It may also require calculating the
best footwork to executing the "perfect" block.
The jump should be timed so as to intercept the ball's trajectory prior to it crossing over the
plane of the net. Palms are held deflected downward roughly 45–60 degrees toward the interior of the
opponents' court. A "roof" is a spectacular offensive block that redirects the power and speed of the
attack straight down to the attacker's floor as if the attacker hit the ball into the underside of a peaked
F. The Dig
The volleyball skill of digging is the ability to prevent the ball from touching one's court after a
spike or attack, particularly a ball that is nearly touching the ground. In many aspects, this skill is similar to
passing, or bumping: overhand dig and bump are also used to distinguish between defensive actions
taken with fingertips or with joined arms.
Digging is the ability to prevent the ball from touching one's court after a spike or attack,
particularly a ball that is nearly touching the ground. In many aspects, this skill is similar to passing, or
bumping: overhand dig and bump are also used to distinguish between defensive actions taken with
fingertips or with joined arms. It varies from passing however in that is it a much more reflex based skill,
especially at the higher levels. It is especially important while digging for players to stay on their toes;
several players choose to employ a split step to make sure they're ready to move in any direction.
RULES OF THE GAME
TOSS A COIN. The winner can either:
10. 1. Choose whether to serve or receive
2. Select the side of the court. The loser will take the remaining choice. Another toss coin will be made
before the start of the fifth set, if necessary.
The server must serve the ball anywhere inside the serving area and behind the end line.
The server must wait for the referee’s signal before serving. If the server makes a wrong toss,
she must not hit the ball and just let it fall onto the floor before retrieving it and repeating the serve.
Otherwise, the serve will be considered in play.
The failure of the receiving team to return the ball legally over the net into the opponent’s court
scores one point for the serving team.
The first team to score 25 points wins the set, but must win by at least two points. A match is
won by the team that first scores two of three games. Rally scoring eliminates side-out and thus a point is
scored on every serve.
Players will rotate in a clockwise direction each time a new server takes his turn to serve. The
same player will serve for her team until a side out occurs, wherein the opposing teams earns the point
and the serve. Illegal rotation, with the wrong players may switch positions, but only front line players
may jump from the attack area to bring the ball over the net to the other side of the court.
Each team has a maximum of 3 hits per offensive play. Except for a block, a player cannot hit the
ball two consecutive times. If two players hit the ball at the same time. It will be taken as one hit.
The ball must not come to rest. Any part of the body, including the feet, may be used to hit the
ball. A serve must not be blocked nor attacked by the opponent. The ball may be played off the net off
during a volley and on serve. The ball is called in if it lands on the line.
The following are violations which will result in the loss of a point.
1. A server steps on the end line during a serve.
2. A serve does not cross the net or goes under it.
3. The ball is illegally hit, through caring, palming and throwing.
4. A player touches the net or steps over the center line during the game.
5. A player reaches over the net (except during follow through or block)
11. VOLLEYBALL GAME OFFICIALS
FIRST REFEREE She/he makes the major calls, such a s awarding of Points, calling
violations, deciding on matters that are not covered by rules, inspecting the condition of the
playing area before and during the game, giving an explanation of calls made upon the team
captain’s request, displaying sanction cards, and taking responsible over other officials. The
first Referee stays at the referee’s stand at one end of and above the net.
SECOND Referee she/he assists the first referee in making calls, especially on actions that
occur in her/his area (such as under the net), supervise time-outs, substitutions, and monitor
player and team bench conduct. The second referee stands at the end of the net opposite the
FOUR LINE JUDGES They are responsible for calling checked balls, and balls in and out of
bounds. Each stays at a corner of the court and holds a flag.
BALL RETRIEVER In charge with the out of bound balls. Provide ball to be used by the
YELLOW CARD Assessed to a player as penalty for rude conduct. A point will be awarded to
the opponent, as well as the serve.
RED CARD assessed to a player or coach, and includes-expulsion from the set-for the
second incidence of rude conduct-for the first incidence of offensive conduct (insulting words
As a consequence, the team member cannot play for the remainder of the set and will have to
sit on the bench. Coaches who are expelled may not intervene with the team’s game and will be asked to
stay in the penalty area for the rest of the set. RED AND YELLOW CARD given to a player or coach as
disqualification for the third incidence of rude conduct, the second incidence of offensive conduct, or for
physical attack or threatening aggression. As a consequence, the disqualified player or coach must leave
the competition area for the remainder of the game.